"Live as if your were to die tomorrow.
Learn as if you were to live forever.“
Midhu S V Unnithan
A process whereby people acquire capabilities to
aid in the achievement of organizational goals.
Includes both hard and soft skills
Poorly trained employees may perform poorly and
make costly mistakes
What is the Problem ? (Purpose of
What skills and knowledge should be
included in the training program ?
Who needs to be trained ?
DESIRED PERFORMANCE - ACTUAL PERFORMANCE =
POSSIBLE TRAINING NEED
Features / Advantages
Commitment to quality
On the job coaching
New Ideas and Suggestions
Create and Share Knowledge
Improve retention of employees
Training makes organizations more competitive
Off the job Training
Computer-based Training and E-Learning
Case Study Method etc….
training exercise that recreates an event which
could actually happen, so that participants
experience the situation, is called a Simulation
is a more complex form often used for
hands-on training (e.g. simulation of a first aid emergency, etc.)
offer learners the ability to learn in a
realistic environment where they can apply
knowledge and skills without the fear of realworld implications
Introduction - the organizer of the programme (plus
sometimes a specialist in the training simulation) will
meet the participants and give them a brief
explanation of the purposes behind the training and
what they should hope to achieve.
Lectures - sometimes the trainees will also receive one
or more lectures around the topics that the simulation
will be based on, in order to give them an idea of the
type of skills they will need.
The simulation - the simulation will then be played,
allowing newly-acquired knowledge to be tested and
Evaluation - once the simulation has been completed,
it is very important to summarize what has been learnt
and the effectiveness of the training.
WHEN SHOULD SIMULATION BE USED?
Simulations can be effective when an elaborate
demonstration is the best method of training a
moderate to large size group.
The simulation method is appropriate for disaster,
rescue, or other crisis management training exercises.
TYPES OF SIMULATION
Live simulations typically involve humans and/or
equipment and activity in a setting where they would
operate for real.
Virtual simulations typically involve humans and/or
equipment in a computer-controlled setting. A flight
simulator falls into this category.
Constructive simulations typically do not involve humans
or equipment as participants. Science-based
simulations are typically constructive in nature.
Simulations are realistic hands-on events in which participants “feel, see,
hear, and do”.
A simulation experience provides a high level of knowledge transfer.
Simulations are an intense form of experiential learning.
Simulations require lots of careful planning, materials, preparation, and
Simulations require staging, practice, and adjustment to eliminate the
possibility of actual injury or safety hazards.
A realistic simulation is often expensive, and should be followed up with
additional training to remedy any problems identified during the event.
Definition: Role-playing refers to the changing of
one's behavior to assume a role, either
unconsciously to fill a social role, or consciously.
When participants and/or trainers act out parts in
an open-ended story intended to highlight
conflicting viewpoints, this is called Role Playing.
Role playing is different from stage drama
because the lines (scripts) are not pre-determined,
the players originate their dialogue in real time,
and as the scenario unfolds they interact to
develop an outcome.
SHOULD ROLE PLAYING BE USED?
Role playing is effective when the topic
involves person-to-person communication
Role playing can allow everyone to
The overall mood a training session can
be improved by the excitement that role
Role playing is an excellent forum for exploring the topics of ethics and
Participants can “feel a new viewpoint” through dynamic role playing.
Individuals are often inclined to express true feelings when role playing.
The group listens better and learns more because they are seeing and
hearing the subject matter as it is acted out.
Role playing requires careful selection of situations to be effective.
Role playing impedes free expression if participants are not volunteers.
The themes for role playing exercises must avoid potential conflicts with
the principles of the participants.
Business game (also called business simulation game)
refers to that are used at an educational tool for teaching
Business games may be carried out for various business
training such as: general
management, finance, organizational behavior, human
This is a training technique in which participants, grouped
into teams, consider a sequence of problems and
organize themselves to make decisions. It is a form of
Listening passively doesn't really make the material one's
After the lecture it will soon fade away. To make the
subject one's own, this requires intensive practicing.
purpose of management games is to increase a
person's understanding of
specific organizational problems
(marketing, production, etc.);
(2) the inter-relatedness of the functions and parts of an
organization and its relation to its environment
(3) the problems of organization policy and decision
(4) the problems of working in a team.
of the benefits of the business games are:
develops leadership skills
It improves application of total quality principles
It develops skills in using quality tools
It strengthen management skills
It demonstrates principles and concepts
It explores and solves complex problem
• Business games simulate whole organization and provide much
better perspective than any other training methods. They allow
trainees to see how their decisions and actions impact on the