SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 20
Download to read offline
Level 1
Mod-01 : Keep it Virtual 101
Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
Index
Overview:
Let’s start making sense of what
Virtual Reality is and
understand how we arrived
here.
Content
-What are Virtual, Augmented & Extended
Realities?
-Principles, the science behind VR and
Challenges
-History and Introduction to Headsets
Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
1
4
11
Page No.
What are
Virtual,
Augmented &
Extended
Realities?
School of Innovation India from Facebook
Virtual reality (VR) is a computer-generated scenario that
simulates experience through senses and perception. The
immersive environment can be similar to the real world or it can
be fantastical, creating an experience not possible in ordinary
physical reality. Augmented reality systems may also be
considered a form of VR that layers virtual information over a live
camera feed into a headset or through a smartphone or tablet
device giving the user the ability to view three-dimensional
images.
1 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
What are Virtual, Augmented &
Extended Realities?
School of Innovation India from Facebook
Augmented reality (AR) is an interactive experience
of a real-world environment whose elements are
"augmented" by computer-generated perceptual
information, sometimes across multiple sensory
modalities, including visual, auditory, haptic,
somatosensory, and olfactory. The overlaid sensory
information can be constructive (i.e. additive to the
natural environment) or destructive (i.e. masking of
the natural environment) and is seamlessly
interwoven with the physical world such that it is
perceived as an immersive aspect of the real
environment. In this way, augmented reality alters
one’s ongoing perception of a real world
environment, whereas virtual reality completely
replaces the user's real world environment with a
simulated one. Augmented reality is related to two
largely synonymous terms: mixed reality and
computer-mediated reality.
2 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
What are Virtual, Augmented &
Extended Realities?
School of Innovation India from Facebook
Extended reality (XR) is a term referring to all real-
and-virtual combined environments and human-
machine interactions generated by computer
t e c h n o l o g y a n d w e a r a b l e s . I t i n c l u d e s
representative forms such as augmented reality
(AR), augmented virtuality (AV) and virtual reality
(VR) and the areas interpolated among them. The
levels of virtuality range from partially sensory
inputs to immersive virtuality, also called VR.
XR is a superset which includes the entire spectrum
from "the complete real" to "the complete virtual" in
the concept of reality–virtuality continuum
introduced by Paul Milgram. Still, its connotation lies
in the extension of human experiences especially
relating to the senses of existence (represented by
VR) and the acquisition of cognition (represented by
AR). With the continuous development in human–
computer interactions, this connotation is still
evolving.
3 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
Principles, the
science behind
VR and
Challenges
School of Innovation India from Facebook
Virtual Reality is the way to trick our brain into thinking that it is in
some other environment. And there are a range of technologies
that contribute in making this trick immersion feel real.
Our brain has been exposed to this kind of trickery from ages and
we observe this happening to us from time to time even without
requiring the Head Mounted Displays. And not just vision, but all
our senses collectively or independently help us create that
illusion of immersion. We are known to fall into these kind of
immersions every now and then while:
• Playing Video Games
• Reading a Book
• Watching a Movie
• Listening to Music
• Telephonic Conversations
4 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
Principles, the science behind VR
and Challenges
School of Innovation India from Facebook
But these cannot be exactly referred to as Virtual Reality, the
factors that help create a complete Virtual Reality experience
include:
-Immersion, as explained above is the trick to get our brain to
visualize itself in an environment that it is not currently in.
-Teleportation, is the ability of moving across various
environments without having the need to leave your premise.
Virtual Reality allows you to change your physical surrounding
without moving even an inch from your position.
-Interaction, when one is able to interact with this new
environment that one is looking at, the power of the
immersion amplifies into making the belief of this Virtual
Reality to be an actual Reality more concrete.
-Presence, is the ability to feel that one is actually at the place
that one sees one is in.
-Sensory feedback, It is easy to break the illusion of Virtual
Reality if our brain sees something but our other senses reject
that notion and rebel against it. But when our senses
complement to the visual feedback that it is receiving, it
creates an absolute Virtual Reality.
Technological advances that helped shape Virtual Reality:
Virtual Reality is not a direct result of the technology being
dedicatedly developed for the intended purpose, but are
borrowed from a range of other diverse resources to make it
possible. For example, most of the sensors like gyroscopes and
motion sensors that are used to track the head orientation
and body positions in a VR headset were primarily developed
for smartphones.
Small HD screens used initially to make the display for
smartphones are used as displays in a Virtual Reality headset.
5 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
Principles, the science behind VR
and Challenges
School of Innovation India from Facebook
Here is a list of few technical advances that has made Virtual
Reality possible:
-Haptics: Haptics is the basic involvement of touch as a
feedback to the senses for confirming the belief of whatever
they are seeing is actually there.
-3D Display: 3D or 3 dimensional display is the technology that
helps build this illusion of depth. To present stereoscopic
images and films, two images are projected superimposed
onto the same screen or display through different polarizing
filters. The viewer wears low-cost eyeglasses which contain a
pair of different polarizing filters. As each filter passes only
that light which is similarly polarized and blocks the light
polarized in the opposite direction, each eye sees a different
image. This is used to produce a three-dimensional effect by
projecting the same scene into both eyes, but depicted from
slightly different perspectives.The display mechanisms that
help achieve 3D display are:
•Stereoscopy: Stereoscopy (also called stereoscopics, or
stereo imaging) is a technique for creating or
enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means
of stereopsis for binocular vision.
•Polarization: A polarized 3D system uses polarization
glasses to create the illusion of three-dimensional
images by restricting the light that reaches each eye
(an example of stereoscopy).
(Circularly polarized 3D glasses in front of an LCD tablet with a quarter-
wave retarder on top of it; the λ/4 plate at 45° produces a definite
handedness, which is transmitted by the left filter but blocked by the right
filter.)
6 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
Principles, the science behind VR
and Challenges
School of Innovation India from Facebook
•Alternate Frame Rendering: Alternate Frame Rendering
(AFR) is a technique of graphics rendering in personal
computers which combines the work output of two or
more graphics processing units (GPU) for a single
monitor, in order to improve image quality, or to
accelerate the rendering performance. The technique is
that one graphics processing unit computes all the odd
video frames, the other renders the even frames.
-360 Degree View: The ability of constructing displays that
show a complete 360 degree environment either by taking an
individual into an environment which has displays surrounding
in all directions or by rendering the images on the displays
placed in front of eyes which moves as quickly and rapidly
with the moving chassis of the display as and when the head
rotates.
-Motion and Orientation: The ability of measuring motion and
direction in space and translating it into a Virtual environment
is critical for creating the illusion of the virtual reality. And this
ability of the HMDs to respond correctly to the user’s actions
in the virtual environment, is achieved by the help of these
sensors:
•Accelerometer: An accelerometer is an instrument used
to measure acceleration of a moving or a vibrating
body and is therefore used in VR devices to measure
the acceleration along a particular axis.
7 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
Principles, the science behind VR
and Challenges
School of Innovation India from Facebook
The accelerometer is used in our smartphones for
instance to let the device know whether the user has
held the device in landscape or portrait mode. And
similarly the primary function of the accelerometers in
our VR device is also to tell the direction the user is
facing.
•Gyroscope: A gyroscope is a device used to measure
orientation. The device consists of a wheel or disc
mounted so that it can spin rapidly about an axis which
itself is free to alter in any direction. The orientation of
the axis is not affected by tilting of the mounting, so
gyroscopes can be used to provide stability or maintain
a reference direction in navigation systems, automatic
pilots, and stabilizers.
•Magnetometer: A magnetometer is a device used to
measure magnetic forces, usually Earth’s magnetism
and thus tell the direction that it is facing. A compass is
a simple type of magnetometer, one that measures the
direction of an ambient magnetic field.
8 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
Principles, the science behind VR
and Challenges
School of Innovation India from Facebook
-Depth Sensing: As the name suggests, depth sensing is the
ability of a computing system to measure depth of the real
environment. The main components that make it possible are
an IR (Infra-Red) projector and an IR Camera. An IR projector
emits many dots in the surrounding in its line of sight and the
IR camera then sees and understand these dots and the
processors calibrate the position of the object according to
the shape, size and density of these dots.
-Computer Graphics: This is probably the most critical topic in
Virtual Reality. Although VR has been in existence through
many decades but only recently with increasing portable
computing power being easily accessible, a lot of quality work
in Computer Graphics has been made possible, that in turn
enables the kind of VR that we experience today.
-Light Field Camera: A light field camera, also known as
plenoptic camera, captures information about the light field
emanating from a scene; that is, the intensity of light in a
scene, and also the direction that the light rays are traveling in
space. This contrasts with a conventional camera, which
records only light intensity. One type of light field camera uses
an array of micro-lenses placed in front of an otherwise
conventional image sensor to sense intensity, color, and
directional information. Multi-camera arrays are another type
of light field camera. Holograms are a type of film-based light
field image.
9 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
Principles, the science behind VR
and Challenges
School of Innovation India from Facebook
Challenges
Although a good amount of technology and learnings have
gone into achieving the current state of Virtual Reality but
there are some significant factors which can easily deter the
quality of experience and thus breaking the illusion of VR. The
challenge is to keep all these factors in check while
progressing the technology like:
-Realistic sense
-No nausea
-Depth
-Non interfering Sensors
-Ergonomics
-Immersion
-Presence
-Teleportation
-Movements
-Interactions
10 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
School of Innovation India from Facebook
History and
Introduction to
Headsets
The exact origins of virtual reality are disputed, partly because
of how difficult it has been to formulate a definition for the
concept of an alternative existence. Elements of virtual reality
appeared as early as the 1860s.
1860s: French avant-garde playwright Antonin Artaud took
the view that illusion was not distinct from reality, advocating
that spectators at a play should suspend disbelief and regard
the drama on stage as reality. The first references to the more
modern concept of virtual reality came from science fiction.
1935: Stanley G. Weinbaum's 1935 short story "Pygmalion's
Spectacles" describes a goggle-based virtual reality system
with holographic recording of fictional experiences, including
smell and touch.
1962: Morton Heilig wrote in the 1950s of an "Experience
Theatre" that could encompass all the senses in an effective
manner, thus drawing the viewer into the onscreen activity. He
built a prototype of his vision dubbed the Sensorama in 1962,
along with five short films to be displayed in it while engaging
multiple senses (sight, sound, smell, and touch). Predating
digital computing, the Sensorama was a mechanical device.
11 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
History and Introduction to Headsets
School of Innovation India from Facebook
1968: Ivan Sutherland,
with the help of his
student Bob Sproull,
created what was widely
considered to be the first
head-mounted display
(HMD) system for use in
immersive simulation
applications. It was
primitive both in terms
of user interface and
realism, and the HMD to
be worn by the user was
so heavy that it had to
be suspended from the
ceiling. The graphics
comprising the virtual
e n v i r o n m e n t w e r e
simple wire-frame model
rooms. The formidable
a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e
device inspired its name,
The Sword of Damocles.
1978: The Aspen
Movie Map was
created at the MIT.
The program was a
c r u d e v i r t u a l
simulation of Aspen,
Colorado in which
users could wander
the streets in one of
the three modes:
summer, winter, and
polygons.
(Image of the Sensorama, released in the the 1950s)
12 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
History and Introduction to Headsets
School of Innovation India from Facebook
1980s: The term "virtual reality" was popularized by Jaron
Lanier, one of the modern pioneers of the field. Lanier had
founded the company VPL Research in 1985. VPL Research
has developed several VR devices like the Data Glove, the Eye
Phone, and the Audio Sphere. VPL licensed the Data Glove
technology to Mattel, which used it to make an accessory
known as the Power Glove. While the Power Glove was hard
to use and not popular, at US$75, it was an early affordable
VR device.
1988: Star Trek - The Next Generation introduces “The
Holodeck”.
1991: Carolina Cruz-Neira, Daniel J. Sandin
and Thomas A. DeFanti from the Electronic
Visualization Laboratory created the first
cubic immersive room, The Cave. Developed
as Cruz-Neira's PhD thesis, it involved a
multi-projected environment, similar to the
holodeck, allowing people to see their own
bodies in relation to others in the room.
1993: Sega announces SegaVR prototype
for Mega Drive console. It used LCD
screens in the visor, stereo headphones,
and inertial sensors that allowed the
system to track and react to the
movements of the user's head. In the same year, Virtuality launched
and went on to become the first mass-produced, networked,
multiplayer VR entertainment system. It was released in many
countries, including a dedicated VR arcade at Embarcadero Center
in San Francisco. Costing up to $73,000 per multi-pod Virtuality
system, they featured headsets and exoskeleton gloves that gave
one of the first "immersive" VR experiences. Antonio Medina, a MIT
graduate and NASA scientist, designed a virtual reality system to
"drive" Mars rovers from Earth in apparent real time despite the
substantial delay of Mars-Earth-Mars signals.
(A VPL Research DataSuit, a full-
body outfit with sensors for
measuring the movement of arms,
legs, and trunk. Developed circa
1989. Displayed at the Nissho Iwai
showroom in Tokyo.)
13 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
History and Introduction to Headsets
School of Innovation India from Facebook
1995: The Virtual Boy was created by Nintendo and was
released in Japan and North America. Also in 1995, a group in
Seattle created public demonstrations of a "CAVE-like" 270
degree immersive projection room called the Virtual
Environment Theater, produced by entrepreneurs Chet Dagit
and Bob Jacobson.
1999: The Witchkowski’s brothers releases “The Matrix”.
2003: Linden Labs releases “Second Life”.
2007: Google introduced Street View, a service that shows
panoramic views of an increasing number of worldwide
positions such as roads, indoor buildings and rural areas. It
also features a stereoscopic 3D mode, introduced in 2010.
2010: Palmer Luckey designed the first prototype of the
Oculus Rift. This prototype, built on a shell of another virtual
reality headset, was only capable of rotational tracking.
However, it boasted a 90-degree field of vision that was
previously unseen in the consumer market at the time. This
initial design would later serve as a basis from which the later
designs came.
(A 2013 developer version of Oculus Rift from Oculus VR)
14 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
History and Introduction to Headsets
School of Innovation India from Facebook
2013: Valve discovered and freely shared the breakthrough of
low-persistence displays which make lag-free and smear-free
display of VR content possible. This was adopted by Oculus
and was used in all their future headsets.
In early 2014, Valve showed off their SteamSight prototype,
the precursor to both consumer headsets released in 2016. It
shared major features with the consumer headsets including
separate 1K displays per eye, low persistence, positional
tracking over a large area, and fresnel lenses.
2014: Facebook purchased Oculus VR for $2 billion. This
purchase occurred before any of the devices ordered through
Oculus' 2012 Kickstarter had shipped. In that same month,
Sony announced Project Morpheus (its code name for
PlayStation VR), a virtual reality headset for the PlayStation 4
video game console. Google announces Cardboard, a do-it-
yourself stereoscopic viewer for smartphones. The user places
their smartphone in the cardboard holder, which they wear on
their head.
2015: The Kickstarter campaign for Gloveone, a pair of gloves
providing motion tracking and haptic feedback, was
successfully funded, with over $150,000 in contributions. HTC
and Valve Corporation announced the virtual reality headset
HTC Vive and controllers. The set included tracking
technology called Lighthouse, which utilized wall-mounted
"base stations" for positional tracking using infrared light.
15 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
History and Introduction to Headsets
School of Innovation India from Facebook
2018: Steven Spielberg releases “Ready Player One” based on
the book “Ready Player One” by Ernest Cline that came out in
2011. 2018 also saw release of a number of standalone
headsets like Oculus Go, Vive Focus, Lenovo Mirage, etc. that
does not require an additional device like a Mobile Phone or a
dedicated computer to run VR.
(Oculus GO from Facebook)
(Still form Ready Player One)
16 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
School of Innovation India from Facebook
References
•-https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f-vUixm-
YlQ&list=PL_ezWOhnpakMojiJGm-YiCz5zr4GpuLG_&index=2
•-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_reality
•-https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1523379957/oculus-
rift-step-into-the-game
•-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oculus_Rift
•-https://www.forbes.com/sites/briansolomon/2014/03/25/
•facebook-buys-oculus-virtual-reality-gaming-startup-for-2-
billion/#743169392498
•-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augmented_reality
•-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extended_reality
•-https://jahya.net/blog/how-depth-sensor-works-in-5-
minutes/
•-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-field_camera
17 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
Handout   level-1-module-1

More Related Content

What's hot

What's hot (20)

augmented reality
augmented realityaugmented reality
augmented reality
 
Making Immersive Virtual Reality Possible in Mobile
Making Immersive Virtual Reality Possible in MobileMaking Immersive Virtual Reality Possible in Mobile
Making Immersive Virtual Reality Possible in Mobile
 
Seminar
SeminarSeminar
Seminar
 
4 7
4 74 7
4 7
 
Hive Holographic Immersive Virutal Laser Projector Troyer
Hive Holographic Immersive Virutal Laser Projector TroyerHive Holographic Immersive Virutal Laser Projector Troyer
Hive Holographic Immersive Virutal Laser Projector Troyer
 
VirtualReality_Sindhoora_Kartik
VirtualReality_Sindhoora_KartikVirtualReality_Sindhoora_Kartik
VirtualReality_Sindhoora_Kartik
 
Metatroy HIVE proposal 91212
Metatroy HIVE proposal 91212Metatroy HIVE proposal 91212
Metatroy HIVE proposal 91212
 
3 D (3-Dimensional) Glasses
3 D (3-Dimensional) Glasses3 D (3-Dimensional) Glasses
3 D (3-Dimensional) Glasses
 
Keynote at VR in Science and Industry
Keynote at VR in Science and Industry Keynote at VR in Science and Industry
Keynote at VR in Science and Industry
 
3d glasses
3d glasses 3d glasses
3d glasses
 
Leonar3do Intro Presenetation
Leonar3do Intro PresenetationLeonar3do Intro Presenetation
Leonar3do Intro Presenetation
 
Augmented Reality Report by Singhan Ganguly
Augmented Reality Report by Singhan GangulyAugmented Reality Report by Singhan Ganguly
Augmented Reality Report by Singhan Ganguly
 
3D comes to life without the specs
3D comes to life without the specs3D comes to life without the specs
3D comes to life without the specs
 
Virtual Reality: Graphics Display Interfaces
Virtual Reality: Graphics Display InterfacesVirtual Reality: Graphics Display Interfaces
Virtual Reality: Graphics Display Interfaces
 
How To Make 3D Images
How To Make 3D ImagesHow To Make 3D Images
How To Make 3D Images
 
Chapter.3
Chapter.3Chapter.3
Chapter.3
 
Six Sense Technology
Six Sense Technology Six Sense Technology
Six Sense Technology
 
Tridelity
TridelityTridelity
Tridelity
 
Raskar 6Sight Keynote Talk Nov09
Raskar 6Sight Keynote Talk Nov09Raskar 6Sight Keynote Talk Nov09
Raskar 6Sight Keynote Talk Nov09
 
Nzgdc2004 Argaming Seminar
Nzgdc2004 Argaming SeminarNzgdc2004 Argaming Seminar
Nzgdc2004 Argaming Seminar
 

Similar to Handout level-1-module-1

augmented reality paper presentation
augmented reality paper presentationaugmented reality paper presentation
augmented reality paper presentationVaibhav Mehta
 
Does Virtual Reality Augment Human Creativity?
Does Virtual Reality Augment Human Creativity?Does Virtual Reality Augment Human Creativity?
Does Virtual Reality Augment Human Creativity?worldoftravel
 
Virtual reality report
Virtual reality reportVirtual reality report
Virtual reality reportSujeet Kumar
 
VIRTUAL REALITY SEMINAR PPT WITH AWESOME AUTOMATIC ANIMATIONS
VIRTUAL REALITY SEMINAR PPT WITH AWESOME AUTOMATIC ANIMATIONS VIRTUAL REALITY SEMINAR PPT WITH AWESOME AUTOMATIC ANIMATIONS
VIRTUAL REALITY SEMINAR PPT WITH AWESOME AUTOMATIC ANIMATIONS himanshubeniwal015
 
Augmented reality & virtual reality
Augmented reality & virtual realityAugmented reality & virtual reality
Augmented reality & virtual realitySoori Joy
 
virtual reality Barkha manral seminar on augmented reality.ppt
virtual reality Barkha manral seminar on augmented reality.pptvirtual reality Barkha manral seminar on augmented reality.ppt
virtual reality Barkha manral seminar on augmented reality.pptBarkha Manral
 
OCULUS VIRTUAL REALITY TECHNOLOGY
OCULUS VIRTUAL REALITY TECHNOLOGYOCULUS VIRTUAL REALITY TECHNOLOGY
OCULUS VIRTUAL REALITY TECHNOLOGYAkshay Balu
 
Elec Virtual Reality PPT.pptx
Elec Virtual Reality PPT.pptxElec Virtual Reality PPT.pptx
Elec Virtual Reality PPT.pptxKalaiselviDevaraj
 
virtual-reality-889-HYcNcWM.pptx
virtual-reality-889-HYcNcWM.pptxvirtual-reality-889-HYcNcWM.pptx
virtual-reality-889-HYcNcWM.pptx19431YASWANTHKUMAR
 
All about Virtual Reality & Oculus Rift
All about Virtual Reality & Oculus RiftAll about Virtual Reality & Oculus Rift
All about Virtual Reality & Oculus RiftSaurabh Sawhney
 

Similar to Handout level-1-module-1 (20)

Week 15(1).pptx
Week 15(1).pptxWeek 15(1).pptx
Week 15(1).pptx
 
Chapter~5.pptx
Chapter~5.pptxChapter~5.pptx
Chapter~5.pptx
 
Virtual Reality
Virtual RealityVirtual Reality
Virtual Reality
 
Presentation1
Presentation1Presentation1
Presentation1
 
Virtual reality
Virtual realityVirtual reality
Virtual reality
 
Virtual reality
Virtual realityVirtual reality
Virtual reality
 
augmented reality paper presentation
augmented reality paper presentationaugmented reality paper presentation
augmented reality paper presentation
 
Virtual reality.pptx
Virtual reality.pptxVirtual reality.pptx
Virtual reality.pptx
 
Does Virtual Reality Augment Human Creativity?
Does Virtual Reality Augment Human Creativity?Does Virtual Reality Augment Human Creativity?
Does Virtual Reality Augment Human Creativity?
 
Virtual reality report
Virtual reality reportVirtual reality report
Virtual reality report
 
VIRTUAL REALITY SEMINAR PPT WITH AWESOME AUTOMATIC ANIMATIONS
VIRTUAL REALITY SEMINAR PPT WITH AWESOME AUTOMATIC ANIMATIONS VIRTUAL REALITY SEMINAR PPT WITH AWESOME AUTOMATIC ANIMATIONS
VIRTUAL REALITY SEMINAR PPT WITH AWESOME AUTOMATIC ANIMATIONS
 
Augmented reality & virtual reality
Augmented reality & virtual realityAugmented reality & virtual reality
Augmented reality & virtual reality
 
virtual reality Barkha manral seminar on augmented reality.ppt
virtual reality Barkha manral seminar on augmented reality.pptvirtual reality Barkha manral seminar on augmented reality.ppt
virtual reality Barkha manral seminar on augmented reality.ppt
 
25 virtual reality
25   virtual reality25   virtual reality
25 virtual reality
 
OCULUS VIRTUAL REALITY TECHNOLOGY
OCULUS VIRTUAL REALITY TECHNOLOGYOCULUS VIRTUAL REALITY TECHNOLOGY
OCULUS VIRTUAL REALITY TECHNOLOGY
 
Elec Virtual Reality PPT.pptx
Elec Virtual Reality PPT.pptxElec Virtual Reality PPT.pptx
Elec Virtual Reality PPT.pptx
 
augmented_reality.ppt
augmented_reality.pptaugmented_reality.ppt
augmented_reality.ppt
 
virtual-reality-889-HYcNcWM.pptx
virtual-reality-889-HYcNcWM.pptxvirtual-reality-889-HYcNcWM.pptx
virtual-reality-889-HYcNcWM.pptx
 
Chapter 5 - EMTE.pptx
Chapter 5 - EMTE.pptxChapter 5 - EMTE.pptx
Chapter 5 - EMTE.pptx
 
All about Virtual Reality & Oculus Rift
All about Virtual Reality & Oculus RiftAll about Virtual Reality & Oculus Rift
All about Virtual Reality & Oculus Rift
 

More from SV.CO

Persistence And Documents
Persistence And DocumentsPersistence And Documents
Persistence And DocumentsSV.CO
 
Building complex input screens
Building complex input screensBuilding complex input screens
Building complex input screensSV.CO
 
Working with the Web: 
Decoding JSON
Working with the Web: 
Decoding JSONWorking with the Web: 
Decoding JSON
Working with the Web: 
Decoding JSONSV.CO
 
Saving Data
Saving DataSaving Data
Saving DataSV.CO
 
Alerts notification
Alerts notificationAlerts notification
Alerts notificationSV.CO
 
UI Dynamics
UI DynamicsUI Dynamics
UI DynamicsSV.CO
 
Practical animation
Practical animationPractical animation
Practical animationSV.CO
 
Segues and navigation controllers
Segues and navigation controllersSegues and navigation controllers
Segues and navigation controllersSV.CO
 
Camera And Email
Camera And EmailCamera And Email
Camera And EmailSV.CO
 
Scroll views
Scroll viewsScroll views
Scroll viewsSV.CO
 
Intermediate table views
Intermediate table viewsIntermediate table views
Intermediate table viewsSV.CO
 
Table views
Table viewsTable views
Table viewsSV.CO
 
Closures
ClosuresClosures
ClosuresSV.CO
 
Protocols
ProtocolsProtocols
ProtocolsSV.CO
 
App anatomy and life cycle
App anatomy and life cycleApp anatomy and life cycle
App anatomy and life cycleSV.CO
 
Extensions
ExtensionsExtensions
ExtensionsSV.CO
 
Gestures
GesturesGestures
GesturesSV.CO
 
View controller life cycle
View controller life cycleView controller life cycle
View controller life cycleSV.CO
 
Controls in action
Controls in actionControls in action
Controls in actionSV.CO
 
Auto layout and stack views
Auto layout and stack viewsAuto layout and stack views
Auto layout and stack viewsSV.CO
 

More from SV.CO (20)

Persistence And Documents
Persistence And DocumentsPersistence And Documents
Persistence And Documents
 
Building complex input screens
Building complex input screensBuilding complex input screens
Building complex input screens
 
Working with the Web: 
Decoding JSON
Working with the Web: 
Decoding JSONWorking with the Web: 
Decoding JSON
Working with the Web: 
Decoding JSON
 
Saving Data
Saving DataSaving Data
Saving Data
 
Alerts notification
Alerts notificationAlerts notification
Alerts notification
 
UI Dynamics
UI DynamicsUI Dynamics
UI Dynamics
 
Practical animation
Practical animationPractical animation
Practical animation
 
Segues and navigation controllers
Segues and navigation controllersSegues and navigation controllers
Segues and navigation controllers
 
Camera And Email
Camera And EmailCamera And Email
Camera And Email
 
Scroll views
Scroll viewsScroll views
Scroll views
 
Intermediate table views
Intermediate table viewsIntermediate table views
Intermediate table views
 
Table views
Table viewsTable views
Table views
 
Closures
ClosuresClosures
Closures
 
Protocols
ProtocolsProtocols
Protocols
 
App anatomy and life cycle
App anatomy and life cycleApp anatomy and life cycle
App anatomy and life cycle
 
Extensions
ExtensionsExtensions
Extensions
 
Gestures
GesturesGestures
Gestures
 
View controller life cycle
View controller life cycleView controller life cycle
View controller life cycle
 
Controls in action
Controls in actionControls in action
Controls in action
 
Auto layout and stack views
Auto layout and stack viewsAuto layout and stack views
Auto layout and stack views
 

Recently uploaded

Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment
 Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment
Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatmentsaipooja36
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchCaitlinCummins3
 
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文中 央社
 
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17Celine George
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnershipsexpandedwebsite
 
The Last Leaf, a short story by O. Henry
The Last Leaf, a short story by O. HenryThe Last Leaf, a short story by O. Henry
The Last Leaf, a short story by O. HenryEugene Lysak
 
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptxheathfieldcps1
 
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...Denish Jangid
 
HVAC System | Audit of HVAC System | Audit and regulatory Comploance.pptx
HVAC System | Audit of HVAC System | Audit and regulatory Comploance.pptxHVAC System | Audit of HVAC System | Audit and regulatory Comploance.pptx
HVAC System | Audit of HVAC System | Audit and regulatory Comploance.pptxKunal10679
 
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjStl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjMohammed Sikander
 
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024CapitolTechU
 
Removal Strategy _ FEFO _ Working with Perishable Products in Odoo 17
Removal Strategy _ FEFO _ Working with Perishable Products in Odoo 17Removal Strategy _ FEFO _ Working with Perishable Products in Odoo 17
Removal Strategy _ FEFO _ Working with Perishable Products in Odoo 17Celine George
 
Financial Accounting IFRS, 3rd Edition-dikompresi.pdf
Financial Accounting IFRS, 3rd Edition-dikompresi.pdfFinancial Accounting IFRS, 3rd Edition-dikompresi.pdf
Financial Accounting IFRS, 3rd Edition-dikompresi.pdfMinawBelay
 
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17Celine George
 
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptxAn Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptxCeline George
 
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).Mohamed Rizk Khodair
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024Borja Sotomayor
 
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptxGraduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptxneillewis46
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment
 Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment
Envelope of Discrepancy in Orthodontics: Enhancing Precision in Treatment
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project research
 
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
 
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
 
Word Stress rules esl .pptx
Word Stress rules esl               .pptxWord Stress rules esl               .pptx
Word Stress rules esl .pptx
 
The Last Leaf, a short story by O. Henry
The Last Leaf, a short story by O. HenryThe Last Leaf, a short story by O. Henry
The Last Leaf, a short story by O. Henry
 
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
 
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
 
HVAC System | Audit of HVAC System | Audit and regulatory Comploance.pptx
HVAC System | Audit of HVAC System | Audit and regulatory Comploance.pptxHVAC System | Audit of HVAC System | Audit and regulatory Comploance.pptx
HVAC System | Audit of HVAC System | Audit and regulatory Comploance.pptx
 
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjStl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
 
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
 
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024
Capitol Tech Univ Doctoral Presentation -May 2024
 
Removal Strategy _ FEFO _ Working with Perishable Products in Odoo 17
Removal Strategy _ FEFO _ Working with Perishable Products in Odoo 17Removal Strategy _ FEFO _ Working with Perishable Products in Odoo 17
Removal Strategy _ FEFO _ Working with Perishable Products in Odoo 17
 
Financial Accounting IFRS, 3rd Edition-dikompresi.pdf
Financial Accounting IFRS, 3rd Edition-dikompresi.pdfFinancial Accounting IFRS, 3rd Edition-dikompresi.pdf
Financial Accounting IFRS, 3rd Edition-dikompresi.pdf
 
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
 
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptxAn Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
 
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
 
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptxGraduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
 

Handout level-1-module-1

  • 1. Level 1 Mod-01 : Keep it Virtual 101 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  • 2. Index Overview: Let’s start making sense of what Virtual Reality is and understand how we arrived here. Content -What are Virtual, Augmented & Extended Realities? -Principles, the science behind VR and Challenges -History and Introduction to Headsets Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO 1 4 11 Page No.
  • 3. What are Virtual, Augmented & Extended Realities? School of Innovation India from Facebook Virtual reality (VR) is a computer-generated scenario that simulates experience through senses and perception. The immersive environment can be similar to the real world or it can be fantastical, creating an experience not possible in ordinary physical reality. Augmented reality systems may also be considered a form of VR that layers virtual information over a live camera feed into a headset or through a smartphone or tablet device giving the user the ability to view three-dimensional images. 1 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  • 4. What are Virtual, Augmented & Extended Realities? School of Innovation India from Facebook Augmented reality (AR) is an interactive experience of a real-world environment whose elements are "augmented" by computer-generated perceptual information, sometimes across multiple sensory modalities, including visual, auditory, haptic, somatosensory, and olfactory. The overlaid sensory information can be constructive (i.e. additive to the natural environment) or destructive (i.e. masking of the natural environment) and is seamlessly interwoven with the physical world such that it is perceived as an immersive aspect of the real environment. In this way, augmented reality alters one’s ongoing perception of a real world environment, whereas virtual reality completely replaces the user's real world environment with a simulated one. Augmented reality is related to two largely synonymous terms: mixed reality and computer-mediated reality. 2 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  • 5. What are Virtual, Augmented & Extended Realities? School of Innovation India from Facebook Extended reality (XR) is a term referring to all real- and-virtual combined environments and human- machine interactions generated by computer t e c h n o l o g y a n d w e a r a b l e s . I t i n c l u d e s representative forms such as augmented reality (AR), augmented virtuality (AV) and virtual reality (VR) and the areas interpolated among them. The levels of virtuality range from partially sensory inputs to immersive virtuality, also called VR. XR is a superset which includes the entire spectrum from "the complete real" to "the complete virtual" in the concept of reality–virtuality continuum introduced by Paul Milgram. Still, its connotation lies in the extension of human experiences especially relating to the senses of existence (represented by VR) and the acquisition of cognition (represented by AR). With the continuous development in human– computer interactions, this connotation is still evolving. 3 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  • 6. Principles, the science behind VR and Challenges School of Innovation India from Facebook Virtual Reality is the way to trick our brain into thinking that it is in some other environment. And there are a range of technologies that contribute in making this trick immersion feel real. Our brain has been exposed to this kind of trickery from ages and we observe this happening to us from time to time even without requiring the Head Mounted Displays. And not just vision, but all our senses collectively or independently help us create that illusion of immersion. We are known to fall into these kind of immersions every now and then while: • Playing Video Games • Reading a Book • Watching a Movie • Listening to Music • Telephonic Conversations 4 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  • 7. Principles, the science behind VR and Challenges School of Innovation India from Facebook But these cannot be exactly referred to as Virtual Reality, the factors that help create a complete Virtual Reality experience include: -Immersion, as explained above is the trick to get our brain to visualize itself in an environment that it is not currently in. -Teleportation, is the ability of moving across various environments without having the need to leave your premise. Virtual Reality allows you to change your physical surrounding without moving even an inch from your position. -Interaction, when one is able to interact with this new environment that one is looking at, the power of the immersion amplifies into making the belief of this Virtual Reality to be an actual Reality more concrete. -Presence, is the ability to feel that one is actually at the place that one sees one is in. -Sensory feedback, It is easy to break the illusion of Virtual Reality if our brain sees something but our other senses reject that notion and rebel against it. But when our senses complement to the visual feedback that it is receiving, it creates an absolute Virtual Reality. Technological advances that helped shape Virtual Reality: Virtual Reality is not a direct result of the technology being dedicatedly developed for the intended purpose, but are borrowed from a range of other diverse resources to make it possible. For example, most of the sensors like gyroscopes and motion sensors that are used to track the head orientation and body positions in a VR headset were primarily developed for smartphones. Small HD screens used initially to make the display for smartphones are used as displays in a Virtual Reality headset. 5 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  • 8. Principles, the science behind VR and Challenges School of Innovation India from Facebook Here is a list of few technical advances that has made Virtual Reality possible: -Haptics: Haptics is the basic involvement of touch as a feedback to the senses for confirming the belief of whatever they are seeing is actually there. -3D Display: 3D or 3 dimensional display is the technology that helps build this illusion of depth. To present stereoscopic images and films, two images are projected superimposed onto the same screen or display through different polarizing filters. The viewer wears low-cost eyeglasses which contain a pair of different polarizing filters. As each filter passes only that light which is similarly polarized and blocks the light polarized in the opposite direction, each eye sees a different image. This is used to produce a three-dimensional effect by projecting the same scene into both eyes, but depicted from slightly different perspectives.The display mechanisms that help achieve 3D display are: •Stereoscopy: Stereoscopy (also called stereoscopics, or stereo imaging) is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision. •Polarization: A polarized 3D system uses polarization glasses to create the illusion of three-dimensional images by restricting the light that reaches each eye (an example of stereoscopy). (Circularly polarized 3D glasses in front of an LCD tablet with a quarter- wave retarder on top of it; the λ/4 plate at 45° produces a definite handedness, which is transmitted by the left filter but blocked by the right filter.) 6 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  • 9. Principles, the science behind VR and Challenges School of Innovation India from Facebook •Alternate Frame Rendering: Alternate Frame Rendering (AFR) is a technique of graphics rendering in personal computers which combines the work output of two or more graphics processing units (GPU) for a single monitor, in order to improve image quality, or to accelerate the rendering performance. The technique is that one graphics processing unit computes all the odd video frames, the other renders the even frames. -360 Degree View: The ability of constructing displays that show a complete 360 degree environment either by taking an individual into an environment which has displays surrounding in all directions or by rendering the images on the displays placed in front of eyes which moves as quickly and rapidly with the moving chassis of the display as and when the head rotates. -Motion and Orientation: The ability of measuring motion and direction in space and translating it into a Virtual environment is critical for creating the illusion of the virtual reality. And this ability of the HMDs to respond correctly to the user’s actions in the virtual environment, is achieved by the help of these sensors: •Accelerometer: An accelerometer is an instrument used to measure acceleration of a moving or a vibrating body and is therefore used in VR devices to measure the acceleration along a particular axis. 7 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  • 10. Principles, the science behind VR and Challenges School of Innovation India from Facebook The accelerometer is used in our smartphones for instance to let the device know whether the user has held the device in landscape or portrait mode. And similarly the primary function of the accelerometers in our VR device is also to tell the direction the user is facing. •Gyroscope: A gyroscope is a device used to measure orientation. The device consists of a wheel or disc mounted so that it can spin rapidly about an axis which itself is free to alter in any direction. The orientation of the axis is not affected by tilting of the mounting, so gyroscopes can be used to provide stability or maintain a reference direction in navigation systems, automatic pilots, and stabilizers. •Magnetometer: A magnetometer is a device used to measure magnetic forces, usually Earth’s magnetism and thus tell the direction that it is facing. A compass is a simple type of magnetometer, one that measures the direction of an ambient magnetic field. 8 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  • 11. Principles, the science behind VR and Challenges School of Innovation India from Facebook -Depth Sensing: As the name suggests, depth sensing is the ability of a computing system to measure depth of the real environment. The main components that make it possible are an IR (Infra-Red) projector and an IR Camera. An IR projector emits many dots in the surrounding in its line of sight and the IR camera then sees and understand these dots and the processors calibrate the position of the object according to the shape, size and density of these dots. -Computer Graphics: This is probably the most critical topic in Virtual Reality. Although VR has been in existence through many decades but only recently with increasing portable computing power being easily accessible, a lot of quality work in Computer Graphics has been made possible, that in turn enables the kind of VR that we experience today. -Light Field Camera: A light field camera, also known as plenoptic camera, captures information about the light field emanating from a scene; that is, the intensity of light in a scene, and also the direction that the light rays are traveling in space. This contrasts with a conventional camera, which records only light intensity. One type of light field camera uses an array of micro-lenses placed in front of an otherwise conventional image sensor to sense intensity, color, and directional information. Multi-camera arrays are another type of light field camera. Holograms are a type of film-based light field image. 9 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  • 12. Principles, the science behind VR and Challenges School of Innovation India from Facebook Challenges Although a good amount of technology and learnings have gone into achieving the current state of Virtual Reality but there are some significant factors which can easily deter the quality of experience and thus breaking the illusion of VR. The challenge is to keep all these factors in check while progressing the technology like: -Realistic sense -No nausea -Depth -Non interfering Sensors -Ergonomics -Immersion -Presence -Teleportation -Movements -Interactions 10 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  • 13. School of Innovation India from Facebook History and Introduction to Headsets The exact origins of virtual reality are disputed, partly because of how difficult it has been to formulate a definition for the concept of an alternative existence. Elements of virtual reality appeared as early as the 1860s. 1860s: French avant-garde playwright Antonin Artaud took the view that illusion was not distinct from reality, advocating that spectators at a play should suspend disbelief and regard the drama on stage as reality. The first references to the more modern concept of virtual reality came from science fiction. 1935: Stanley G. Weinbaum's 1935 short story "Pygmalion's Spectacles" describes a goggle-based virtual reality system with holographic recording of fictional experiences, including smell and touch. 1962: Morton Heilig wrote in the 1950s of an "Experience Theatre" that could encompass all the senses in an effective manner, thus drawing the viewer into the onscreen activity. He built a prototype of his vision dubbed the Sensorama in 1962, along with five short films to be displayed in it while engaging multiple senses (sight, sound, smell, and touch). Predating digital computing, the Sensorama was a mechanical device. 11 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  • 14. History and Introduction to Headsets School of Innovation India from Facebook 1968: Ivan Sutherland, with the help of his student Bob Sproull, created what was widely considered to be the first head-mounted display (HMD) system for use in immersive simulation applications. It was primitive both in terms of user interface and realism, and the HMD to be worn by the user was so heavy that it had to be suspended from the ceiling. The graphics comprising the virtual e n v i r o n m e n t w e r e simple wire-frame model rooms. The formidable a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e device inspired its name, The Sword of Damocles. 1978: The Aspen Movie Map was created at the MIT. The program was a c r u d e v i r t u a l simulation of Aspen, Colorado in which users could wander the streets in one of the three modes: summer, winter, and polygons. (Image of the Sensorama, released in the the 1950s) 12 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  • 15. History and Introduction to Headsets School of Innovation India from Facebook 1980s: The term "virtual reality" was popularized by Jaron Lanier, one of the modern pioneers of the field. Lanier had founded the company VPL Research in 1985. VPL Research has developed several VR devices like the Data Glove, the Eye Phone, and the Audio Sphere. VPL licensed the Data Glove technology to Mattel, which used it to make an accessory known as the Power Glove. While the Power Glove was hard to use and not popular, at US$75, it was an early affordable VR device. 1988: Star Trek - The Next Generation introduces “The Holodeck”. 1991: Carolina Cruz-Neira, Daniel J. Sandin and Thomas A. DeFanti from the Electronic Visualization Laboratory created the first cubic immersive room, The Cave. Developed as Cruz-Neira's PhD thesis, it involved a multi-projected environment, similar to the holodeck, allowing people to see their own bodies in relation to others in the room. 1993: Sega announces SegaVR prototype for Mega Drive console. It used LCD screens in the visor, stereo headphones, and inertial sensors that allowed the system to track and react to the movements of the user's head. In the same year, Virtuality launched and went on to become the first mass-produced, networked, multiplayer VR entertainment system. It was released in many countries, including a dedicated VR arcade at Embarcadero Center in San Francisco. Costing up to $73,000 per multi-pod Virtuality system, they featured headsets and exoskeleton gloves that gave one of the first "immersive" VR experiences. Antonio Medina, a MIT graduate and NASA scientist, designed a virtual reality system to "drive" Mars rovers from Earth in apparent real time despite the substantial delay of Mars-Earth-Mars signals. (A VPL Research DataSuit, a full- body outfit with sensors for measuring the movement of arms, legs, and trunk. Developed circa 1989. Displayed at the Nissho Iwai showroom in Tokyo.) 13 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  • 16. History and Introduction to Headsets School of Innovation India from Facebook 1995: The Virtual Boy was created by Nintendo and was released in Japan and North America. Also in 1995, a group in Seattle created public demonstrations of a "CAVE-like" 270 degree immersive projection room called the Virtual Environment Theater, produced by entrepreneurs Chet Dagit and Bob Jacobson. 1999: The Witchkowski’s brothers releases “The Matrix”. 2003: Linden Labs releases “Second Life”. 2007: Google introduced Street View, a service that shows panoramic views of an increasing number of worldwide positions such as roads, indoor buildings and rural areas. It also features a stereoscopic 3D mode, introduced in 2010. 2010: Palmer Luckey designed the first prototype of the Oculus Rift. This prototype, built on a shell of another virtual reality headset, was only capable of rotational tracking. However, it boasted a 90-degree field of vision that was previously unseen in the consumer market at the time. This initial design would later serve as a basis from which the later designs came. (A 2013 developer version of Oculus Rift from Oculus VR) 14 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  • 17. History and Introduction to Headsets School of Innovation India from Facebook 2013: Valve discovered and freely shared the breakthrough of low-persistence displays which make lag-free and smear-free display of VR content possible. This was adopted by Oculus and was used in all their future headsets. In early 2014, Valve showed off their SteamSight prototype, the precursor to both consumer headsets released in 2016. It shared major features with the consumer headsets including separate 1K displays per eye, low persistence, positional tracking over a large area, and fresnel lenses. 2014: Facebook purchased Oculus VR for $2 billion. This purchase occurred before any of the devices ordered through Oculus' 2012 Kickstarter had shipped. In that same month, Sony announced Project Morpheus (its code name for PlayStation VR), a virtual reality headset for the PlayStation 4 video game console. Google announces Cardboard, a do-it- yourself stereoscopic viewer for smartphones. The user places their smartphone in the cardboard holder, which they wear on their head. 2015: The Kickstarter campaign for Gloveone, a pair of gloves providing motion tracking and haptic feedback, was successfully funded, with over $150,000 in contributions. HTC and Valve Corporation announced the virtual reality headset HTC Vive and controllers. The set included tracking technology called Lighthouse, which utilized wall-mounted "base stations" for positional tracking using infrared light. 15 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  • 18. History and Introduction to Headsets School of Innovation India from Facebook 2018: Steven Spielberg releases “Ready Player One” based on the book “Ready Player One” by Ernest Cline that came out in 2011. 2018 also saw release of a number of standalone headsets like Oculus Go, Vive Focus, Lenovo Mirage, etc. that does not require an additional device like a Mobile Phone or a dedicated computer to run VR. (Oculus GO from Facebook) (Still form Ready Player One) 16 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  • 19. School of Innovation India from Facebook References •-https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f-vUixm- YlQ&list=PL_ezWOhnpakMojiJGm-YiCz5zr4GpuLG_&index=2 •-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_reality •-https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1523379957/oculus- rift-step-into-the-game •-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oculus_Rift •-https://www.forbes.com/sites/briansolomon/2014/03/25/ •facebook-buys-oculus-virtual-reality-gaming-startup-for-2- billion/#743169392498 •-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augmented_reality •-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extended_reality •-https://jahya.net/blog/how-depth-sensor-works-in-5- minutes/ •-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-field_camera 17 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO