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Handout level-1-module-1

  1. 1. Level 1 Mod-01 : Keep it Virtual 101 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  2. 2. Index Overview: Let’s start making sense of what Virtual Reality is and understand how we arrived here. Content -What are Virtual, Augmented & Extended Realities? -Principles, the science behind VR and Challenges -History and Introduction to Headsets Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO 1 4 11 Page No.
  3. 3. What are Virtual, Augmented & Extended Realities? School of Innovation India from Facebook Virtual reality (VR) is a computer-generated scenario that simulates experience through senses and perception. The immersive environment can be similar to the real world or it can be fantastical, creating an experience not possible in ordinary physical reality. Augmented reality systems may also be considered a form of VR that layers virtual information over a live camera feed into a headset or through a smartphone or tablet device giving the user the ability to view three-dimensional images. 1 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  4. 4. What are Virtual, Augmented & Extended Realities? School of Innovation India from Facebook Augmented reality (AR) is an interactive experience of a real-world environment whose elements are "augmented" by computer-generated perceptual information, sometimes across multiple sensory modalities, including visual, auditory, haptic, somatosensory, and olfactory. The overlaid sensory information can be constructive (i.e. additive to the natural environment) or destructive (i.e. masking of the natural environment) and is seamlessly interwoven with the physical world such that it is perceived as an immersive aspect of the real environment. In this way, augmented reality alters one’s ongoing perception of a real world environment, whereas virtual reality completely replaces the user's real world environment with a simulated one. Augmented reality is related to two largely synonymous terms: mixed reality and computer-mediated reality. 2 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  5. 5. What are Virtual, Augmented & Extended Realities? School of Innovation India from Facebook Extended reality (XR) is a term referring to all real- and-virtual combined environments and human- machine interactions generated by computer t e c h n o l o g y a n d w e a r a b l e s . I t i n c l u d e s representative forms such as augmented reality (AR), augmented virtuality (AV) and virtual reality (VR) and the areas interpolated among them. The levels of virtuality range from partially sensory inputs to immersive virtuality, also called VR. XR is a superset which includes the entire spectrum from "the complete real" to "the complete virtual" in the concept of reality–virtuality continuum introduced by Paul Milgram. Still, its connotation lies in the extension of human experiences especially relating to the senses of existence (represented by VR) and the acquisition of cognition (represented by AR). With the continuous development in human– computer interactions, this connotation is still evolving. 3 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  6. 6. Principles, the science behind VR and Challenges School of Innovation India from Facebook Virtual Reality is the way to trick our brain into thinking that it is in some other environment. And there are a range of technologies that contribute in making this trick immersion feel real. Our brain has been exposed to this kind of trickery from ages and we observe this happening to us from time to time even without requiring the Head Mounted Displays. And not just vision, but all our senses collectively or independently help us create that illusion of immersion. We are known to fall into these kind of immersions every now and then while: • Playing Video Games • Reading a Book • Watching a Movie • Listening to Music • Telephonic Conversations 4 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  7. 7. Principles, the science behind VR and Challenges School of Innovation India from Facebook But these cannot be exactly referred to as Virtual Reality, the factors that help create a complete Virtual Reality experience include: -Immersion, as explained above is the trick to get our brain to visualize itself in an environment that it is not currently in. -Teleportation, is the ability of moving across various environments without having the need to leave your premise. Virtual Reality allows you to change your physical surrounding without moving even an inch from your position. -Interaction, when one is able to interact with this new environment that one is looking at, the power of the immersion amplifies into making the belief of this Virtual Reality to be an actual Reality more concrete. -Presence, is the ability to feel that one is actually at the place that one sees one is in. -Sensory feedback, It is easy to break the illusion of Virtual Reality if our brain sees something but our other senses reject that notion and rebel against it. But when our senses complement to the visual feedback that it is receiving, it creates an absolute Virtual Reality. Technological advances that helped shape Virtual Reality: Virtual Reality is not a direct result of the technology being dedicatedly developed for the intended purpose, but are borrowed from a range of other diverse resources to make it possible. For example, most of the sensors like gyroscopes and motion sensors that are used to track the head orientation and body positions in a VR headset were primarily developed for smartphones. Small HD screens used initially to make the display for smartphones are used as displays in a Virtual Reality headset. 5 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  8. 8. Principles, the science behind VR and Challenges School of Innovation India from Facebook Here is a list of few technical advances that has made Virtual Reality possible: -Haptics: Haptics is the basic involvement of touch as a feedback to the senses for confirming the belief of whatever they are seeing is actually there. -3D Display: 3D or 3 dimensional display is the technology that helps build this illusion of depth. To present stereoscopic images and films, two images are projected superimposed onto the same screen or display through different polarizing filters. The viewer wears low-cost eyeglasses which contain a pair of different polarizing filters. As each filter passes only that light which is similarly polarized and blocks the light polarized in the opposite direction, each eye sees a different image. This is used to produce a three-dimensional effect by projecting the same scene into both eyes, but depicted from slightly different perspectives.The display mechanisms that help achieve 3D display are: •Stereoscopy: Stereoscopy (also called stereoscopics, or stereo imaging) is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision. •Polarization: A polarized 3D system uses polarization glasses to create the illusion of three-dimensional images by restricting the light that reaches each eye (an example of stereoscopy). (Circularly polarized 3D glasses in front of an LCD tablet with a quarter- wave retarder on top of it; the λ/4 plate at 45° produces a definite handedness, which is transmitted by the left filter but blocked by the right filter.) 6 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  9. 9. Principles, the science behind VR and Challenges School of Innovation India from Facebook •Alternate Frame Rendering: Alternate Frame Rendering (AFR) is a technique of graphics rendering in personal computers which combines the work output of two or more graphics processing units (GPU) for a single monitor, in order to improve image quality, or to accelerate the rendering performance. The technique is that one graphics processing unit computes all the odd video frames, the other renders the even frames. -360 Degree View: The ability of constructing displays that show a complete 360 degree environment either by taking an individual into an environment which has displays surrounding in all directions or by rendering the images on the displays placed in front of eyes which moves as quickly and rapidly with the moving chassis of the display as and when the head rotates. -Motion and Orientation: The ability of measuring motion and direction in space and translating it into a Virtual environment is critical for creating the illusion of the virtual reality. And this ability of the HMDs to respond correctly to the user’s actions in the virtual environment, is achieved by the help of these sensors: •Accelerometer: An accelerometer is an instrument used to measure acceleration of a moving or a vibrating body and is therefore used in VR devices to measure the acceleration along a particular axis. 7 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  10. 10. Principles, the science behind VR and Challenges School of Innovation India from Facebook The accelerometer is used in our smartphones for instance to let the device know whether the user has held the device in landscape or portrait mode. And similarly the primary function of the accelerometers in our VR device is also to tell the direction the user is facing. •Gyroscope: A gyroscope is a device used to measure orientation. The device consists of a wheel or disc mounted so that it can spin rapidly about an axis which itself is free to alter in any direction. The orientation of the axis is not affected by tilting of the mounting, so gyroscopes can be used to provide stability or maintain a reference direction in navigation systems, automatic pilots, and stabilizers. •Magnetometer: A magnetometer is a device used to measure magnetic forces, usually Earth’s magnetism and thus tell the direction that it is facing. A compass is a simple type of magnetometer, one that measures the direction of an ambient magnetic field. 8 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  11. 11. Principles, the science behind VR and Challenges School of Innovation India from Facebook -Depth Sensing: As the name suggests, depth sensing is the ability of a computing system to measure depth of the real environment. The main components that make it possible are an IR (Infra-Red) projector and an IR Camera. An IR projector emits many dots in the surrounding in its line of sight and the IR camera then sees and understand these dots and the processors calibrate the position of the object according to the shape, size and density of these dots. -Computer Graphics: This is probably the most critical topic in Virtual Reality. Although VR has been in existence through many decades but only recently with increasing portable computing power being easily accessible, a lot of quality work in Computer Graphics has been made possible, that in turn enables the kind of VR that we experience today. -Light Field Camera: A light field camera, also known as plenoptic camera, captures information about the light field emanating from a scene; that is, the intensity of light in a scene, and also the direction that the light rays are traveling in space. This contrasts with a conventional camera, which records only light intensity. One type of light field camera uses an array of micro-lenses placed in front of an otherwise conventional image sensor to sense intensity, color, and directional information. Multi-camera arrays are another type of light field camera. Holograms are a type of film-based light field image. 9 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  12. 12. Principles, the science behind VR and Challenges School of Innovation India from Facebook Challenges Although a good amount of technology and learnings have gone into achieving the current state of Virtual Reality but there are some significant factors which can easily deter the quality of experience and thus breaking the illusion of VR. The challenge is to keep all these factors in check while progressing the technology like: -Realistic sense -No nausea -Depth -Non interfering Sensors -Ergonomics -Immersion -Presence -Teleportation -Movements -Interactions 10 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  13. 13. School of Innovation India from Facebook History and Introduction to Headsets The exact origins of virtual reality are disputed, partly because of how difficult it has been to formulate a definition for the concept of an alternative existence. Elements of virtual reality appeared as early as the 1860s. 1860s: French avant-garde playwright Antonin Artaud took the view that illusion was not distinct from reality, advocating that spectators at a play should suspend disbelief and regard the drama on stage as reality. The first references to the more modern concept of virtual reality came from science fiction. 1935: Stanley G. Weinbaum's 1935 short story "Pygmalion's Spectacles" describes a goggle-based virtual reality system with holographic recording of fictional experiences, including smell and touch. 1962: Morton Heilig wrote in the 1950s of an "Experience Theatre" that could encompass all the senses in an effective manner, thus drawing the viewer into the onscreen activity. He built a prototype of his vision dubbed the Sensorama in 1962, along with five short films to be displayed in it while engaging multiple senses (sight, sound, smell, and touch). Predating digital computing, the Sensorama was a mechanical device. 11 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  14. 14. History and Introduction to Headsets School of Innovation India from Facebook 1968: Ivan Sutherland, with the help of his student Bob Sproull, created what was widely considered to be the first head-mounted display (HMD) system for use in immersive simulation applications. It was primitive both in terms of user interface and realism, and the HMD to be worn by the user was so heavy that it had to be suspended from the ceiling. The graphics comprising the virtual e n v i r o n m e n t w e r e simple wire-frame model rooms. The formidable a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e device inspired its name, The Sword of Damocles. 1978: The Aspen Movie Map was created at the MIT. The program was a c r u d e v i r t u a l simulation of Aspen, Colorado in which users could wander the streets in one of the three modes: summer, winter, and polygons. (Image of the Sensorama, released in the the 1950s) 12 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  15. 15. History and Introduction to Headsets School of Innovation India from Facebook 1980s: The term "virtual reality" was popularized by Jaron Lanier, one of the modern pioneers of the field. Lanier had founded the company VPL Research in 1985. VPL Research has developed several VR devices like the Data Glove, the Eye Phone, and the Audio Sphere. VPL licensed the Data Glove technology to Mattel, which used it to make an accessory known as the Power Glove. While the Power Glove was hard to use and not popular, at US$75, it was an early affordable VR device. 1988: Star Trek - The Next Generation introduces “The Holodeck”. 1991: Carolina Cruz-Neira, Daniel J. Sandin and Thomas A. DeFanti from the Electronic Visualization Laboratory created the first cubic immersive room, The Cave. Developed as Cruz-Neira's PhD thesis, it involved a multi-projected environment, similar to the holodeck, allowing people to see their own bodies in relation to others in the room. 1993: Sega announces SegaVR prototype for Mega Drive console. It used LCD screens in the visor, stereo headphones, and inertial sensors that allowed the system to track and react to the movements of the user's head. In the same year, Virtuality launched and went on to become the first mass-produced, networked, multiplayer VR entertainment system. It was released in many countries, including a dedicated VR arcade at Embarcadero Center in San Francisco. Costing up to $73,000 per multi-pod Virtuality system, they featured headsets and exoskeleton gloves that gave one of the first "immersive" VR experiences. Antonio Medina, a MIT graduate and NASA scientist, designed a virtual reality system to "drive" Mars rovers from Earth in apparent real time despite the substantial delay of Mars-Earth-Mars signals. (A VPL Research DataSuit, a full- body outfit with sensors for measuring the movement of arms, legs, and trunk. Developed circa 1989. Displayed at the Nissho Iwai showroom in Tokyo.) 13 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  16. 16. History and Introduction to Headsets School of Innovation India from Facebook 1995: The Virtual Boy was created by Nintendo and was released in Japan and North America. Also in 1995, a group in Seattle created public demonstrations of a "CAVE-like" 270 degree immersive projection room called the Virtual Environment Theater, produced by entrepreneurs Chet Dagit and Bob Jacobson. 1999: The Witchkowski’s brothers releases “The Matrix”. 2003: Linden Labs releases “Second Life”. 2007: Google introduced Street View, a service that shows panoramic views of an increasing number of worldwide positions such as roads, indoor buildings and rural areas. It also features a stereoscopic 3D mode, introduced in 2010. 2010: Palmer Luckey designed the first prototype of the Oculus Rift. This prototype, built on a shell of another virtual reality headset, was only capable of rotational tracking. However, it boasted a 90-degree field of vision that was previously unseen in the consumer market at the time. This initial design would later serve as a basis from which the later designs came. (A 2013 developer version of Oculus Rift from Oculus VR) 14 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  17. 17. History and Introduction to Headsets School of Innovation India from Facebook 2013: Valve discovered and freely shared the breakthrough of low-persistence displays which make lag-free and smear-free display of VR content possible. This was adopted by Oculus and was used in all their future headsets. In early 2014, Valve showed off their SteamSight prototype, the precursor to both consumer headsets released in 2016. It shared major features with the consumer headsets including separate 1K displays per eye, low persistence, positional tracking over a large area, and fresnel lenses. 2014: Facebook purchased Oculus VR for $2 billion. This purchase occurred before any of the devices ordered through Oculus' 2012 Kickstarter had shipped. In that same month, Sony announced Project Morpheus (its code name for PlayStation VR), a virtual reality headset for the PlayStation 4 video game console. Google announces Cardboard, a do-it- yourself stereoscopic viewer for smartphones. The user places their smartphone in the cardboard holder, which they wear on their head. 2015: The Kickstarter campaign for Gloveone, a pair of gloves providing motion tracking and haptic feedback, was successfully funded, with over $150,000 in contributions. HTC and Valve Corporation announced the virtual reality headset HTC Vive and controllers. The set included tracking technology called Lighthouse, which utilized wall-mounted "base stations" for positional tracking using infrared light. 15 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  18. 18. History and Introduction to Headsets School of Innovation India from Facebook 2018: Steven Spielberg releases “Ready Player One” based on the book “Ready Player One” by Ernest Cline that came out in 2011. 2018 also saw release of a number of standalone headsets like Oculus Go, Vive Focus, Lenovo Mirage, etc. that does not require an additional device like a Mobile Phone or a dedicated computer to run VR. (Oculus GO from Facebook) (Still form Ready Player One) 16 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO
  19. 19. School of Innovation India from Facebook References •-https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f-vUixm- YlQ&list=PL_ezWOhnpakMojiJGm-YiCz5zr4GpuLG_&index=2 •-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_reality •-https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1523379957/oculus- rift-step-into-the-game •-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oculus_Rift •-https://www.forbes.com/sites/briansolomon/2014/03/25/ •facebook-buys-oculus-virtual-reality-gaming-startup-for-2- billion/#743169392498 •-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augmented_reality •-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extended_reality •-https://jahya.net/blog/how-depth-sensor-works-in-5- minutes/ •-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-field_camera 17 Content prepared by Scapic in collaboration with SV.COContent owned and distributed by SV.CO

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