Steve Vitto Response to Intvervention (RTI) in School-wide Behavior Support 2009


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This is an overview of the RTI process presented by Steve Vitto in East Grand Rapids in November 2008. Steve can be contacted at

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  • Evidence, not opinion -- Prevention and early intervention pedagogy, programs, instruction and materials should be based on trustworthy scientific evidence.
  • These are the critical features of providing positive behavior support at the school-wide level as well as for groups and individual students. We are structuring today’s training around these “Big Ideas” Identify expectations ( Introduced at first day of training, presented as homework, reviewed and added to for today’s training Teach expectations (introduced and developed at today’s training along with time to work on teaching expectations plan, needs to be taught for all students in school setting) Monitoring expected behavior (Will be discussed in today’s training - active supervision) Acknowledge/Encourage expected behavior (Presented in today’s training along with time to work on school-wide acknowledgment plans) Correct behavioral errors through a continuum of consequences (participants will be provided with time to work on a documented continuum of consequences) Information for decision-making (presented each time we meet)
  • This is a school that has participated in a federal research grant. This evidence and model from the federal grant was used to expand into the MiBLSi project. K-5 elementary school approximately 326 students Title support within the school and about 34 percent free and reduced lunch The goal was set at .69 average times number of students/100 (based on research from 321 elementary schools) There is a decrease in ODR each month (compared to previous years) due to implementation of this model
  • School A is the same school as presented in previous slide School C is an inter-city school with approximately 85% free and reduced lunch and about 380 students
  • School A is the same school as presented in previous slide School C is an inter-city school with approximately 85% free and reduced lunch and about 380 students
  • Brandi
  • In the 1998 movie, The Horse Whisperer , a tragic horseback riding accident left a young girl with life-long physical and emotional scars, and left her prized horse traumatized and spooked. A previously well-behaved horse now behaved unpredictably and threatened all who approached him. The young girl’s mother was desperate to help her daughter recover emotionally from the incident, and believed the horse’s problem behaviors could also be corrected. While searching the internet for a solution, she discovered a “horse whisperer” who reportedly had a special gift for communicating with troubled horses. She called the Montana “equine therapist” from New York and said, “I’ve heard you help people with horse problems.” Tom Booker, the horse whisperer responded, “Truth is, I help horses with people problems.”
  • Increases in problem behavior in our nation’s schools are well documented. Many teachers and administrators believe their schools need help with student behavior problems . “ Truth is, our students need help with school problems ”. Our schools are increasingly unpleasant, impersonal, and hostile. They demand compliance rather than excellence; they expect performance without providing sufficient instruction and support; and they place responsibility for success on others without accepting it themselves. Students need teachers who are more inclined to whisper than they are to criticize, and more inclined to teach and support than they are to punish and exclude. Our priority is not to change student behavior so our schools can be better; it is to change schools so our students can be better. The approach known generally as Positive Behavior Support is a research-based strategy for “whispering” to students, and strengthening their abilities to succeed socially and academically.
  • 27
  • Importance of Prevention Reduces the number of students at-risk. Reduces the intensity of many of the at-risk behaviors.
  • Today, we are focusing on developing support systems for students who display mild problem behaviors. At this level, we are NOT developing individualized interventions for students with serious, chronic, problem behaviors. This may be a point that needs to be repeated and reviewed several times during the training. It is common for participants to begin to ask questions about individualizing support (e.g., Don’t students need highly individualized goals on CICO?, What about kids that……., etc). Remind participants that targeted supports are: designed for students with mild problem behaviors, and that a primary goal is efficiency. In addition, explain that we will cover individualized interventions during the intensive behavior training. When we say “intervention package” we are referring to a conceptual idea, not a “packaged curriculum”
  • Briefly discuss each of the critical features. Schools often think that they have several targeted group interventions, however they typically do not contain the critical features (for example, the school may provide social skills training in groups, but the intervention is not available on a regular basis, may not be implemented by all staff (if a pull-out group), and progress may not be monitored Implemented consistently across students: These are not individualized interventions. They are “packages” Consider function of behavior: The possible motivation of behavior is considered and discussed (a simple FBA). Schools do not need to complete an FBA on these students, but should examine relevant data and make an educated guess (for example, if a child has a co-occurring academic deficit, it is likely that the function may be escape Continuously Available: Students can access at any time during the year. A non-example would be social skills groups that only allow new students every 8-10 weeks Rapid Access: Because the systems and the intervention packages are developed, students may receive assistance within 3 days of a request for assistance (or identification through other data sources) Low Effort: Should not require more than 10 minutes per day to implement (for the classroom teacher) Consistent with School-wide: Remember, we want to build on the SW system. Expectations should be incorporated into the interventions (e.g., CICO card with SW expectations, social skills training around behaviors that meet the expectations, etc) Implemented by all staff/faculty: All staff know how to implement the program (classroom teachers, paraprofessional, specials teachers, principal, etc) Continuous monitoring: As the child’s needs increase, so does the frequency of monitoring. Additional data should be collected and examined on a regular basis (mention similarities to progress monitoring in reading)
  • Another reminder that
  • This is George Sugai’s slide. Taken from his keynote presentation at the Fall 2009 MiBLSi Coaches Conference. We are absolutely not talking about “yellow” and “red kids” Everyone has areas of strength and weakness. Especially as we begin working on targeted and intensive supports, we must be so careful to acknowledge the continuum of supports that we all need and understand that our goal is to help students build more areas of strength and successful experiences.
  • We should not be forcing students to participate—probability of this working for that student will be lower
  • The addition of a targeted group intervention should be based on school-wide data trends. It is possible that schools may have a very small number of students (less than 10) who are in need of this type of intervention. In addition, some data may indicate that schools need to strengthen universal systems if data indicates that a large number of students have 2-5 referrals. Prompt schools to examine the overall trends in the data
  • These are general guidelines, it’s important for the team to use the data and look for trends in students behaviors. Look for patterns of behaviors Time frame for these rules are: one school year/ Major Office Referrals only
  • Have participant look at this graph. The data indicates that 8 students are in need of targeted interventions. ASK THE GROUP: What would be the best decision for this school? With this few students, we might go to intensive interventions, as it could be wasteful to spend a lot of time on targeted interventions when we could be going right to meeting students’ needs through intensive supports—always look at other data too for triangulation. Remember, that this would not be the case if this is our September graph—we’re talking about end of the year graphs. The goal if this graph is to look at the overall system and number of students who could need targeted interventions. The purpose is not to start talking about individual students here.
  • This graph indicates that 19 students are in need of targeted group interventions. What decision should this school make?
  • This graph show that 20 students are in need of a targeted group intervention. What decision should this school make? If we have a large school, even 10% can be a lot of students. Large schools can still implement targeted interventions, but they will need to be very organized.
  • Here is an example from a larger school with more referrals. Approximately 200 students with 2-5 major ODRs Total student population is 1200 What would you do?
  • Environmental modifications Rearranging classroom to reduce access to problem situations Reposition tables in cafeteria to reduce problems associated with traffic flow General procedure/routine modifications Stagger transition times Student support interventions CICO Mentoring Social Skills Tutoring Staff support interventions Develop staff skills in behavior management
  • Discuss that classroom management must be in place (should be considered part of universal).
  • Examine the different levels of support needed within the classroom
  • George Sugai’s slide: Discuss the critical features of effective classroom management (briefly)
  • Total Time: 15 minutes Before teams begin working, explain the classroom management self-assessment and provide an example of how a school could use this Example: All teachers complete the SA independently Teacher’s identify top three areas for improvement Responses are tallied. The team can identify 2-3 areas for improvement across the entire school. Monitor progress and follow-up
  • Emphasize the importance of using academic interventions when the data suggest that is a possible function of the problem behavior. This is a list. Many of our schools have some of these programs. But what we are hearing from our national advisors is that students really benefit when we implement less with better integrity. Teams should not look at this list and feel that they need to start implementing all of these strategies/interventions
  • This triangle starts the discussion of WHO you are looking at for intensive interventions
  • Editing Note: I know that feedback is typically considered under monitoring. Am thinking we may want to address that specifically SLM. The information for Practices was from slide #5 under PBS Systems Development. BLT
  • Editing Note: We should include SWIS and DIBELS since most schools will be using that data. SLM> The information for Practices was from slide #5 under PBS Systems Development. Editing Note: The info used under the information circle was previously slide # 9 under PBS Systems Development. BLT
  • Interventions may be grouped in areas of: Social/Behavioral Concerns Students with two to five major Office Discipline Referrals per year Inappropriate behavior has potential interferes with friendships and/or academics Possible Interventions: Social Skills training, Self-Management, Peer reporting, Behavioral Check-in Academic Concerns Students who have difficulty mastering academic material at same rate as peers Students who have difficulty with organization and completing assignments Possible Interventions: Peer tutoring, academic check-in, Homework club Emotional concerns Students who have had circumstances that may impact their performance (death of family member, homelessness, changes addresses often) Students who seem to “feel alone” Student who are extremely shy, unhappy and socially isolated, and/or easily overlooked Possible Intervention: Adult mentoring
  • Students with 6 or more referrals are causing 50.33% (77/153) of all major referrals
  • The problem is not just with the child, but in relationships between the child and the environment. Interventions must involve the educational environment as a whole, not the child alone. . An intervention in a course of behavior is designed to change the outcome by preventing the behavior from actually occurring, reducing the severity of the behavior, by de-escalating the behavior before it becomes extreme, or by assisting the student to use skills he or she has been taught to make a better behavioral choice.
  • Effective Environments are Preventative , Educative, and Functional .
  • Bartlebaugh, Thoman, Weber (1996) Spectrum Center “Decoding student behavior Grade K-6: Participant’s Guidebook”
  • Problem behaviors are irrelevant when Child doesn’t need to escape anymore Child has access to positive events more commonly Problem behaviors are inefficient when Alternative behavior is available Alternative behavior is taught Problem behaviors are ineffective when Problem behavior NO LONGER works- it does not get the child what they want to obtain or what they want to avoid.
  • Steve Vitto Response to Intvervention (RTI) in School-wide Behavior Support 2009

    1. 1. RTI Presented by Steven Vitto
    2. 24. Quotable <ul><li>The real voyage of discovery consists </li></ul><ul><li>not of seeking new landscapes, </li></ul><ul><li>but in having new eyes… </li></ul><ul><li>~ Marcel Proust </li></ul>
    3. 25. <ul><li>The goal of RtI is improved achievement & behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual student data are collected and used to monitor progress, and those results are used to make decisions about further interventions (National Center for Learning Disabilities, 2006). </li></ul>RtI Goal Number One
    4. 26. RtI Goal Number Two <ul><li>The second goal of RtI is to develop the whole person: the cognitive, emotional, social, and physical aspects, with the skills to be effective at processing content and to become productive, in order to become the lifelong, autonomous, 21st Century learner (Betts & Betts, 2009). </li></ul>
    5. 27. Definition <ul><li>Response to Intervention or “RtI” is defined as: </li></ul><ul><li>“… a framework that promotes a well-integrated system connecting general, compensatory, gifted, and special education in providing high quality, standards-based instruction & intervention that is matched to students’ academic, social–emotional, and behavioral needs.” </li></ul>
    6. 28. Quotable <ul><li>“ Differentiation is not a checklist of strategies, </li></ul><ul><li>but a philosophical approach to teaching all students.” </li></ul><ul><li>~ Carol Ann Tomlinson </li></ul>
    7. 29. Quotable <ul><li>“ Our greatest natural resource is the minds of our children.” </li></ul><ul><li>~ Walt Disney </li></ul>
    8. 30. Quotable <ul><li>True motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Is as mysterious </li></ul><ul><li> as life itself. </li></ul><ul><li> It must begin within… </li></ul><ul><li>~ George Betts </li></ul>
    9. 31. Quotable <ul><li>“ I saw the angel in the marble and carved until I set him free.” </li></ul><ul><li>~ Michelangelo </li></ul>
    10. 32. Making the Problem Worse: Time is at a Premium <ul><ul><li>School Psychologists spend 80% of time providing identification services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counselors have a variety of duties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers are expected to take on social service roles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrators spend increasingly more time dealing with disciplinary issues. </li></ul></ul>We can’t solve student behavior problems by just working harder!
    11. 33. Making the Problem Worse <ul><ul><li>Reactive disciplinary approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty in providing consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty in accommodating individual student differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to provide instruction in rules, expectations, & consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic failure </li></ul></ul>(Mayer, 1995; Sugai & Lewis, 1998; Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1996)
    12. 34. <ul><li>higher rates of negative interactions with school personnel r egardless of their behavior </li></ul><ul><li>higher rates of punitive consequences than their peers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>this tends to make behaviors worse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>lower rates academic engaged time with teacher perpetuation of cycle of behavior and academic problems </li></ul>(Wehby et al. 1996; Shores et al. 1996) The School Experience Students who exhibit challenging behaviors have:
    13. 35. The Academic-Behavior Connection <ul><li>Students who fail academically are far more likely to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drop out of school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be involved with the corrections system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have illegitimate children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be involved with the social service system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be unemployed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be involved in automobile accidents </li></ul></ul>
    14. 36. RTI is… <ul><li>the practice of providing high-quality </li></ul><ul><li>instruction/intervention matched to student needs </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>using learning rate over time </li></ul><ul><li>and level of performance </li></ul><ul><li>to </li></ul><ul><li>inform educational decisions </li></ul>
    15. 37. Why do we need RTI? <ul><ul><li>Problems with the traditional system: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of special ed and general ed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Undocumented benefits of special ed services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eligibility procedures unrelated to intervention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wait-to-fail model (reactive) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over-representation of some minority students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Failure of traditional assumptions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overidentification of students with disabilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to serve at-risk and low achieving students </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 38. Why do we need RTI? continued <ul><ul><li>Research supporting transition to RTI: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scientifically-based instruction and interventions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence-based practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-tier models of increasing intensity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic ongoing progress monitoring and formative evaluation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Functional assessments leading to intervention </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 39. Bases for RTI in Federal Law <ul><ul><li>1975: Initial purpose to provide FAPE in LRE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1980s: Shift from access to schools to access to curriculum and instruction, and to results in learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now: Accountability for learning language in NCLB and IDEA ’04 are similar </li></ul></ul>
    18. 40. <ul><li>From NCLB: </li></ul><ul><li>“… holding schools, local education agencies, and States accountable for improving the academic achievement of all students…” and “…promoting schoolwide reform and ensuring the access of all children to effective, scientifically-based instructional strategies…” [PL 107-110 §1001(4) and (9)] </li></ul><ul><li>From IDEA: </li></ul><ul><li>“… to improve the academic achievement and functional performance of children with disabilities including the use of scientifically based instructional practices, to the maximum extent possible.” [20 U.S.C. 1400(c)(5)(E)] </li></ul><ul><li>(emphasis added) </li></ul>
    19. 41. RTI Core Principles <ul><li>Teach all children effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Intervene early </li></ul><ul><li>Use a multi-tier model of service delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt a problem-solving methodology </li></ul>
    20. 42. RTI Key Practices <ul><li>Using research-based, scientifically validated interventions/instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring student progress to inform instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Making decisions based on data </li></ul><ul><li>Using assessments for: (1) universal screening; (2) progress monitoring; and (3) diagnostics </li></ul>
    21. 43. Essential Components of RTI Implementation <ul><ul><li>Multi-tier model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem-solving method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated data collection/ assessment system </li></ul></ul>
    22. 44. Essential Component 1: Multi-tier Model
    23. 45. Tier 1: Core Instruction and Universal Interventions <ul><li>Quality core curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Quality instructional strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiated instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Schoolwide positive behavior supports </li></ul><ul><li>Articulated expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Social skills instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-social and pro-active discipline strategies </li></ul>Academic Systems Behavioral Systems <ul><li>Universal Screening of academic and behavioral performance </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous progress monitoring </li></ul>
    24. 46. Tier 2: Targeted Interventions <ul><li>Strategic supplemental academic programs </li></ul><ul><li>Standard protocol treatment interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Small group interventions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other settings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategic supplemental behavior programs </li></ul><ul><li>Small group training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anger management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peer/adult mentoring program </li></ul>Academic Systems Behavioral Systems <ul><li>Process / guidelines for fading, continuing, changing intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Focused continuous progress monitoring of responsiveness to intervention(s) </li></ul>
    25. 47. Tier 3: Intensive Interventions <ul><li>Small group/individualized standard protocol and/or interventions determined through problem solving </li></ul>Academic Systems Behavioral Systems <ul><li>Small group/individualized counseling therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Individualized behavior plan </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent, daily mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for fading, continuing, changing intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Focused continuous progress monitoring of responsiveness to intervention(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern of inadequate response(s) may indicate special education </li></ul>
    26. 48. Essential Component 2: Problem-Solving Method What is the problem? Why is it happening? What should be done about it? Did it work?
    27. 49. Essential Component 3: Integrated Instructional Data Collection/Assessment Systems <ul><li>Assessment of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills in state and local standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Marker variables” (benchmarks) leading to ultimate instructional target </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To be administered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeatedly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data specific to strategy implemented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual student progress monitoring data, sensitive to small increments of growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparison data across students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User-friendly data displays </li></ul></ul>
    28. 50. Simplified RTI Process: <ul><ul><li>Ensure quality core instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide school-wide Positive Behavior Supports and Interventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administer universal screenings of academic and social-emotional/behavioral health </li></ul></ul>All children in a class, school, or district are universally screened annually to identify those students at risk for difficulties.
    29. 51. Simplified RTI Process: <ul><ul><li>Gather and review student performance data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify goal(s) for the student through team decision-making process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorm interventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select interventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine dependent variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement interventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor student progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct follow-up meeting </li></ul></ul>The responsiveness of students to general education instruction is monitored to determine those requiring a targeted intervention.
    30. 52. Simplified RTI Process: <ul><ul><li>Review and analyze student performance data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide targeted intervention for students in need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjust interventions based on data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate progress = continue and/or fade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of progress = consider adjusting interventions </li></ul></ul></ul>For at-risk students, a research-validated intervention is implemented; student progress is monitored through-out; and students are re-assessed after the intervention.
    31. 53. Simplified RTI Process: <ul><li>Maintain intervention support during evaluation process </li></ul><ul><li>Use formal and informal assessment data </li></ul><ul><li>Base eligibility on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>response to intervention data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suspected SLD processing deficit assessment data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide IEP and services, if eligible </li></ul>Students who do not respond to validated interventions are referred for further evaluation for possible disability determination and special education services.
    32. 54. Special Education Eligibility Component: LD eligibility criteria <ul><li>Historical system: </li></ul><ul><li>Ability-achievement discrepancy </li></ul><ul><li>SLD exclusion factors </li></ul><ul><li>RTI process: </li></ul><ul><li>Significant difference in performance compared to peers </li></ul><ul><li>Low rate of progress, even with high-quality interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Need for special education services </li></ul><ul><li>SLD exclusion factors </li></ul>
    33. 55. Special Education Eligibility Component: type of tests used <ul><li>Historical system: </li></ul><ul><li>Global </li></ul><ul><li>Ability / IQ </li></ul><ul><li>Nationally norm-referenced achievement tests </li></ul><ul><li>RTI process: </li></ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul><ul><li>Direct measures of specific skills needed for success in the classroom </li></ul>
    34. 56. Special Education Eligibility Component: comparison standards <ul><li>Historical system: </li></ul><ul><li>National norms </li></ul><ul><li>RTI process: </li></ul><ul><li>Regional, district, school or classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Aligned to state standards </li></ul><ul><li>Nationally normed tests used sparingly </li></ul>
    35. 57. <ul><li>Historical system: </li></ul><ul><li>Administered at one or two sittings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School psychologist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RTI process: </li></ul><ul><li>Functional academic and/or behavioral data </li></ul><ul><li>Collected over time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School psychologist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parent(s) </li></ul></ul>
    36. 58. Special Education Eligibility Component: nature of assessment targets/ what is being measured <ul><li>Historical system: </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect or general relationships with classroom academic or behavioral problems </li></ul><ul><li>Most often intrinsic to the person </li></ul><ul><li>RTI process: </li></ul><ul><li>Specific skills measured </li></ul><ul><li>Related to student academic and/or behavioral skills and performance </li></ul>
    37. 59. Special Education Eligibility Component: relationship of assessment instruments to the general curriculum <ul><li>Historical system: </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal </li></ul><ul><li>RTI process: </li></ul><ul><li>Direct </li></ul>
    38. 60. Special Education Eligibility Component: relationship between eligibility assessments and intervention <ul><li>Historical system: </li></ul><ul><li>Little demonstrable relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Global assessments not specific to interventions </li></ul><ul><li>RTI process: </li></ul><ul><li>Direct link </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of performance in relation to instructional intervention(s) </li></ul>
    39. 61. Policy Issues <ul><li>How will the SEA/LEA/building support the implementation of RTI as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an overarching system of providing scientifically based curriculum and instruction within general, remedial, and special education that is guided by ongoing data and information regarding student performance? </li></ul></ul>
    40. 62. Policy Issues (continued) <ul><li>How will the SEA/LEA/building support the implementation of RTI as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a way of gathering data for use within the special education eligibility process? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ongoing data-based decision making within special education as a part of using RTI practices? </li></ul></ul>
    41. 63. Professional Development Needed <ul><ul><li>Pre-service at college/university level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>District-level leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building-level administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct services (e.g., teachers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents/Families </li></ul></ul>
    42. 64. <ul><ul><li>A leader is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a person you would follow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to a place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>you would not go yourself. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Joel Barker, Future Edge , </li></ul>
    43. 65. <ul><ul><li>social skills training teach specific skills using effective instruction </li></ul></ul>What Works <ul><li>academic curricular restructuring intensive instruction in reading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>behaviorally based intervention effective use of reinforcement/punishment to facilitate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>success </li></ul></ul>Reviews of over 800 studies involving children with the most challenging behaviors indicates: (Gottfredson, 1997; Lipsky, 1996)
    44. 66. Systems of Positive Behavioral Support to Prevent Problem Behavior and Identify At-Risk Students ALL STUDENTS 1-3% • Effective instruction • Crisis management plans • Wraparound planning • Alternative placements • Special Education INTENSIVE PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION INTENSIVE SERVICES • Clear expectations • Teach expectations •Facilitate success • School-wide data • Rules, routines, and c physical arrangements UNIVERSAL SYSTEMS SCHOOL-WIDE PREVENTION • Planned and implemented by all adults in school 10% 90% Successful • Effective instruction • Increased prompts/cues •Pre-correction • Functional assessment • Effective Interventions •Individuals/small #s TARGETED INTERVENTIONS TARGETED PREVENTIONS • Key teachers and specialists implement
    45. 67. Center for Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (2002)
    46. 68. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports <ul><li>A proactive data-based approach to school-wide discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to be responsive to current social and educational challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Is focused on three levels of need </li></ul><ul><li>IS NOT A CURRICULUM, PACKAGE OR PRODUCT </li></ul>
    47. 69. 2 Worries & Ineffective Responses to Problem Behavior <ul><li>Get Tough (practices) </li></ul><ul><li>Train-&-Hope (systems) </li></ul>
    48. 70. Worry #1 “Teaching” by Getting Tough <ul><li>Runyon : “I hate this f____ing school, & you’re a dumbf_____.” </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher : “ That is disrespectful language. I’m sending you to the office so you’ll learn never to say those words again….starting now!” </li></ul>
    49. 71. Immediate & seductive solution …. ”Get Tough!” <ul><li>Clamp down & increase monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Re-re-re -review rules </li></ul><ul><li>Extend continuum & consistency of consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Establish “ bottom line ” </li></ul><ul><li>... Predictable individual response </li></ul>
    50. 72. Reactive responses are predictable…. <ul><li>When we experience aversive situation, we select interventions that produce immediate relief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove student </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove ourselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modify physical environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign responsibility for change to student &/or others </li></ul></ul>
    51. 73. When behavior doesn’t improve, we “ Get Tougher !” <ul><li>Zero tolerance policies </li></ul><ul><li>Increased surveillance </li></ul><ul><li>Increased suspension & expulsion </li></ul><ul><li>In-service training by expert </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative programming </li></ul><ul><li>….. Predictable systems response ! </li></ul>
    52. 74. Erroneous assumption that student… <ul><li>Is inherently “bad” </li></ul><ul><li>Will learn more appropriate behavior through increased use of “ aversives” </li></ul><ul><li>Will be better tomorrow ……. </li></ul>
    53. 75. But …. false sense of safety/security! <ul><li>Fosters environments of control </li></ul><ul><li>Triggers & reinforces antisocial behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Shifts accountability away from school </li></ul><ul><li>Devalues child-adult relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Weakens relationship between academic & social behavior programming </li></ul>
    54. 76. Worry #2: “ Train & Hope ” REACT to Problem Behavior Select & ADD Practice Hire EXPERT to Train Practice WAIT for New Problem Expect, But HOPE for Implementation
    55. 77. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports <ul><li>Teaching expected behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching social behaviors like academic behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Maximizing academic engagement and success </li></ul><ul><li>Data-based practices </li></ul>Focused On:
    56. 78. Truth or Myth <ul><li>T/M School-wide discipline strategies that primarily focus on extinguishing problem behaviors are most effective. </li></ul><ul><li>T/M Children usually know what’s expected of them; they just choose not to do it. </li></ul><ul><li>T/M Most school-wide initiatives do not continue for more than two school years. </li></ul><ul><li>T/M School-wide positive behavioral support uses discipline referral information to prevent problem behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>T/M The most powerful strategy for changing behavior is teaching. </li></ul>
    57. 79. Truth or Myth <ul><li>T/M On average, schools should acknowledge (reinforce) five appropriate behaviors to every negative interaction for problem behavior </li></ul><ul><li>T/M Positive Behavioral Support can be defined in a single set of strategies and is limited in serving a small percentage of students in schools </li></ul><ul><li>T/M Inappropriate behaviors should be corrected. Clear distinctions should exist between classroom managed behavior versus office managed behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>T/M Functional Assessment is a process reserved for students in special education. </li></ul><ul><li>T/M Problem behavior is commonly random and chaotic with no specific purpose. </li></ul>
    58. 80. What does school-wide PBS look like in a school? <ul><li>>80% of students can tell you what is expected of them & give behavioral example because they have been taught, actively supervised, practiced, & acknowledged. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive adult-to-student interactions exceed negative </li></ul><ul><li>Function based behavior support is foundation for addressing problem behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Data- & team-based action planning & implementation are operating. </li></ul><ul><li>Administrators are active participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Full continuum of behavior support is available to all students </li></ul>
    59. 81. Three Important Themes <ul><li>Create systems, not just programs, to support each and all students </li></ul><ul><li>Earlier rather than later </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence, not opinion </li></ul>
    60. 82. School-wide Positive Behavior Support <ul><li>School-wide positive behavior support is a set of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior . </li></ul>
    61. 83. Big Ideas In Positive Behavior Support <ul><li>Identify expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Teach expectation </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor expected behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge/Encourage expected behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Correct behavioral errors (continuum of consequences) </li></ul><ul><li>Use information for decision-making </li></ul>
    62. 84. What does PBS look like? <ul><li>>80% of students can tell you what is expected of them & give behavioral example because they have been taught, actively supervised, practiced, & acknowledged. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive adult-to-student interactions exceed negative </li></ul><ul><li>Function based behavior support is foundation for addressing problem behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Data- & team-based action planning & implementation are operating. </li></ul><ul><li>Administrators are active participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Full continuum of behavior support is available to all students </li></ul>
    63. 85. Data Driven Decision Making
    64. 86. Elementary School Administrative Savings from 2002-2003 and 2003-2004 Academic Year <ul><li>If an ODR consumes an average of 15 min of administrative time. </li></ul>15.3 6.3 Number of 7 hour school days saved 429 175 Amount of ODR reduction School C School A
    65. 87. Elementary School Instructional Savings from 2002-2003 and 2003-2004 Academic Year <ul><li>If an ODR consumes an average of 45 minutes of student time . </li></ul>46 18.8 Number of 7 hour school days saved 429 175 Amount of ODR reduction School C School A
    66. 92. Focus on School-Wide System if: <ul><li>More than 35% of students receive 1 or more referral </li></ul><ul><li>Average referrals per student is greater than 2.5 </li></ul>
    67. 93. Focus on Non-Classroom Systems if <ul><li>More than 35% of referrals come from non-classroom settings </li></ul><ul><li>More than 15% of students who receive a referral are referred from non-classroom settings. </li></ul>
    68. 94. Focus on Classroom Systems if <ul><li>More than 50% of referrals are from classroom settings. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 40% of referrals come from less than 10% of the classrooms. </li></ul>
    69. 95. Focus on Individual Student Systems <ul><li>Targeted Group Interventions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If 10 or more students have 10+ referrals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example (check-in, check-out BEP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Targeted Individual Interventions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer than 10 students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intense, individualized support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrap Around </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Futures Planning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Functional Assessment </li></ul></ul></ul>
    70. 96. Features of School-wide PBS (2) <ul><li>Procedures for family and community involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies for specific settings </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies for targeted (at-risk) groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., academic supports, social skills groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategies for intensive, comprehensive individual supports </li></ul>
    71. 97. Evidence Re: SW-PBS <ul><li>Extensive data showing decreases in Office Discipline Referrals </li></ul><ul><li>Data indicating improvements in school culture </li></ul><ul><li>Some emerging data showing school-wide academic improvements </li></ul>
    72. 98. Evidence Based Practices in Classroom Management
    73. 99. What “kind” of students can display problematic behavior? All students. Students with/without labels who are served in general/special education can display problematic behavior. This is not a special education issue. It is an education issue. We need to learn more about the 5 critical features of evidence-based classroom management to be able to help all students.
    74. 100. The Horse Whisperer “I’ve heard you help people with horse problems” <ul><li>“ Truth is, I help horses with people problems” </li></ul>Tom Booker, The Horse Whisperer 1998
    75. 101. HORSE SENSE? <ul><li>Many teachers and administrators believe their schools need help with student behavior problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Truth is, our students need help with school problems. </li></ul>
    76. 102. Establishing a Relationship Based Approach Reinforcement should be a celebration of effort
    77. 103. Continuum of School-Wide Instructional and Positive Behavior Support Primary Prevention : School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention : Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention : Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% OSEP Center on Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports;
    78. 104. Another Look at School-wide Positive Behavior Support Systems Non-classroom Setting Systems Classroom Setting Systems Individual Student Systems School-wide Systems
    79. 105. Evidence Based Practices in Classroom Management <ul><li>Maximize structure in your classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Post, teach, review, monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations . </li></ul><ul><li>Actively engage students in observable ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior . </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior . </li></ul>(Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, & Sugai, in press)
    80. 106. 1. Maximize structure in your classroom. <ul><li>Develop Predictable Routines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher routines : volunteers, communications, movement, planning, grading, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student routines : personal needs, transitions, working in groups, independent work, instruction, getting materials, homework, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design environment to (a) elicit appropriate behavior and (b) minimize crowding and distraction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrange furniture to allow easy traffic flow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure adequate supervision of all areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designate staff & student areas . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seating arrangements (groups, carpet, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
    81. 107. Assess <ul><li>Complete item for a teacher with whom you consult (or your own classroom) </li></ul>Yes No <ul><ul><li>I arranged my room to minimize crowding and distraction . </li></ul></ul>Yes No <ul><ul><li>I explicitly taught and followed predictable routines . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I maximized structure and predictability in my classroom. </li></ul>
    82. 108. Action Plan <ul><li>Generate action plan content (observable and measurable behaviors to address deficits) </li></ul><ul><li>Potential action plan items may include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe predictable routine for entering classroom, turning in homework, or other areas identified as missing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rearrange furniture to ensure better supervision </li></ul></ul>[1] What? When? How? By When? 2 minutes 1 Enhancement/Maintenance Strategies [1] Current Level of Performance #
    83. 109. Behavior Mantra: “ It is easier to prevent a behavior from occurring than to deal with it after it has happened.”
    84. 110. If you’ve told a child a thousand times and she/he still doesn’t understand, then it is not the CHILD who is the slow learner! Anonymous
    85. 111. Circa 1996
    86. 112. RTI- Are classroom response cost systems contributing to defiance? <ul><li>Response to Intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Are we using evidenced based classroom behavior management systems at the universal level? Are classroom response cost systems evidenced based? Is there a balance, better yet, an overbalance of Positive Incentives and Feedback for Desired Behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>When universal consequences (e.g., Classroom Response Cost System) are not effective, or when they trigger an escalation of behavior, do we differentiate our approach? </li></ul><ul><li>Are we over-relying on classroom response cost systems to manage student behaviors? </li></ul>
    87. 113. The Tough Get Tougher <ul><li>“ Getting tough ” with persistently defiant, non-compliant kids is counter productive. </li></ul><ul><li>These youngsters don’t succumb to coercion. </li></ul><ul><li>Rather, they are incited by it. </li></ul><ul><li>If our penalties are harsh and repeatedly applied, we might possibly be able to subdue the rebellion and create a non-motivated, withdrawn kid </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled, knowledgeable and caring teachers do what we’re paid to do : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In order to promote positive behavior change and motivation, “ tough ” teachers must change their ways. While those ways work with 95% of the kids, it’s the 95% who don’t need to be treated in that manner in order to get them to behave. Their ways don’t work at all with the “difficult” 5%. In fact, their coercive interventions make things worse. However, it’s hard to convince negative teachers of the faults of their ways. They commonly respond with: </li></ul>
    88. 114. What ?! Me Change?! <ul><li>THEY’RE </li></ul><ul><li>the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>(not me) . </li></ul>START HERE
    89. 115. <ul><li>When teachers attempt to overpower a kid who has defeated more powerful adversaries, they fight a losing battle. </li></ul><ul><li>These teachers create the very conflict about which they complain . </li></ul>
    91. 117. Setting Event Strategies <ul><li>Building a connection or positive relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Designing the physical space </li></ul><ul><li>Established a predictable agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Established classroom expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful Incentive Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity for choices </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing a positive home school partnership </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-arranged consequences </li></ul>
    92. 118. <ul><li>Students can feel a greater sense of ownership when they are invited to contribute to their behavior management plan. Students also tend to know better than anyone else what triggers will set off their problem behaviors and what strategies they find most effective in calming themselves and avoiding conflicts or other behavioral problems. </li></ul>Have the Student Participate in Creating a Behavior Plan (Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1995).
    93. 119. <ul><li>ANTECEDENT STRATEGIES </li></ul><ul><li>should make the target behavior irrelevant </li></ul>
    94. 120. Contra-Indicated Behavioral Strategies for the ODD Child <ul><li>Ultimatums </li></ul><ul><li>Strict Boundaries: Drawing the Line in the Sand </li></ul><ul><li>Counts, Warnings, Threats </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged Eye-Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Infringing on Personal Space </li></ul><ul><li>Social Disapproval </li></ul><ul><li>Judgmental Responses </li></ul><ul><li>Response Cost and Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Strict Boundaries or Contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Suspension and Detention, Progressive Discipline </li></ul>Marion
    95. 121. Avoiding Triggers <ul><li>ASD Example </li></ul><ul><li>Treating with mutual respect </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding the three “don’ts” </li></ul>
    96. 122. Remember the importance of “firming-up” the Schoolwide and Strategic Behavior Support. Students needing strategic/targeted interventions Students needing intensive/ individualized Interventions Students performing at desired levels Less problems allow for allocation of resources to appropriately meet needs Not enough resources to address needs of student who are not at desired levels Too few performing at desired levels
    97. 123. Targeted Supports: Goals <ul><li>Developing support systems for students that display moderate (intensity/frequency) problem behaviors in hopes of reducing the number of students who will need intensive supports </li></ul><ul><li>At the targeted level, we place students into intervention “packages”, rather than designing individualized plans </li></ul>
    98. 124. Critical Features of Targeted Interventions <ul><li>Implemented consistently across students </li></ul><ul><li>Consider function of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention is continuously available </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid access to intervention (72 hr) </li></ul><ul><li>Very low effort by teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent with school-wide expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Implemented by all staff/faculty in a school </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous monitoring for decision-making (with exit criteria) </li></ul><ul><li>Research/Evidence-based </li></ul>
    99. 125. Targeted Interventions: Who are they for? <ul><li>Students who exhibit difficulties despite proactive school-wide prevention efforts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Likely to be students with both academic and behavioral difficulties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 10% of school population </li></ul></ul>Page
    100. 126. RTI Continuum of Support for ALL Dec 7, 2007 Science Soc Studies Reading Math Soc skills Basketball Spanish Label behavior…not people
    101. 127. A good fit for targeted interventions? <ul><li>Appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Low-level problem behavior </li></ul><ul><li>2-5 major referrals </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviors occur across multiple locations </li></ul><ul><li>Disrespect, Disruption, Truancy </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Serious or violent behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme, chronic behaviors (6 or more referrals) </li></ul><ul><li>Require more individualized support </li></ul>
    102. 128. Why do Targeted Interventions Work? <ul><li>Improved structure </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prompts throughout the day for correct behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a replacement skill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System for linking student with at least one supportive adult </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student does not resist participation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback occurs more often </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback is tied to student behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropriate behavior is less likely to be ignored or rewarded </li></ul></ul></ul>
    103. 129. Using Office Discipline Referral Data to Guide Targeted Support <ul><li>Use SWIS data to determine if your school needs a targeted intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Referrals by Student Report/Graph </li></ul><ul><li>Examine overall trends </li></ul>
    104. 130. Using Our Resources Practically <ul><li>How many students does your school </li></ul><ul><li>have in the range of 2-5 referrals? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If > 10 students- may be appropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If < 10 students- implement individualized interventions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The plan should be able to reasonably </li></ul><ul><li>maintain 15-30 students/year </li></ul>
    105. 131. Referrals by Student Possible students for targeted intervention? 8 students
    106. 132. Referrals by Student Possible students for targeted intervention? 19 students
    107. 133. Referrals by Student Possible students for Strategic intervention?
    108. 134. Possible students for targeted intervention? 200 students Referrals by Student
    109. 135. If many students are engaged in problem behavior in similar locations or at similar times… <ul><li>First: </li></ul><ul><li>Firm up schoolwide prevention/ intervention at the identified times and locations </li></ul><ul><li>Then: </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental modification </li></ul><ul><li>General procedure/routine modification </li></ul><ul><li>Student support/intervention </li></ul>
    110. 136. Classroom Management and Targeted Interventions <ul><li>Ensure that effective classroom </li></ul><ul><li>management practices are in place prior to implementing targeted group interventions. </li></ul>
    111. 138. <ul><li>All school-wide </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum structure & predictability in routines & environment </li></ul><ul><li>Positively stated expectations posted, taught, reviewed, prompted, & supervised. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum engagement through high rates of opportunities to respond, delivery of evidence-based instructional curriculum & practices </li></ul><ul><li>Continuum of strategies to acknowledge displays of appropriate behavior , including contingent & specific praise, group contingencies, behavior contracts, token economies </li></ul><ul><li>Continuum of strategies for responding to inappropriate behavior, including specific, contingent, brief corrections for academic & social behavior errors, differential reinforcement of other behavior, planned ignoring, response cost, & timeout </li></ul>The importance of Classroom Management
    112. 139. <ul><li>Examine the classroom management self-assessment </li></ul><ul><li>What is the current status of classroom management in your school? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you take this information back to the entire staff? </li></ul>Classroom Management Please take a moment to complete the appropriate section of the Follow-Up Activity Worksheet to document the work yet to be done
    113. 140. Targeted Group Interventions: Examples <ul><li>Tutoring/Targeted Reading Intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Social Skills Training </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Self-monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Peer Reporting </li></ul><ul><li>First Step to Success (K-1) </li></ul><ul><li>Homework Club </li></ul><ul><li>Check-in/Check-out (BEP) </li></ul>
    114. 141. Summary <ul><li>Targeted Group interventions are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less time intensive, more cost effective. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best for low level problem behavior (e.g. disruption, disrespect, truancy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient because they use a similar set of strategies across a group of students who need similar support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective because they focus on decreasing problem behavior in the school thereby increasing academic engagement and decrease office referrals </li></ul></ul>
    115. 142. Students with chronic/serious problem behavior (1-5%) 6+ Major Discipline Referrals Students at risk for problem behavior (5-15%) 2-5 Major Discipline Referrals Students with mild or no problem behavior (80-85%) 0-1 Major Discipline Referrals Adapted from Crone & Horner (2003) Specialized Individual Interventions Specialized Group Interventions Schoolwide Intervention School, Classroom or Non-Classroom Systems All Students in School Continuum of Behavioral Assessment and Supports Functional Behavior Assessment Quick Sort and BEP Assessment of system
    116. 143. SYSTEMS PRACTICES Information Intensive Support Model OUTCOMES SYSTEMS (Supporting Process) <ul><li>Administrative Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Team-Based Implementation – Student Assistance/Child Study (include staff with behavioral expertise) </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure School-Wide and Strategic are in Place </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Decision-Driven Information System </li></ul><ul><li>Allocation of materials </li></ul><ul><li>Allocation of time </li></ul>Desired Outcomes: Improved behavior resulting in improved academic performance
    117. 144. SYSTEMS PRACTICES Information Intensive Support Model OUTCOMES PRACTICES (Doing the work) <ul><li>Complete functional assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Link assessment information to develop behavior support plan </li></ul><ul><li>Implement behavior support and monitor integrity of implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor success of the plan and use information to modify and improve plan </li></ul><ul><li>Share result s with staff and parents- celebrate success </li></ul>
    118. 145. SYSTEMS PRACTICES Information Intensive Support Model OUTCOMES INFORMATION (Supporting decisions) <ul><li>Collect information to guide the process including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student data including academic and behavior outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process data -integrity of implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction data from stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase the quality and variety of data as the student needs increase </li></ul>
    119. 146. Identifying Students for Intensive Support <ul><li>Use SWIS to screen students in need of support. </li></ul><ul><li>Use nomination from teacher, parent, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Use other sources of information (attendance, court reports, etc.) to identify students </li></ul><ul><li>Consider students who have not been successful with strategic interventions </li></ul>
    120. 147. Major Discipline Referrals by Student Students with 2 - 5 referrals These students are identified for Strategic Group Interventions. They have 2-5 Major Office Referrals. These interventions should support 15-30 students.
    121. 148. Major Discipline Referrals by Student These students are identified for Intensive Individual Interventions. They have 6+ Major Office Referrals. These interventions should support approximately 1-15 students. Students with 6+ referrals
    122. 149. Behavior Support Elements Problem Behavior Functional Assessment Intervention & Support Plan Fidelity of Implementation Impact on Behavior & Lifestyle *Response class *Routine analysis *Hypothesis statement *Function *Alternative behaviors *Competing behavior analysis *Contextual fit *Strengths, preferences, & lifestyle outcomes *Evidence-based interventions *Implementation support *Data plan *Continuous improvement *Sustainability plan <ul><li>Team-based </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior competence </li></ul>
    123. 150. Designing Effective Behavior Intervention Plans… <ul><li>Behavior support is the redesign of environments, NOT the redesign of the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Make the environment effective for this kid </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Intervention Plans describe what WE will do differently </li></ul>
    124. 151. Three Main Ideas in Addressing Problem Behavior <ul><li>Preventative: What environmental adjustments will be used to make the student’s problem behavior unnecessary? </li></ul><ul><li>Educative: What behaviors (skills) will be taught to replace or meet the same function as the student’s problem behavior and improve his or her ability to function more effectively? </li></ul><ul><li>Functional: How will consequences be managed to insure the student receives reinforcers for positive behavior, not problem behavior? </li></ul>Adapted from: Tilly, W. D., Kovaleski, J., Dunlap, G., Knoster, T. P., Bambara, L., & Kincaid, D. (1998). Functional behavioral assessment: Policy development in light of emerging research and practice. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE)
    125. 152. Preventative <ul><li>What environmental adjustments will be used to make the student’s problem behavior unnecessary? </li></ul><ul><li>General Guidelines for changing antecedents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change the feature that is related to the motivation for the problem behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t change more than you need to get improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make the changes easy to implement </li></ul></ul>
    126. 153. Behavior Mantra: “ It is easier to prevent a behavior from occurring than to deal with it after it has happened.”
    127. 154. If you’ve told a child a thousand times and she/he still doesn’t understand, then it is not the CHILD who is the slow learner! Anonymous
    128. 155. Desired Alternative Acceptable Alternative Typical Consequence Told “good job” Grades Do work w/o complaints. Ask for break, ask for help. The Competing Pathways chart for our friend Eddie Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Extended structured activity (math) Do a difficult task Threatens, Uses profanity Remove from class. Function Avoid task
    129. 156. What is the Function of the Behavior? <ul><li>Obtain … </li></ul><ul><li>Peer Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Items/Activities (tangible) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory (seeking) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid… </li></ul><ul><li>Peer(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Adult </li></ul><ul><li>Task or Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory (defensive) </li></ul>
    130. 157. What is the function of Shane’s behavior? <ul><li>Obtain Peer Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain Adult Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Task or Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Know </li></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul>Scott, Liaupin, Nelson (2001) Behavior Intervention Planning. Sopris West
    131. 158. Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence The football game is coming on in 2 minutes. Your significant other asks you to wash the dishes. You happily oblige. After one minute, you have broken two glasses and one dish. Your significant other pushes you out of the way and says, “ Just let me do them.” You sigh and go watch the game . You know if you pretend you can’t do something she will do it for you The football game is coming on and your spouse asks you to wash dishes You break two dishes and a glass Your spouse takes over and washes the dishes herself What function? Avoid activity
    132. 159. Basic Premises of “Best Practice” <ul><li>Behavior is neither “good”or “bad” </li></ul><ul><li>Blaming only distances relationships that should be collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Assessment should have a basis of trust and support </li></ul><ul><li>Egos and defensiveness can skew accurate assessment </li></ul><ul><li>It can be difficult to perform a functional assessment of a behavior occurring in your own classroom or educational environment </li></ul>
    133. 160. <ul><li>Students can feel a greater sense of ownership when they are invited to contribute to their behavior management plan. Students also tend to know better than anyone else what triggers will set off their problem behaviors and what strategies they find most effective in calming themselves and avoiding conflicts or other behavioral problems. </li></ul>Have the Student Participate in Creating a Behavior Plan (Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey)
    134. 161. <ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for avoiding the use of punishment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It does not eliminate but merely suppresses the behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It does not provide a model for the desired acceptable behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggression on the part of the practitioner presents an undesirable model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The emotional results of punishment may be fear, tension, stress, or withdrawal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The child's resulting frustration may result in further deviation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punishment is associated with the punisher rather than with the unacceptable behavior </li></ul>
    135. 162. <ul><li>Bigger, tougher Consequences is NOT what we mean by a Correction System </li></ul>
    136. 163. Functional: <ul><li>How will consequences be managed to ensure the student receives reinforcement for positive behavior and for not problem behavior? </li></ul>
    137. 164. Does the statement represent a functional intervention to improve behavior? <ul><li>Y N Lantana, skipped 2 school days, so her principal suspended her for 2 more days. </li></ul><ul><li>Y N Juan makes noises during seat work, Latisha laughs. His teacher decided to give Juan the option to help Latisha with her work after he complete his own. </li></ul><ul><li>Y N James teacher took his book away during history because he obviously wasn’t ready to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Y N Scott’s reading skills are below grade level. He becomes defiant when asked to read his content material (social studies, science). His teacher pre-teaches key vocabulary and prompts Scott to ask for help with difficult passages. </li></ul><ul><li>Y N “You want my attention?! I’ll show you attention,…let’s take a walk down to the office & have a little chat with the Principal.” </li></ul>Y N Y N Y N Y N Y N
    138. 165. The Spirit of Reinforcement <ul><li>The spirit of reinforcement is to change the balance of our interactions so that we are focusing more on desired behaviors than we are on unwanted behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>The foundation of reinforcement should always be a positive relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement should be a means of celebrating a child’s efforts, not a method of controlling or responding to undesired behavior </li></ul>
    139. 166. Reinforcement History <ul><li>Has reinforcement been used as a means of acknowledging approximations of desired behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>Has reinforcement been used as a means of control, leading to resentment, and loss of motivation? </li></ul>