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BREAKING DOWN THE WALLS Strategies for Defiant Students Presented by: Steven  Vitto, M.A., CCII., CTCI., MIBLSI Coach,  Be...
Developing Preventative Classroom Cultures Diffusion and De-escalation CPI/TCI/NAPPI,PEI Presented by:  Steven Vitto , M.A...
What Do You Bring to the Table?
<ul><li>Consider your educational experience as a child.  How did teachers/principals manage behavioral errors when you we...
The Best Teacher  You Ever Had <ul><li>1 minute to think about their qualities and behaviors they exhibited </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Scale of 1-10 </li></ul><ul><li>1  10  </li></ul>
<ul><li>Through what lens do you see your students, classroom, behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>Is teaching more or less stress...
The Escalation Model High Low Calm Peak De-escalation Recovery Acceleration Agitation Trigger (Colvin & Sugai, 1989)
<ul><li>Conflict Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal (55%) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postu...
Developing Preventative Cultures THE VALUE OF TARGET TALK
<ul><li>Leadership  team </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior  purpose  statement </li></ul><ul><li>Set of  positive expectations & ...
Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized ...
Apply  three tiered prevention logic  to classroom setting <ul><ul><li>Primary for all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondar...
Classroom Based Support Planning Process
 
Evidence Based  Classroom Management
Specific feedback is given regarding academic and social performance Staff engages with student professionally and therape...
Systematic Supervision in the Classroom
<ul><li>Maximize structure  in your classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Post, teach, review, monitor, and reinforce a small numbe...
The Potential of a Greeting Allday & Pakurar (2007)
MOTIVATION IS:
MOTIVATION IS NOT:
Establishing a Relationship Based Approach Reinforcement should be a celebration of effort
Ratio of 5 to 1 <ul><li>Strive to achieve a five to one ratio of positive reinforcement for appropriate behavior for each ...
Continuum of School-wide PBS
Are classroom response cost systems contributing to defiance and aggression?   <ul><li>Response to Intervention </li></ul>...
According to Research,  the LEAST EFFECTIVE responses to problem behavior are: <ul><ul><li>Counseling </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Why Then, Do We as Educators Employ These Procedures? <ul><li>When WE experience aversive situations, we select interventi...
What results from these responses? <ul><li>Punishing problem behaviors without a school-wide system of support is associat...
<ul><ul><li>Social skills training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic and curricular restructuring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Preventing Escape Avoidance Behavior <ul><li>May avoid triggering defiance </li></ul>
<ul><li>Provide high rates of opportunities to respond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary individual v. group responding </li></ul...
Maximize Academic Engaged Time <ul><li>Efficient Transitions </li></ul><ul><li>Self-management </li></ul><ul><li>Active Su...
<ul><li>Partner Pair Share </li></ul><ul><li>Hand Gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Class-wide Peer Tutoring </li></ul><ul><li>Ca...
TEACHING LIKE A CHAMPION
What does the research say? <ul><li>The use of  response cards  (i.e., all students simultaneously holding up written resp...
Behavior Mantra : “ It is easier to prevent a behavior from occurring than to deal with it after it has happened.”
PREVENTION
<ul><li>The key to controlling someone else is teaching them how to control you!! </li></ul>
DEFIANCE What it looks like…
Words can hurt!!
How does a student with ODD think?   (Frank et al. ) <ul><li>I am the equal of those in authority- no one has the right to...
STRATEGIES FOR DEFIANCE
<ul><li>An explanation of the diagram can be found on the slides that follow. </li></ul>
Withdrawing from Power Struggles The F.A.S.T. Program
<ul><li>Emotional Objectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Realistic attitudes toward students and student teacher relationships ...
<ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>“They can’t get your goat if they don’t know where it’s tied” </li></ul><ul><li>If you exhi...
<ul><li>How?   </li></ul><ul><li>Self-awareness & Self-talk – REHEARSE   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I am the adult” </li></ul...
Shane Responding to Noncompliance
OPPOSITIONAL  & DEFIANT
Defiance: A form of aggression?? A TRIGGER FOR RESTRAINT
Understanding Aggressive Behaviors <ul><li>Reactive Aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective or expressive aggression </...
PROACTIVE VERSUS REACTIVE
WHAT CAN I DO TO GET THAT KIND OF  REACTION  AGAIN?
Contra-Indicated Behavioral Strategies for the defiant student <ul><li>Ultimatums </li></ul><ul><li>Strict Boundaries: Dra...
Defiant Kids:  How do I deliver a  command without power struggles?   <ul><li>You can increase the odds that a student wil...
Responding to Provocative Behavior
Responding to Provocative Behavior Discrete, Choice, Time, Space
Avoiding Triggers <ul><li>The Cards </li></ul><ul><li>Treating with mutual respect </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding the three “d...
Disrespect
Responding to Disrespect Don’t take it personally!!
Responding to Disrespect
Remember the PURPOSES  of negative consequences <ul><li>Do not expect negative consequences to change behavior patterns.  ...
Remember your goal during the Defiance Stage <ul><li>Diffuse and De-escalate </li></ul><ul><li>Stay calm and Professional ...
THE VERBAL ESCALATION CONTINUUM   <ul><li>Questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Refusal </li></ul><ul><li>Release </li></ul><ul><l...
QUESTIONING <ul><li>ANSWER THE QUESTION </li></ul><ul><li>PLANNED IGNORING </li></ul><ul><li>ADEQUATE RESPONSE TIME </li><...
REFUSAL <ul><li>DON’T ARGUE </li></ul><ul><li>SET LIMITS </li></ul><ul><li>EVALUATE HISTORY </li></ul><ul><li>CONSIDER CAL...
RELEASE OR NAMECALLING <ul><li>REMAIN  CALM AND PROFESSIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>DON’T TAKE COMMENTS PERSONALLY EVEN IF THEY...
THREATENIN G <ul><li>DON’T RUN </li></ul><ul><li>TAKE THREATS SERIOUSLY </li></ul><ul><li>STAY CALM & PROFESSIONAL </li></...
Setting Limits <ul><li>Present the expected behavior and logical consequence  as a decision and place responsibility on th...
How to get someone to leave <ul><li>Consider focus of anger </li></ul><ul><li>Problem or solution </li></ul><ul><li>Rememb...
How to avoid physical contact <ul><li>Remove triggering stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Calmly explain limits </li></ul><ul><li...
PRECIPITATING FACTORS
“ If you know why, you can figure out how….” W. Edward Deming
Setting Events <ul><li>The why…. </li></ul>
What is Social Maladjustment <ul><li>Students who are socially maladjusted (or more precisely Oppositional Defiant or Cond...
Social Maladjustment <ul><li>Their antisocial behavior is most frequently seen as resulting from their tendency to place t...
SCOTT
<ul><li>Maladjusted/Conduct Disorder students: </li></ul><ul><li>perceive themselves as normal </li></ul><ul><li>are capab...
What is Oppositional Defiance Disorder?
Definition of ODD <ul><li>Oppositional Defiant Disorder is the persistent pattern (lasting for at least 6 months) of disob...
Our most challenging children <ul><li>May not respond to traditional consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Will require more supp...
ATTACHMENT DISORDER OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANCE DISORDER CONDUCT DISORDER ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER EMOTIONAL IMP...
 
Why Educate Ourselves About ODD? <ul><li>Because each year we can expect to have at least 1 student with ODD, and several ...
Scott
How do we know if a student cant control his behavior??? <ul><li>???? </li></ul>
The Grocery Store IS THIS CHILD IN CONTROL OF HIS BEHAVIOR??? All behavior meets needs!!!
What Causes Oppositional Defiance Disorder? <ul><li>The cause of Oppositional Defiant Disorder is unknown at  </li></ul><u...
Prognosis: <ul><li>Eighty percent of children with Oppositional Defiance Disorder showed insecure attachment. </li></ul><u...
Characteristics or Symptoms of Attachment Disorder: <ul><li>Superficially charming: uses cuteness to get her or his way. <...
Students with conduct disorder engage in deliberate acts of self-interest to gain attention or to intimidate others.  They...
 
Many Kids Have Low Self Esteem & Negative Self Concepts Due To ?  <ul><li>Rotten childhoods filled with negative experienc...
Reiterated negative  labels & messages : <ul><ul><li>“ You rude little son of a b----.  When I catch you, I’ll…” </li></ul...
The Perceptions That Might Develop From Maltreatment, Neglect, Rejection <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ My parents treated me b...
The Evolution of Adversarial Relationships and Subversion  <ul><li>As aberrant behaviors begin to surface an unhealthy com...
The Reaction Continuum <ul><li>“ My son wouldn’t do that!! </li></ul><ul><li>“ I will punish him.” </li></ul><ul><li>“  Wh...
The Downward Spiral <ul><li>Without evidenced based decision making the school continues to respond in the only way they k...
What Johnny Learns <ul><li>Johnny is becoming increasingly dis-enfranchised with school </li></ul><ul><li>Johnny figures o...
What is the Function or Motivation of Defiant Behavior? <ul><li>Obtain … </li></ul><ul><li>Peer Attention </li></ul><ul><l...
What is the motivation or function of defiance? <ul><li>Most adults say it is “control.” </li></ul><ul><li>But is reality ...
We all like to be in control of our lives. It’s how we meet that need that sets us apart.
What can a Child Control  <ul><li>Items and Things-e.g., Video Games </li></ul><ul><li>Others-peers and adults </li></ul><...
Attention,  Sensory, Escape Avoidance, or Control
Possible Functions of Defiance <ul><li>Escape/Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory-Power Contro...
What is the Function of the Behavior? <ul><li>Obtain … </li></ul><ul><li>Peer Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Attention ...
Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Testable Hypothesis ٭
When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers make multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & write...
Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence Caesar is teased several times about his hair by his  friends before class H...
Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence The football game is coming on in 2 minutes. Your significant other asks you...
Basic Premises of “Best Practice” <ul><li>Behavior is neither “good”or “bad” </li></ul><ul><li>Blaming only distances rela...
What is the Function of the Behavior? <ul><li>Obtain … </li></ul><ul><li>Peer Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Attention ...
All of us share these needs  <ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Escape/Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Tangible </li></ul><ul...
What is the function of Eddie’s behavior? <ul><li>Obtain Adult Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Adult </li></ul><ul><li>A...
What is the function of Eddie’s behavior? <ul><li>Avoid Task or Activity </li></ul>Scott, Liaupin, Nelson (2001) Behavior ...
What is the function of Brendon’s behavior? <ul><li>Obtain Peer Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain Adult Attention </li></...
Function? <ul><li>Avoid Activity </li></ul>
What is the function of Danny’s behavior?
Function? <ul><li>Obtain Item </li></ul>
What is the function of Tracy’s behavior?
TRACY’S MOTIVATION <ul><li>Peer attention </li></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul>
What is the function of Eddie’s behavior? <ul><li>Obtain Peer Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain Adult Attention </li></ul...
What is the function of Eddie’s behavior? <ul><li>Obtain Adult Attention </li></ul>Scott, Liaupin, Nelson (2001) Behavior ...
The Tough Get Tougher <ul><li>“ Getting tough ” with persistently defiant, non-compliant kids is counter productive. </li>...
What ?!   Me  Change?! <ul><li>THEY’RE   </li></ul><ul><li>the problem.   </li></ul><ul><li>(not me) . </li></ul>START HERE
<ul><li>When teachers attempt to overpower a kid who has defeated more powerful adversaries, they fight a losing battle. <...
Reconnaissance 101 <ul><li>Gather information on your adversary. </li></ul><ul><li>Use this information to inform your act...
Setting Event Strategies <ul><li>Building a connection or positive relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Designing the physical s...
Taking Risks BAMBI ACTIVITIES THAT ENCOURAGE RISK TAKING
Less Helpful Strategies: <ul><li>Have an impeding or  negative effect on learning </li></ul><ul><li>Model inappropriate be...
Effective Consequences <ul><li>Decrease the efficiency of the target behavior while maintaining dignity and an atmosphere ...
<ul><li>Bigger, tougher Consequences is  NOT  what we mean by a Correction System </li></ul>
Consequence Concerns <ul><li>Repeated loss of anything tends to establish and discount orientation-I don’t care </li></ul>...
Reinforcement History <ul><li>Has reinforcement been used as a means of acknowledging approximations of desired behavior? ...
The Evolution of Praise versus Correction in the Elementary Years <ul><li>Why praise may be difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Wh...
Problems with Reward Systems <ul><li>“What I giveth I can taketh away.” </li></ul><ul><li>The Marion Story </li></ul><ul><...
Ross Greene’s  Three Basket Method <ul><li>Three goals with this method: </li></ul><ul><li>1. To maintain adults as author...
Three basket method: How it works <ul><li>Behaviors are divided into three baskets. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basket A -are no...
Remember the PURPOSES  of negative consequences <ul><li>Do not expect negative consequences to change behavior patterns.  ...
<ul><li>Bigger, tougher Consequences is  NOT  what we mean by a Correction System </li></ul>
 
<ul><li>REPLACEMENT STRATEGIES </li></ul>
REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR SWEARING ESCAPE TASK  DEMANDS  (WRITING) Function Behavior R
REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR SWEARING ESCAPE TASK  DEMANDS  (WRITING) REQUEST  A BREAK X Behavior Function R
REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR SWEARING ESCAPE TASK  DEMANDS  (SPECIFICALLY WRITING) ESCAPE TASK  DEMANDS  (SPECIFICALLY  WRITING) R...
Replacement Behavior <ul><li>Components:   </li></ul><ul><li>* Identify functionally equivalent replacement  </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>COMPETING </li></ul><ul><li>PATHWAYS </li></ul>
Competing Behavior Model Setting Event Antecedent Desired Behavior Problem Behavior Replacement Behavior Reinforcing Conse...
Desired Alternative Acceptable Alternative Typical Consequence Told “good job” Grades Do work w/o complaints. Ask for brea...
Teaching Students Keep Trying
FOR MORE INFORMATION ON WORKING WITH DEFIANT STUDENTS, WRITE STEVE AT  [email_address] OR GOOGLE  STEVE VITTO @ SLIDESHARE...
GO OUT AND MAKE A DIFFERENCE!! Steve Vitto at Slide Share.com
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Allendale breaking down the walls pbis strategies for defiance

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An overview of evidenced based classroom management component to minimize power struggles and diffuse defiant behavior. In addition specific strategies for diffusion were identified and a comprehensive Cd tool box was provided

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    This book is the most effective practitioner's guide for anyone providing positive behavior supports (PBS) to developmentally disabled individuals(Autism, ADHD, ADD; etc.). It provides current behavior support strategies, interventions, and techniques ! Now you can receive quick solutions and use this guide to enhance your career. Parents may use our guide to learn new behavior support techniques to use with children. Staff at schools, day programs, hospitals, and residential homes use this guide to expand their skill sets in behavioral health ! Even though it is intended for behavior support consultants..it's still recommended to everyone working in the behavior health industry. 'BSC Toolbox' is a major contribution to the field of clinical psychology. This is the first book in history written exclusively for behavior support consulting. In addition, this guide is the most practical, and helpful guide in the field of clinical psychology.
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Allendale breaking down the walls pbis strategies for defiance

  1. 1. BREAKING DOWN THE WALLS Strategies for Defiant Students Presented by: Steven Vitto, M.A., CCII., CTCI., MIBLSI Coach, Behavior Specialist, Muskegon Area ISD
  2. 2. Developing Preventative Classroom Cultures Diffusion and De-escalation CPI/TCI/NAPPI,PEI Presented by: Steven Vitto , M.A., CCII. Behavioral Specialist, M.A.I.S.D. Adjunct Professor, MCC, MSU Certified Self Defense Instructor Miblsi State Trainer CHAMPS PLUS Instructor
  3. 3. What Do You Bring to the Table?
  4. 4. <ul><li>Consider your educational experience as a child. How did teachers/principals manage behavioral errors when you were in school? </li></ul><ul><li>Consider your upbringing. How did your parents deal with inappropriate behavior? </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Best Teacher You Ever Had <ul><li>1 minute to think about their qualities and behaviors they exhibited </li></ul><ul><li>Share </li></ul><ul><li>1 minute summary of traits and behaviors </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Scale of 1-10 </li></ul><ul><li>1 10 </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Through what lens do you see your students, classroom, behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>Is teaching more or less stressful than in the past or than you thought it would be? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you handle frustration? </li></ul><ul><li>How SHOULD students act? </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Escalation Model High Low Calm Peak De-escalation Recovery Acceleration Agitation Trigger (Colvin & Sugai, 1989)
  9. 9. <ul><li>Conflict Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal (55%) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Move </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paraverbals (38%) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tone of Voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cadence </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Developing Preventative Cultures THE VALUE OF TARGET TALK
  11. 11. <ul><li>Leadership team </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior purpose statement </li></ul><ul><li>Set of positive expectations & behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures for teaching SW & classroom-wide expected behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Continuum of procedures for discouraging rule violations </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures for on-going data-based monitoring & evaluation </li></ul>School-wide PBIS/RTI Sugai, Horner
  12. 12. Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ALL SOME FEW
  13. 13. Apply three tiered prevention logic to classroom setting <ul><ul><li>Primary for all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary for some </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary for a few </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Classroom Based Support Planning Process
  15. 16. Evidence Based Classroom Management
  16. 17. Specific feedback is given regarding academic and social performance Staff engages with student professionally and therapeutically Student is actively engaged in the instruction Transitions between instructional and non-instructional activities are efficient and orderly Instruction and materials are matched to student ability (math, reading, language) Problem behavior receives consistent and timely consequence At least 4 positive interactions are provided for every 1 corrective interaction Expected student behaviors and routines are taught directly Expected student behavior and routines in classroom are stated positively and defined clearly Reference to posted classroom rules when student engages in appropriate and inappropriate behavior N/A Not In Place Partial In Place In Place Strategies
  17. 18. Systematic Supervision in the Classroom
  18. 19. <ul><li>Maximize structure in your classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Post, teach, review, monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Actively engage students in observable ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior . </li></ul><ul><li>(Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, & Myers Sugai, in preparation ) </li></ul>
  19. 20. The Potential of a Greeting Allday & Pakurar (2007)
  20. 21. MOTIVATION IS:
  21. 22. MOTIVATION IS NOT:
  22. 23. Establishing a Relationship Based Approach Reinforcement should be a celebration of effort
  23. 24. Ratio of 5 to 1 <ul><li>Strive to achieve a five to one ratio of positive reinforcement for appropriate behavior for each instance of corrective feed back for problem behavior </li></ul><ul><li>The nature of your interactions creates the climate of your classroom </li></ul><ul><li>“They don’t care what you know until they know you care” </li></ul>
  24. 25. Continuum of School-wide PBS
  25. 26. Are classroom response cost systems contributing to defiance and aggression? <ul><li>Response to Intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Are we using evidenced based classroom behavior management systems at the universal level? Are classroom response cost systems evidenced based? Is there a balance, better yet, an overbalance of Positive Incentives and Feedback for Desired Behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>When universal consequences (e.g., Classroom Response Cost System) are not effective, or when they trigger an escalation of behavior, do we differentiate our approach? </li></ul><ul><li>Are we over-relying on classroom response cost systems to manage student behaviors? </li></ul>
  26. 27. According to Research, the LEAST EFFECTIVE responses to problem behavior are: <ul><ul><li>Counseling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment (Gottfredson,1997; Lipsey, 1991; Lipsey & Wilson, 1993; Tolan & Guerra, 1994) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusion is the most common response for conduct-disordered, juvenile delinquent, and behaviorally disordered youth (Lane & Murakami, 1987) but it is largely ineffective. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Why Then, Do We as Educators Employ These Procedures? <ul><li>When WE experience aversive situations, we select interventions that produce immediate (rather than sustained) relief. We tend to focus on our concerns, not the student’s. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove the student. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove ourselves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modify the physical environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign responsibility for change to student and/or others. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. What results from these responses? <ul><li>Punishing problem behaviors without a school-wide system of support is associated with increased: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vandalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>truancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tardiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dropping out (Mayer, 1995; Mayer & Sulzer-Azaroff, 1991) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fosters environments of control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occasions and reinforces antisocial behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifts ownership away from school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakens child-adult relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakens relationship between academic & social behavior programming </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><ul><li>Social skills training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic and curricular restructuring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral interventions (Gottfredson, 1997; Lipsey, 1991, 1992; Lipsey & Wilson, 2003; Tolan & Guerra, 2005) </li></ul></ul>According to Research, the MOST EFFECTIVE responses to problem behavior are:
  30. 31. Preventing Escape Avoidance Behavior <ul><li>May avoid triggering defiance </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Provide high rates of opportunities to respond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary individual v. group responding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase participatory instruction (enthusiasm, laughter) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consider various observable ways to engage students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing on individual white boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choral responding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other: ____________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Link engagement with outcome objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(set goals to increase engagement and assess student change CARs verbal/written) </li></ul></ul>Actively Engage Students in Observable Ways
  32. 33. Maximize Academic Engaged Time <ul><li>Efficient Transitions </li></ul><ul><li>Self-management </li></ul><ul><li>Active Supervision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Partner Pair Share </li></ul><ul><li>Hand Gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Class-wide Peer Tutoring </li></ul><ul><li>Call and Response </li></ul><ul><li>Response Cards </li></ul>Ways to Engage Students
  34. 35. TEACHING LIKE A CHAMPION
  35. 36. What does the research say? <ul><li>The use of response cards (i.e., all students simultaneously holding up written responses) resulted in an increase in student responses, academic achievement, and on-task behavior (Christle & Schuster, 2003; Lambert, Cartledge, Heward, & Lo, 2006). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Response cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choral responding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional hand raising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Godfrey, Grisham-Brown, & Schuster, 2003) </li></ul></ul>Effectiveness
  36. 37. Behavior Mantra : “ It is easier to prevent a behavior from occurring than to deal with it after it has happened.”
  37. 38. PREVENTION
  38. 39. <ul><li>The key to controlling someone else is teaching them how to control you!! </li></ul>
  39. 40. DEFIANCE What it looks like…
  40. 41. Words can hurt!!
  41. 42. How does a student with ODD think? (Frank et al. ) <ul><li>I am the equal of those in authority- no one has the right to tell me what to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, I sometimes do the wrong thing, but it is usually your fault. </li></ul><ul><li>When you punish or reward me, I feel that you are trying to control or manipulate me. </li></ul><ul><li>Because I know how much you want me to change, I will be very stubborn about changing behaviors. In spite of experiencing your intended punishments and/or rewards, if I change, it will be on my time and for me. </li></ul><ul><li>My greatest sense of control comes from how I make others feel. </li></ul>
  42. 43. STRATEGIES FOR DEFIANCE
  43. 44. <ul><li>An explanation of the diagram can be found on the slides that follow. </li></ul>
  44. 45. Withdrawing from Power Struggles The F.A.S.T. Program
  45. 46. <ul><li>Emotional Objectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Realistic attitudes toward students and student teacher relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calm approach toward student behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A nonpersonalized perspective of the behavior of student(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional view of students as young learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not warm and gushy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not distant and aloof </li></ul></ul></ul>Eulogy
  46. 47. <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>“They can’t get your goat if they don’t know where it’s tied” </li></ul><ul><li>If you exhibit an emotional reaction, it is highly likely to be reinforcing to certain students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ESPECIALLY for students who like power and control </li></ul></ul>Emotional Objectivity
  47. 48. <ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><li>Self-awareness & Self-talk – REHEARSE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I am the adult” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I am the professional” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I will stay calm” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ This is a troubled student and I need to help him/her” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Hmm, what is the function of this behavior?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 cleansing breaths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self time-out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I don’t really like what this kid is doing, but it’s my job to help him be successful” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What a challenge. I love challenges” </li></ul></ul>Emotional Objectivity
  48. 49. Shane Responding to Noncompliance
  49. 50. OPPOSITIONAL & DEFIANT
  50. 51. Defiance: A form of aggression?? A TRIGGER FOR RESTRAINT
  51. 52. Understanding Aggressive Behaviors <ul><li>Reactive Aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective or expressive aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of control and emotional flooding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions are dominant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proactive Aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumental or operant aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitions are dominant </li></ul></ul>TCI TRAINING [11]
  52. 53. PROACTIVE VERSUS REACTIVE
  53. 54. WHAT CAN I DO TO GET THAT KIND OF REACTION AGAIN?
  54. 55. Contra-Indicated Behavioral Strategies for the defiant student <ul><li>Ultimatums </li></ul><ul><li>Strict Boundaries: Drawing the Line in the Sand </li></ul><ul><li>Counts, Warnings, Threats </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged Eye-Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Infringing on Personal Space </li></ul><ul><li>Social Disapproval </li></ul><ul><li>Judgmental Responses </li></ul><ul><li>Response Cost and Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Strict Boundaries or Contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Suspension and Detention, Progressive Discipline </li></ul>Marion
  55. 56. Defiant Kids: How do I deliver a command without power struggles? <ul><li>You can increase the odds that a student will follow a teacher command by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approaching the student privately, using a quiet voice. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establishing eye contact and calling the student by name before giving the command . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stating the command as a positive ( do ) statement, rather than a negative ( don’t ) statement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>phrasing the command clearly and simply so the student knows exactly what he/she is expected to do. </li></ul></ul>
  56. 57. Responding to Provocative Behavior
  57. 58. Responding to Provocative Behavior Discrete, Choice, Time, Space
  58. 59. Avoiding Triggers <ul><li>The Cards </li></ul><ul><li>Treating with mutual respect </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding the three “don’ts” </li></ul>
  59. 60. Disrespect
  60. 61. Responding to Disrespect Don’t take it personally!!
  61. 62. Responding to Disrespect
  62. 63. Remember the PURPOSES of negative consequences <ul><li>Do not expect negative consequences to change behavior patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative consequences are a way to “keep the lid on” </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching changes behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent escalation of problem behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent/minimize reward for problem behaviors </li></ul>
  63. 64. Remember your goal during the Defiance Stage <ul><li>Diffuse and De-escalate </li></ul><ul><li>Stay calm and Professional </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid emotional and judgmental response </li></ul><ul><li>Remember your triggers </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate when ever possible </li></ul><ul><li>Provide choices when ever possible </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t take things personally </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with behaviors privately </li></ul>
  64. 65. THE VERBAL ESCALATION CONTINUUM <ul><li>Questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Refusal </li></ul><ul><li>Release </li></ul><ul><li>Intimidation </li></ul><ul><li>Tension Reduction </li></ul>
  65. 66. QUESTIONING <ul><li>ANSWER THE QUESTION </li></ul><ul><li>PLANNED IGNORING </li></ul><ul><li>ADEQUATE RESPONSE TIME </li></ul><ul><li>ALLOW SPACE AND TIME </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT ARGUE </li></ul><ul><li>RESTATE THE LIMIT </li></ul>
  66. 67. REFUSAL <ul><li>DON’T ARGUE </li></ul><ul><li>SET LIMITS </li></ul><ul><li>EVALUATE HISTORY </li></ul><ul><li>CONSIDER CALLING FOR HELP </li></ul><ul><li>RESPONSE TIME </li></ul><ul><li>ENFORCE LIMITS </li></ul>
  67. 68. RELEASE OR NAMECALLING <ul><li>REMAIN CALM AND PROFESSIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>DON’T TAKE COMMENTS PERSONALLY EVEN IF THEY HURT </li></ul><ul><li>ALLOW VENTING </li></ul><ul><li>ISOLATE IF POSSIBLE </li></ul><ul><li>SET LIMITS </li></ul><ul><li>CONSIDER CALLING FOR ASSISTANCE </li></ul>
  68. 69. THREATENIN G <ul><li>DON’T RUN </li></ul><ul><li>TAKE THREATS SERIOUSLY </li></ul><ul><li>STAY CALM & PROFESSIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT RESOND TO THREATS </li></ul><ul><li>STATE LIMITS </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT TEAM </li></ul><ul><li>ASSESS ENVIRONMENT </li></ul>
  69. 70. Setting Limits <ul><li>Present the expected behavior and logical consequence as a decision and place responsibility on the student. </li></ul><ul><li>Always lead with the positive outcome that will occur if the student make the choice to calm down or follow directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow a few seconds for the student to decide. </li></ul><ul><li>Withdraw from the student and attend to other students. Limit direct eye-contact. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow though with limits established. </li></ul>
  70. 71. How to get someone to leave <ul><li>Consider focus of anger </li></ul><ul><li>Problem or solution </li></ul><ul><li>Remember your goal </li></ul>
  71. 72. How to avoid physical contact <ul><li>Remove triggering stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Calmly explain limits </li></ul><ul><li>Select a staff (or peer) who has a calming influence </li></ul><ul><li>Select a novel or neutral party </li></ul><ul><li>Bait to open area </li></ul><ul><li>Remove other students </li></ul><ul><li>Call home or police </li></ul>
  72. 73. PRECIPITATING FACTORS
  73. 74. “ If you know why, you can figure out how….” W. Edward Deming
  74. 75. Setting Events <ul><li>The why…. </li></ul>
  75. 76. What is Social Maladjustment <ul><li>Students who are socially maladjusted (or more precisely Oppositional Defiant or Conduct Disordered) typically display a persistent pattern of willful refusal to meet even minimum standards of conduct. Their behavior and values are often in conflict with society’s standards. They exhibit a consistent pattern of antisocial behavior without genuine signs of guilt, remorse, or concern for the feelings of others. These students often engage in simulations of these behaviors but typically display them only when there is an immediate consequence for the absence of such displays. </li></ul>
  76. 77. Social Maladjustment <ul><li>Their antisocial behavior is most frequently seen as resulting from their tendency to place their own needs above those of all other people and the immediate gratification that such behavior brings them. </li></ul><ul><li>These students are not in chronic distress (one of the criteria for emotional disturbance under the law) although they can exhibit situational anxiety, depression, or distress in response to certain isolated events - particularly facing the consequences of their own actions. </li></ul><ul><li>These students do not typically respond to the same treatment interventions that benefit emotionally disordered students. </li></ul>
  77. 78. SCOTT
  78. 79. <ul><li>Maladjusted/Conduct Disorder students: </li></ul><ul><li>perceive themselves as normal </li></ul><ul><li>are capable of behaving appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>choose to break rules and violate norms. </li></ul><ul><li>view rule breaking as normal and acceptable. </li></ul><ul><li>are motivated by self-gain and strong survival skills </li></ul><ul><li>lack age appropriate concern for their behavior </li></ul><ul><li>displayed behavior which may be highly valued in a small subgroup </li></ul><ul><li>display socialized or unsocialized forms of aggression </li></ul><ul><li>due not display anxiety unless they fear being caught </li></ul><ul><li>intensity and duration of behavior differs markedly </li></ul><ul><li>from peer group </li></ul>
  79. 80. What is Oppositional Defiance Disorder?
  80. 81. Definition of ODD <ul><li>Oppositional Defiant Disorder is the persistent pattern (lasting for at least 6 months) of disobedient, hostile, negativistic, and defiant behavior in a child or teen without serious violation of the basic rights of others (mentalhealth.com). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a student displays the same kinds of behavior that DOES violate the basic rights of others it is often labeled conduct disorder. Children with ODD often become adults with conduct disorder if the right steps aren’t taken to control the behavior. (Bailey and Northey and Silverman and Wells 2003) </li></ul></ul>
  81. 82. Our most challenging children <ul><li>May not respond to traditional consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Will require more support and change on our part </li></ul><ul><li>Will need a significant positive relationship at school </li></ul><ul><li>Will need another way to find acceptance in the school environment </li></ul><ul><li>May be resistant to strategies to develop self control </li></ul>
  82. 83. ATTACHMENT DISORDER OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANCE DISORDER CONDUCT DISORDER ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER EMOTIONAL IMPAIRMENT ASPERGERS SYNDROME DOWN SYNDROME Conditions Manifesting in Defaince
  83. 85. Why Educate Ourselves About ODD? <ul><li>Because each year we can expect to have at least 1 student with ODD, and several more that exhibit oppositional behavior at some time. </li></ul><ul><li>Because our lives will be a lot easier, and our classes will be more productive, if we know how to deal with oppositional behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Because all students have the right to learn in our classes, even those with ODD. </li></ul><ul><li>Because good teachers know that there are no bad students, just bad behaviors. When we appropriately deal with the bad behaviors we get to see how awesome the student can truly be. </li></ul>
  84. 86. Scott
  85. 87. How do we know if a student cant control his behavior??? <ul><li>???? </li></ul>
  86. 88. The Grocery Store IS THIS CHILD IN CONTROL OF HIS BEHAVIOR??? All behavior meets needs!!!
  87. 89. What Causes Oppositional Defiance Disorder? <ul><li>The cause of Oppositional Defiant Disorder is unknown at </li></ul><ul><li>this time. The following are some of the theories being </li></ul><ul><li>investigated: </li></ul><ul><li>It may be related to the child's temperament and the family's response to that temperament. </li></ul><ul><li>A predisposition to ODD is inherited in some families. </li></ul><ul><li>There may be problems in the brain that cause ODD. </li></ul><ul><li>It may be caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Children with ODD have often experienced a break in </li></ul><ul><li>attachment or bonding during the first 2 years of life </li></ul>
  88. 90. Prognosis: <ul><li>Eighty percent of children with Oppositional Defiance Disorder showed insecure attachment. </li></ul><ul><li>Insecurely attached children often grow up to become insecurely attached parents, and the cycle continues </li></ul>
  89. 91. Characteristics or Symptoms of Attachment Disorder: <ul><li>Superficially charming: uses cuteness to get her or his way. </li></ul><ul><li>Cruel to animals or people. </li></ul><ul><li>Fascinated by fire/death/blood/gore. </li></ul><ul><li>Severe need for control over adults even over minute situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulative-plays adults against each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in making eye-contact. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of affection on parental terms yet overly affectionate to strangers. </li></ul><ul><li>Bossy. </li></ul><ul><li>Shows no remorse---seems to have no conscience. </li></ul><ul><li>Lies and steals. </li></ul><ul><li>Low impulse control. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of cause/effect thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Destructiveness to self, others and material things. </li></ul>
  90. 92. Students with conduct disorder engage in deliberate acts of self-interest to gain attention or to intimidate others. They experience no distress or self-devaluation or internalized distress.
  91. 94. Many Kids Have Low Self Esteem & Negative Self Concepts Due To ? <ul><li>Rotten childhoods filled with negative experiences. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abuse, neglect, and/or consistent messages of rejection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inconsistently due to multiple care-takers using very different practices, and/or giving very different messages . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inconsistent caretaking from primary adults who are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>alcoholic/substance addicted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mentally ill (unmanaged) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>manic-depressive (unmanaged) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>negatively oriented authoritarian personalities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>incompetent due to lack of childrearing knowledge . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  92. 95. Reiterated negative labels & messages : <ul><ul><li>“ You rude little son of a b----. When I catch you, I’ll…” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ You little criminal. You’re going to end up dead or in jail someday.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Man, you’re strange.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Why don’t you use your head once in a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>while? Stupid.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What’s wrong with you, anyway? Get outta my face before I…” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ You little loser. Why can’t you be like Fran?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ You evil little beast ! I’ll beat the devil out of you ! ” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Client to psychologist friend of mine when the parent was asked what he does when his 10 year old son acts up: </li></ul><ul><li> “ I tell him he’s an a- -h-le.” </li></ul>
  93. 96. The Perceptions That Might Develop From Maltreatment, Neglect, Rejection <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ My parents treated me badly.” (Fact) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“ I can’t count on my parents to care for </li></ul><ul><li>me or treat me well.” (Fact) </li></ul><ul><li> “ I was treated badly because I am a bad person. Because I’m ‘BAD’, no one could ever like me, care for me, or treat me well . ” ( Distorted belief) </li></ul><ul><li>“ You say that you want to help me, but I know adults… When I show you why I’m not likeable, you’ll quickly reject and hurt me like my parents (and past teachers ) . </li></ul><ul><li> ( Identity and reaction pattern become further ingrained~) </li></ul><ul><li>You say you’re different… While I hope that is true, </li></ul><ul><li> you’ll have to PROVE IT! ” </li></ul><ul><li> ( over & over again as I seek reassurance that you really are different) . </li></ul>
  94. 97. The Evolution of Adversarial Relationships and Subversion <ul><li>As aberrant behaviors begin to surface an unhealthy communication paradigm emerges </li></ul><ul><li>A phone call home, a detention slip, a suspension </li></ul><ul><li>THE STAGE IS SET </li></ul>
  95. 98. The Reaction Continuum <ul><li>“ My son wouldn’t do that!! </li></ul><ul><li>“ I will punish him.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ What do you expect me to do?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ You guys are always kicking him out!! </li></ul><ul><li>At this point a shift begins and the parent and school are at risk for developing an adversarial relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>THE FIRST SIGNS </li></ul><ul><li>“ He says other kids were doing the same </li></ul><ul><li>thing and nothing happened to them” </li></ul>
  96. 99. The Downward Spiral <ul><li>Without evidenced based decision making the school continues to respond in the only way they know how-punishment and exclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Without proper supports, the parent becomes trapped in a dilemma. Do I blame myself, my child, or the school? </li></ul><ul><li>And a day comes when the parent begins to blame the school, and the real damage begins… </li></ul>
  97. 100. What Johnny Learns <ul><li>Johnny is becoming increasingly dis-enfranchised with school </li></ul><ul><li>Johnny figures out that he if he tells his parents he was picked on, singled out, overly or repeatedly punished, then his parents will begin to focus on the school rather than his behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>It becomes increasing probable for Johnny to misrepresent the school. He escapes punishment and takes the focus off of him. </li></ul><ul><li>By blaming the school, the parents avoid blame, and are relieved of the feeling of helplessness, </li></ul><ul><li>The end result: a parent who rescues, defends, accuses </li></ul><ul><li>a child who has a escape card-any time he wants to use it. </li></ul>
  98. 101. What is the Function or Motivation of Defiant Behavior? <ul><li>Obtain … </li></ul><ul><li>Peer Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Items/Activities (tangible) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory (seeking) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid… </li></ul><ul><li>Peer(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Adult </li></ul><ul><li>Task or Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory (defensive) </li></ul>
  99. 102. What is the motivation or function of defiance? <ul><li>Most adults say it is “control.” </li></ul><ul><li>But is reality is avoidance of being controlled by others? </li></ul><ul><li>In many instances the defiant student is resisting the control of the adult, not trying to make the adult do something they don’t want to do. </li></ul><ul><li>In many instances the defiant student is resisting the agenda of the adult or authority figure </li></ul>
  100. 103. We all like to be in control of our lives. It’s how we meet that need that sets us apart.
  101. 104. What can a Child Control <ul><li>Items and Things-e.g., Video Games </li></ul><ul><li>Others-peers and adults </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing to follow adult expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing to participate or engage </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance and Hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Eating and toileting </li></ul>What can we control???
  102. 105. Attention, Sensory, Escape Avoidance, or Control
  103. 106. Possible Functions of Defiance <ul><li>Escape/Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory-Power Control </li></ul>
  104. 107. What is the Function of the Behavior? <ul><li>Obtain … </li></ul><ul><li>Peer Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Items/Activities (tangible) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory (seeking) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid… </li></ul><ul><li>Peer(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Adult </li></ul><ul><li>Task or Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory (defensive) </li></ul>
  105. 108. Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Testable Hypothesis ٭
  106. 109. When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers make multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful. Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence Misses 12:30 medication Teachers make multiple task demands Sequoia makes negative self- statements & writes profane language Teacher sends Sequoia to office for being disrespectful What function? Avoid difficult tasks
  107. 110. Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence Caesar is teased several times about his hair by his friends before class His teacher stares at his hair in class Caesar asks his teacher what she’s staring at His teacher sends him to in-school detention Caesar has dyed his hair three colors & is teased several times by his friends before class. When he enters the class, his teacher stares at his hair. Caesar immediately says “what are you staring at?” His teacher immediately sends him to in-school detention. What function? Escape adult & peer attention
  108. 111. Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence The football game is coming on in 2 minutes. Your significant other asks you to wash the dishes. You happily oblige. After one minute, you have broken two glasses and one dish. Your significant other pushes you out of the way and says, “ Just let me do them.” You sigh and go watch the game . You know if you pretend you can’t do something she will do it for you The football game is coming on and your spouse asks you to wash dishes You break two dishes and a glass Your spouse takes over and washes the dishes herself What function? Avoid activity
  109. 112. Basic Premises of “Best Practice” <ul><li>Behavior is neither “good”or “bad” </li></ul><ul><li>Blaming only distances relationships that should be collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Assessment should have a basis of trust and support </li></ul><ul><li>Egos and defensiveness can skew accurate assessment </li></ul><ul><li>It can be difficult to perform a functional assessment of a behavior occurring in your own classroom or educational environment </li></ul>
  110. 113. What is the Function of the Behavior? <ul><li>Obtain … </li></ul><ul><li>Peer Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Items/Activities (tangible) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory (seeking) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid… </li></ul><ul><li>Peer(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Adult </li></ul><ul><li>Task or Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory (defensive) </li></ul>MOTIVATION ON SWIS ODR
  111. 114. All of us share these needs <ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Escape/Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Tangible </li></ul><ul><li>Power & Control </li></ul><ul><li>Anger/Frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory </li></ul>
  112. 115. What is the function of Eddie’s behavior? <ul><li>Obtain Adult Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Adult </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Task or Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Know </li></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul>Scott, Liaupin, Nelson (2001) Behavior Intervention Planning. Sopris West
  113. 116. What is the function of Eddie’s behavior? <ul><li>Avoid Task or Activity </li></ul>Scott, Liaupin, Nelson (2001) Behavior Intervention Planning. Sopris West
  114. 117. What is the function of Brendon’s behavior? <ul><li>Obtain Peer Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain Adult Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Task or Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Know </li></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul>Scott, Liaupin, Nelson (2001) Behavior Intervention Planning. Sopris West
  115. 118. Function? <ul><li>Avoid Activity </li></ul>
  116. 119. What is the function of Danny’s behavior?
  117. 120. Function? <ul><li>Obtain Item </li></ul>
  118. 121. What is the function of Tracy’s behavior?
  119. 122. TRACY’S MOTIVATION <ul><li>Peer attention </li></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul>
  120. 123. What is the function of Eddie’s behavior? <ul><li>Obtain Peer Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain Adult Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Task or Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Know </li></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul>Scott, Liaupin, Nelson (2001) Behavior Intervention Planning. Sopris West
  121. 124. What is the function of Eddie’s behavior? <ul><li>Obtain Adult Attention </li></ul>Scott, Liaupin, Nelson (2001) Behavior Intervention Planning. Sopris West
  122. 125. The Tough Get Tougher <ul><li>“ Getting tough ” with persistently defiant, non-compliant kids is counter productive. </li></ul><ul><li>These youngsters don’t succumb to coercion. </li></ul><ul><li>Rather, they are incited by it. </li></ul><ul><li>If our penalties are harsh and repeatedly applied, we might possibly be able to subdue the rebellion and create a non-motivated, withdrawn kid </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled, knowledgeable and caring teachers do what we’re paid to do : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In order to promote positive behavior change and motivation, “ tough ” teachers must change their ways. While those ways work with 95% of the kids, it’s the 95% who don’t need to be treated in that manner in order to get them to behave. Their ways don’t work at all with the “difficult” 5%. In fact, their coercive interventions make things worse. However, it’s hard to convince negative teachers of the faults of their ways. They commonly respond with: </li></ul>
  123. 126. What ?! Me Change?! <ul><li>THEY’RE </li></ul><ul><li>the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>(not me) . </li></ul>START HERE
  124. 127. <ul><li>When teachers attempt to overpower a kid who has defeated more powerful adversaries, they fight a losing battle. </li></ul><ul><li>These teachers create the very conflict about which they complain . </li></ul>
  125. 128. Reconnaissance 101 <ul><li>Gather information on your adversary. </li></ul><ul><li>Use this information to inform your actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Sun Tzu: ( The art of war ). The greatest victory is to win without ever having battled . </li></ul><ul><li>Tom McIntyre: The sweetest victory is one in which both sides are winners . </li></ul>
  126. 129. Setting Event Strategies <ul><li>Building a connection or positive relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Designing the physical space </li></ul><ul><li>Established a predictable agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Established classroom expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful Incentive Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity for choices </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing a positive home school partnership </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-arranged consequences </li></ul>
  127. 130. Taking Risks BAMBI ACTIVITIES THAT ENCOURAGE RISK TAKING
  128. 131. Less Helpful Strategies: <ul><li>Have an impeding or negative effect on learning </li></ul><ul><li>Model inappropriate behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to make the brain shift to a survival or threatened mode not conducive to learning </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to bring out judgment and anger from staff </li></ul><ul><li>Meet the needs of the care provider not the child </li></ul><ul><li>The consequence has no relationship to the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Are consistently applied </li></ul><ul><li>Are almost always quicker to apply </li></ul><ul><li>Often lead to resentment, defiance, or violence and consequently result in the need for more intrusive measures by staff </li></ul><ul><li>Meet the staff’s needs, not the child’s </li></ul>
  129. 132. Effective Consequences <ul><li>Decrease the efficiency of the target behavior while maintaining dignity and an atmosphere of caring </li></ul><ul><li>Never degrade or humiliate </li></ul><ul><li>Logically relate to the target behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Do not cause more of a problem than the problem they are addressing </li></ul><ul><li>Establish conditions for learning alternative skills </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease the frequency, duration, and/or intensity of the target behavior </li></ul>
  130. 133. <ul><li>Bigger, tougher Consequences is NOT what we mean by a Correction System </li></ul>
  131. 134. Consequence Concerns <ul><li>Repeated loss of anything tends to establish and discount orientation-I don’t care </li></ul><ul><li>The child may start to believe that they can’t be successful and acclimate to a life In the office </li></ul><ul><li>These kids tend to move us to an ultimate consequence philosophy- we tend to up the severity of punishment thinking that a more sever consequence will do the trick </li></ul><ul><li>Defiant behavior may have stronger issues of escape as the student gets behind </li></ul><ul><li>If the child doesn't want to do something or engage, punishing usually makes things worse </li></ul><ul><li>If we have to call the principal all the time the child gradually becomes desensitized to administration and authority </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated exclusion tends to foster a difficult or adversarial relationship with families </li></ul><ul><li>If the behavior is chronic there is a likelihood that something about the consequence may be reinforcing </li></ul>
  132. 135. Reinforcement History <ul><li>Has reinforcement been used as a means of acknowledging approximations of desired behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>Has reinforcement been used as a means of control, leading to resentment, and loss of motivation? </li></ul>
  133. 136. The Evolution of Praise versus Correction in the Elementary Years <ul><li>Why praise may be difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Why praise backfires with ODD </li></ul><ul><li>Why positive need to be quick and brief </li></ul><ul><li>Why response cost is a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Why reinforcement is discounted </li></ul><ul><li>Create a 5:1 ratio of positives to negatives </li></ul>
  134. 137. Problems with Reward Systems <ul><li>“What I giveth I can taketh away.” </li></ul><ul><li>The Marion Story </li></ul><ul><li>May not be reinforcing to that child </li></ul><ul><li>May have been used to control bad behavior rather than celebrate good behavior </li></ul>
  135. 138. Ross Greene’s Three Basket Method <ul><li>Three goals with this method: </li></ul><ul><li>1. To maintain adults as authority figures. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Teach skills of flexibility and frustration </li></ul><ul><li>tolerance. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Awareness of the child’s limitations. </li></ul>
  136. 139. Three basket method: How it works <ul><li>Behaviors are divided into three baskets. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basket A -are non-negotiable behaviors- usually fall into the safety and rights of others category. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These behaviors are those that are important enough to endure a “meltdown” over. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Child must be capable of successfully exhibiting this behavior on a fairly consistent basis. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basket B - These behaviors are important but can be worked on over time. They are not behaviors worth inducing a “meltdown” over. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basket C - These behaviors are those that could be ignored without any significant repercussions. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  137. 140. Remember the PURPOSES of negative consequences <ul><li>Do not expect negative consequences to change behavior patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative consequences are a way to “keep the lid on” </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching changes behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent escalation of problem behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent/minimize reward for problem behaviors </li></ul>
  138. 141. <ul><li>Bigger, tougher Consequences is NOT what we mean by a Correction System </li></ul>
  139. 143. <ul><li>REPLACEMENT STRATEGIES </li></ul>
  140. 144. REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR SWEARING ESCAPE TASK DEMANDS (WRITING) Function Behavior R
  141. 145. REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR SWEARING ESCAPE TASK DEMANDS (WRITING) REQUEST A BREAK X Behavior Function R
  142. 146. REPLACEMENT BEHAVIOR SWEARING ESCAPE TASK DEMANDS (SPECIFICALLY WRITING) ESCAPE TASK DEMANDS (SPECIFICALLY WRITING) REQUEST A BREAK SWEARING !?!? X X EXTINCTION 1 2 R R R R
  143. 147. Replacement Behavior <ul><li>Components: </li></ul><ul><li>* Identify functionally equivalent replacement </li></ul><ul><li>behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>* Replacement Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>(teaching and maintaining) </li></ul><ul><li>Consider… </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the replacement behavior effective and efficient for the student to use? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Response Effort : how difficult is it for the person to perform the behavior? (physically and/or cognitively) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  144. 148. <ul><li>COMPETING </li></ul><ul><li>PATHWAYS </li></ul>
  145. 149. Competing Behavior Model Setting Event Antecedent Desired Behavior Problem Behavior Replacement Behavior Reinforcing Consequence Reinforcing Consequence Academic engagement Respect and Instructional Control Will compromise and let staff know appropriately Will respond to a coded system Will meet weekly with the teacher and process progress Defiant and disrespectful of staff Bullying others on the playground Adversarial home school partnership History of trauma and neglect Oppositional Temperament Staff demands, limits or boundaries Staff correction, social disapproval, response cost loss of privileges Staff become emotional and upset Avoids teacher demands and consequences Sent home or to the office Parent complains to principal and yells at teacher Leadership and responsibility Input into Plan Self management and reward
  146. 150. Desired Alternative Acceptable Alternative Typical Consequence Told “good job” Grades Do work w/o complaints. Ask for break, ask for help. The Competing Pathways chart for our friend Eddie Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Extended structured activity (math) Do a difficult task Threatens, Uses profanity Remove from class. Function Avoid task
  147. 151. Teaching Students Keep Trying
  148. 152. FOR MORE INFORMATION ON WORKING WITH DEFIANT STUDENTS, WRITE STEVE AT [email_address] OR GOOGLE STEVE VITTO @ SLIDESHARE.COM OR VISIT THE MAISD WEBSITE
  149. 153. GO OUT AND MAKE A DIFFERENCE!! Steve Vitto at Slide Share.com

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