Open. Connect. Communicate.
Connecting the next 5 billion?
Sameer Verma, Ph.D.
Caribbean ITS Conference 2009
Associate Professor Montego Bay, Jamaica
Information Systems Department Online at http://slideshare.net/sverma
San Francisco State University
San Francisco, CA 94132 USA Creative commons license
a usually brief intensive educational program for a relatively small
group of people that focuses especially on techniques and skills in
a particular field
Drivers of Change
● Better chips
● Moore’s Law: Performance doubles every 18 to 24
months, with size and cost remaining at a constant
● 1971: Intel C4004 2300 transistors
● 2009: Intel 8core Xeon (NehalemEX) – 2.3 billion
Sources: http://www.cpuworld.com/CPUs/4004/IntelC4004.html and
Drivers of Change
● Bigger pipes
● Metcalfe’s Law: Usefulness of a network increases
with the square of the number of users connected
to the network
– 1969 – 4 nodes (October 1969)
– 2009 – 625,226,456 nodes (Jan 2009)
Value within a network
Community X Community Y
(32) = 9 connections
2 nodes C to C
C E C to D
(22) = 4 connections
C to E
A to A
D to C
A to B
D to D
B to A D D to E
B to B
3 nodes E to C
E to D
E to E
Note: Each community has some potential value, that may or may not be completely realized
Value of a combined network – community Z
(52) = 25 connections D
A to A B to A C to A D to A E to A
A to B B to B C to B D to B E to B
A to C B to C C to C D to C E to C
A to D B to D C to D D to D E to D
A to E B to E C to E D to E E to E
Where's the cheese?
● (2+3) nodes leads to (2+3)2 connections
● 5 nodes lead to 25 connections
● We already had 4 in community X and 9 in
● In the new community Z, we have an extra of 12
● This is where the cheese is at, so to speak.
● Drivers of change
● Metcalfe's law
● Moore's law
Pushing the supply side
A common question:
“Do they have a business model?”
hint: the www did not have a business model
Leveraging the network
For value to flow across the network,
interoperability is key
The network must be open and unencumbered
hint: look up net neutrality
STANDARD FOR THE FORMAT OF ARPA
INTERNET TEXT MESSAGES
August 13, 1982
Until then? Sneakernet!
● Offline Internet
● Not so far fetched. Akamai and Internet Archive do
something similar, with mirroring
● Running the mirroring cycle
– A few hours, or a few weeks?
● See projects:
So, until then...
We set up local networks, and run them as self
Imagine that. Internet in a box!
Once we have such networks, we can do
interesting things with it...
every computer doubles up as a