Almost decupled since 2000, going towards 100% coverage in the future. However, still a long way to go for some countries; example Sierra Leone and university students paying for someone to open them an email account, because they are not capable of doing so themselves.- With the huge acceptance of social media at the moment, Facebook having 600 mil users and so on; the leap from social media to virtual education is not big.- Kids nowadays grow up online. My younger brother started being online on communities at the same age as I was when I first tried a computer, and as my dad started reading books, and as my grandpa was out herding the cows. And these kids are the next generation's decision makers.
The weak economic climate in some parts of Europe and in the US will push the development of e-learning since it’s cost efficient.The economic situation in china is stronger, but improvements of productivity will be important in China as well because of the increased number of students. The resources needed (Teachers, facilities etc) cannot increase with the same speed.
Environmental* The environment is not a huge issue for virtual worlds, it's rather an incentive that helps boost the usage, but there are still some factors to consider. For example, one google search requires the same energy as heating a kettle of water, and there is a limit for the fossil fuel. However, in the future, there will be more environmental friendly energy so this won't be a problem.
Governmental censorship and supervision is a huge issue in many countries. Local regulations must be taken into consideration when launching e-learning tools in China etc.Politics can also push e-learning by investing in infra structure. The Swedish government for example have subsidized high-speed internet infrastructure etc. The graph to the right show som rough numbers of investments in R&D funded by governments (Not only IT-related, but still relevant). It shows that political factors from this point of view are more important in Europe, since the funding to a larger extent is allocated by the goverment (In contrast to the US. where it’s funded by private actors). The investments in Europe is also growing a lot.
he technology part can be divided into two areas; software and hardware.* Currently, the software is built on several separate platforms, which can slow down the development. Perhaps in the future there will be a universal solution? Also, nowadays the software isn't entirely usefriendly. I mean, Robin, you've seen us struggling with getting "in world", muting our microphones, cross-dressing. The pieces don't fall in place as easily as it could, as easily as for example using an iPhone for the first time.*When it comes to the hardware, there was another struggle. My small notebook didn't really experience love at first sight when meeting Second Life. It's been laggy and consuming a lot of memory, even though Second Life doesn't have that great graphics.Furthermore, there just isn't good enough internet bandwidth everywhere. Going back to the Sierra Leone example, I could barely Skype home, even though I used the fastest mobile internet, and was in the capitol. I had to do it between midnight and nine in the morning, before other people started using internet. And this is not only a Africa-unique experience - we are spoiled with great bandwidht here in Scandinavia - we have to understand that this is not the case everywhere. However, we believe that in the future there will be 4G to a greater extent. If provided with economical incentives, of course.
Open source higher # of individuals that try to develop something. Together they will be stronger!Networks save time, money and provide additional resources (coding language and other skills)Trust and fairness are mandatory, and when “available” this will lead to better outcomes (Chan & Mauborgne 1997, draw analogy)
As you can see from the network illustration, we have taken the examples of developer’s open and closed source projects and how it influences the finding and forming of networks.STEEP Forces influence developersGovernments, Companies and Eis are tied to the developers, they themselves also influence each other
We have taken Birkinshaw’s checklist as to identify the barriers to new network formation. The first 3 checkpoints are for identifying prospective partners. Geo: no issues, internetTechnology: “language” barriers in terms of coding languagesInstitutional: Open source vs. for-profit programmingThe following three points indicate how to actually form the relationships with prospective partners. Ideology: political aspects, moral, valuesDemography: globalization, target groupsEthnic: learning tools and strategies (Sweden vs. China)
Here is an example of four generic approaches to network building mapping out level of difficulty finding potential partners vs. the level of reluctance in the partnership. If one has had a difficult time finding potential partners, and they are still reluctant to engage in your project it could still be a successful partnership allowing for innovative projects in uncharted territory, which is what Tempus, and the BBC has done.This just goes to show the importance of network building and that one can have fruitful or lucrative partnerships in a multitude of different partnership scenarios.
So when it comes to VW’s in the next three years we can see that even though universities are exploring this and may have promising results – it’s not an accepted on a grand scale and there is a lot of skepticism involved.However there will be growth and this is because networks are so powerful. The level of external innovation is important in today’s society. There is a wave of homeschooling trends sweeping across the US and VW would enable homeschooled kids a virtual class room with classmates as a bonus. The level of entrepreneurship is just blossoming with charities, and serious games, and higher education and there are there will only be more resources. Technological aspects such as platform independency are coming now so it’s a promising outlook for VWs in the next couple of years.
Compare the world regions with their major +/- forcesConclusion: we don’t really know where the journey goes, everything is so fragmented, Asia as the most probable market, EUR/US need change of mindset
SSE Higher Education STEEP and Network Analysis Group 1b
06.02.11<br />Stockholm School of Economics - Media Management 2011<br />1<br />Higher Education<br />in Virtual Worlds<br />STEEP and Network Analysis<br />Group 1b<br />Nadine Nordland, Sven Ahrens,<br />Anton Israelsson, Fredrik Kihlberg<br />
2-in-1: Agenda and executive summary<br />06.02.11<br />Stockholm School of Economics - Media Management 2011<br />2<br />0<br />STEEP analysis<br />Network analysis<br />Outlook: 2014<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />S<br />E<br />?<br />T<br />E<br />P<br /><ul><li>Technological factors as main bottleneck
Asia with huge uncertainty</li></li></ul><li>STEEP – People get used to electronic media<br />06.02.11<br />Stockholm School of Economics - Media Management 2011<br />3<br />1<br />Now<br />Future<br /><ul><li>250m 2bn users
Next generation’s decision makers</li></ul>Sources: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa4041/is_200907/ai_n32128814/pg_7/?tag=content;col1<br /> http://www.etableringutomlands.se/Bazment/3886.aspx <br />
STEEP – Huge discrepancies throughout the world<br />06.02.11<br />Stockholm School of Economics - Media Management 2011<br />4<br />1<br />GDP growth per capita<br />Enrollment in higher education<br /><ul><li>Weak economic climate in Europe and the USA pushes cost-efficient solutions
Increased number of Chinese students calls for improvements in productivity</li></ul>Sources: Unesco Institute of Statistics 2010, United Nations Statistics Division 2010<br />
STEEP – Environmental concerns of secondary nature<br />06.02.11<br />Stockholm School of Economics - Media Management 2011<br />5<br />1<br />Now<br />Future<br /><ul><li>1 Google search = 1 kettle of water
Trust and fairness result in better outcomes</li></ul>Sources: Cova & Cova 2002, Chan & Mauborgne 1997<br />
Today: Fragmented landscape with loose ties<br />06.02.11<br />Stockholm School of Economics - Media Management 2011<br />9<br />2<br />S<br />Governments<br />Developers<br />T<br />Companies<br />E<br />Open source<br />Closed source<br />E<br />Educational Institutions<br />P<br />
Overcome six barriers to find the right peers…<br />06.02.11<br />Stockholm School of Economics - Media Management 2011<br />10<br />2<br />Geographical<br />1<br />Technological<br />2<br />Institutional<br />3<br />?<br />Ideological<br />4<br />Demographic<br />5<br />Ethnic<br />6<br />Sources: Birkinshaw2007<br />
…and four approaches to build your network<br />06.02.11<br />Stockholm School of Economics - Media Management 2011<br />11<br />2<br />Building relationships with unusual partners<br />Moving into uncharted territory<br />Low Difficulty of forming high<br />Create new networks in proximate areas<br />Seeking out new networks in distant areas<br />low Difficulty to find partners high<br />Sources: Birkinshaw2007<br />
Higher education in virtual worlds – An outlook…<br />06.02.11<br />Stockholm School of Economics - Media Management 2011<br />12<br />3<br /><ul><li>Home schooling trends swapping over
Gain momentum through powerful networks</li></li></ul><li>…split down to the world regions<br />06.02.11<br />Stockholm School of Economics - Media Management 2011<br />13<br />3<br />Europe<br />North America<br />South America<br />Africa<br />Asia<br /><ul><li>Reluctance among higher education institutions
High demand for education in remote areas</li></li></ul><li>Bibliography<br />06.02.11<br />Stockholm School of Economics - Media Management 2011<br />14<br />B<br /><ul><li>Expert interviews with Jeroen van Veen, Steve Mahaley, John Fennessy and Erik Wallin
Birkinshaw, “Finding, Forming, and Performing: Creating networks for discontiuous innovation”, 2007, California Management Review
Chan & Mauborgne, “Fair process: Managing in the knowledge economy”, 1997, Harvard Business Review
Chesborough & Appleyard, “Open Innovation and Strategy”, 2007, California Management Review
Cova & Cova, “Tribal Marketing: tribalisation and its impact on the conduct of marketing”, 2002, European Journal of Marketing