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www.vestforsk.no
Beyond Bitcoin
- Public Sector Innovation Using the
Blockchain Technology
Svein Ølnes, Vestlandsforsking
...
www.vestforsk.no
Content
 Research objectives
 Method
 Literature study
 Case study
 What is Bitcoin?
 Bitcoin as an...
www.vestforsk.no
Research objectives
1. To give an overview of the Bitcoin literature in general and
Bitcoin in e-Governme...
www.vestforsk.no
Literature overview – in general
Year No. of publications
2011 8
2012 21
2013 63
2014 208
www.vestforsk.no
Literature overview – in the eGovernment field
Category EGRL 10.5 Google Scholar Bitcoin
Academic Publ.
S...
www.vestforsk.no
What is Bitcoin?
1. A crypto currency
 A peer-to-peer electronic cash system
2. An infrastructure
 An o...
www.vestforsk.no
Bitcoin development
 Proposed in a white paper by Satoshi Nakamoto in Oct. 2008
 The Bitcoin system was...
www.vestforsk.no
Bitcoin key characteristics
 Distributed system (peer-to-peer)
 No central bank (or other central autho...
www.vestforsk.no
Bitcoin key contributions
 A practical solution to the Byzantine Generals’ problem
 first formulated by...
www.vestforsk.no
Bitcoin building blocks
 Open source software
 Digital signatures
 Public key cryptography (but not a ...
www.vestforsk.no
Bitcoin as an information infrastructure
Property Information
Infrastructure
Bitcoin as an II
Shared Univ...
www.vestforsk.no
Case study: Bitcoin blockchain in eGovernment
 Certificate from university courses (or degrees) put on t...
www.vestforsk.no
Case study: University of Nicosia’s use of
Bitcoin blockchain for storing certificates
1. Prerequisites:
...
www.vestforsk.no
Case study: certifiates on the blockchain
www.vestforsk.no
Case study: certifiates on the blockchain
www.vestforsk.no
Conclusions
 The Bitcoin technology is absent from eGov literature
 Bitcoin as an information infrastru...
www.vestforsk.no
Takk for meg!
E-post: sol@vestforsk.no
Bitcoin-adresse:
1HpvvptgrYJh4xUHerm1ruZtvnyUnnnHkU
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Beyond bitcoin - public sector innovation using the bitcoin blockchain

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Beyond bitcoin - public sector innovation using the bitcoin blockchain

  1. 1. www.vestforsk.no Beyond Bitcoin - Public Sector Innovation Using the Blockchain Technology Svein Ølnes, Vestlandsforsking NOKOBIT 2015, 24. nov. 2015
  2. 2. www.vestforsk.no Content  Research objectives  Method  Literature study  Case study  What is Bitcoin?  Bitcoin as an information infrastructure  Use case: Academic certificates stored on the blockchain  Conclusions and further research
  3. 3. www.vestforsk.no Research objectives 1. To give an overview of the Bitcoin literature in general and Bitcoin in e-Government in particular 2. To study the potential for using Bitcoin technology in public sector services
  4. 4. www.vestforsk.no Literature overview – in general Year No. of publications 2011 8 2012 21 2013 63 2014 208
  5. 5. www.vestforsk.no Literature overview – in the eGovernment field Category EGRL 10.5 Google Scholar Bitcoin Academic Publ. Search phrase «bitcoin» «Bitcoin e- Government» - Economy 0 1 114 Technology 0 1 124 Regulation 0 4 59 Other 0 0 17 Irrelevant - 78 0 Total 0 84 314
  6. 6. www.vestforsk.no What is Bitcoin? 1. A crypto currency  A peer-to-peer electronic cash system 2. An infrastructure  An open ledger on the Internet
  7. 7. www.vestforsk.no Bitcoin development  Proposed in a white paper by Satoshi Nakamoto in Oct. 2008  The Bitcoin system was started 3rd of Jan. 2009  Has been running almost seven years without any serious errors  A platform for permissionless innovation, above all in financial services, but also for use in other sectors  Based on open source and open standards  Bitcoin code published on GitHub
  8. 8. www.vestforsk.no Bitcoin key characteristics  Distributed system (peer-to-peer)  No central bank (or other central authorities)  Deterministic money supply  21 million bitcoin in total  25 new bitcoin mined every 10 minutes  Halving of new bitcoin mined every four years
  9. 9. www.vestforsk.no Bitcoin key contributions  A practical solution to the Byzantine Generals’ problem  first formulated by Lamport et al. (1982)  computer systems’ ability to handle conflicting information  how to establish trust in a distributed system (without a third party)  An open platform for financial innovation  But also an open platform for innovation in «trustless» systems  A fully functional digital cash system
  10. 10. www.vestforsk.no Bitcoin building blocks  Open source software  Digital signatures  Public key cryptography (but not a PKI!)  Hash functions  Consensus based trust  Through Proof of work
  11. 11. www.vestforsk.no Bitcoin as an information infrastructure Property Information Infrastructure Bitcoin as an II Shared Universally Universally Open Yes Yes Heterogenous Increasingly Yes (althoug early) Evolving Yes Bears the signs of unltd. evolvement Organizing principles Recursice composition Yes/No – only one reference Bitcoin impl. Control Distributed and dynamically negotiated Distr. and dynamically neg. (by «voting»)
  12. 12. www.vestforsk.no Case study: Bitcoin blockchain in eGovernment  Certificate from university courses (or degrees) put on the blockchain  Simple and cost effective solution  Ubiquitous access to verification of certificates
  13. 13. www.vestforsk.no Case study: University of Nicosia’s use of Bitcoin blockchain for storing certificates 1. Prerequisites:  No other services or products than the Bitcoin blockchain  Authntication of certificates without contacting Univ. of Nicosia  Should be possible to perform the authentication even if Univ. of Nicosia ceases to exist in today’s form (merger, shut down etc.) 2. Storing the index document on the blockchain 3. Verification process  Verification of the index document itself (retrieved from the web)  Verification of the certificate(s)
  14. 14. www.vestforsk.no Case study: certifiates on the blockchain
  15. 15. www.vestforsk.no Case study: certifiates on the blockchain
  16. 16. www.vestforsk.no Conclusions  The Bitcoin technology is absent from eGov literature  Bitcoin as an information infrastructure has a great potential for innovative use also in public sector, as the use case indicates  Important research questions:  how can Bitcoin help innovation in public sector?  how should the currency bitcoin and the infrastructure Bitcoin be handled?  Bitcoin in public sector on the blockchain, sidechain or altchain?  Important factors determining adoption of this new technology?  Installed base as a barrier to adoption of the technology  Many similarities with the development of the Internet and web 25 years ago
  17. 17. www.vestforsk.no Takk for meg! E-post: sol@vestforsk.no Bitcoin-adresse: 1HpvvptgrYJh4xUHerm1ruZtvnyUnnnHkU

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