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Spice Up Your Life


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Lesson Planning models for higher education

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Spice Up Your Life

  1. 1. SPICE UP YOUR LIFE Using Different Lesson Planning Models Suzanne Shaffer, M.Ed, M.S.Ed. Penn State York Campus
  2. 2. Think about a typical lesson or topic <ul><li>What do you normally do to prepare to teach this topic? </li></ul><ul><li>We’ll take your topic and work it out using three different lesson planning models </li></ul>
  3. 3. As we go through the models, consider <ul><li>Who is doing the most action (before/during/after) class? </li></ul><ul><li>Would this work in your content area/ with your teaching style? </li></ul><ul><li>How do these approaches compare to your normal routine? </li></ul><ul><li>What do they tell you about what your students have learned? </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Robert Gagné’s 9 Events of Instruction </li></ul>Approach #1
  5. 5. Information Processing
  6. 6. A closer look at the plan <ul><li>1. Gain attention </li></ul><ul><li>2. Inform learners of objectives </li></ul><ul><li>3. Stimulate recall of prior learning </li></ul><ul><li>4. Present the content </li></ul><ul><li>5. Provide &quot;learning guidance&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>6. Elicit performance (practice) </li></ul><ul><li>7. Provide feedback </li></ul><ul><li>8. Assess performance </li></ul><ul><li>9. Enhance retention and transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Gagné’s Events </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom’s Taxonomy (Cognitive Domain) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Bloom Refresher <ul><li>The keys to success?... </li></ul><ul><li>1) Clearly written objectives!! </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of this lesson, students will be able to… </li></ul><ul><li>VERB </li></ul><ul><li>(to what degree) (under what conditions) </li></ul><ul><li>2) Match the verb to Bloom’s level </li></ul>
  8. 8. Bloom’s Verbs (Cognitive Domain) <ul><li>Knowledge : arrange, define, duplicate, label, list, memorize, name, order, recognize, relate, recall, repeat, reproduce state. </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension : classify, describe, discuss, explain, express, identify, indicate, locate, recognize, report, restate, review, select, translate </li></ul><ul><li>Application : apply, choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, practice, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis : analyze, appraise, calculate, categorize, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis : arrange, assemble, collect, compose, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, manage, organize, plan, prepare, propose, set up, write </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation : appraise, argue, assess, attach, choose compare, defend estimate, judge, predict, rate, core, select, support, value, evaluate </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Goal of Instruction <ul><li>What do you want them to be able to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>by the end of instruction? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Constructivism </li></ul>Approach #2
  11. 11. If Gagné’s Events were a Ladder
  12. 12. Constructivism is… Something completely different…
  13. 13. <ul><li>Paving the Way for Constructivism… </li></ul>Nader’s Father
  14. 14. In the Constructivist Classroom… <ul><li>focus shifts from teacher to students </li></ul><ul><li>students are actively involved in their own process of learning </li></ul><ul><li>teacher functions as a facilitator who coaches, mediates, prompts, and designs </li></ul><ul><li>teacher's biggest job becomes ASKING GOOD QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge not inert factoids to be memorized, but dynamic and ever-changing </li></ul>
  15. 15. 5 Guiding Principles… <ul><li>. Pose problems of emerging relevance to students </li></ul><ul><li>. Structure learning around primary concepts </li></ul><ul><li>. Seek and value students' points of view </li></ul><ul><li>. Adapt instruction to address student suppositions </li></ul><ul><li>. Assess student learning in the context of teaching </li></ul>
  16. 16. How to get Started? <ul><li>Choose a concept </li></ul><ul><li>Pose a question </li></ul><ul><li>Design the learning interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Guide your students through the process </li></ul>
  17. 17. Constructivist Stage Focus and Purpose Invitation The invitation is the element in the lesson plan where students' prior knowledge, ideas and beliefs about the concepts in your lesson sequence are brought into play. You might use any one of the following: * a provocative question * a demonstration * discrepant event * interesting challenge Exploration The purpose of the exploration is to assist students in exploring the concepts, phenomena, ideas of the lesson Explanation The Explanation stage should help the students discuss and reflect on their findings, data, and analyses. They should have the opportunity to see what others found, to compare their ideas to other students' and experts on the topic. Evaluate Evaluate throughout the lesson. Present students with a scoring guide at the beginning. Scoring tools developed by teachers (sometimes with student involvement) target what students must know and do.
  18. 18. Find out more… <ul><li>Constructivism Overview </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>The Practice Implications of Constructivism </li></ul>
  19. 19. Ready for Something Really Spicy? <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Social Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>L. Dee Fink’s Taxonomy of Significant Learning </li></ul>
  20. 20. Fink asks… <ul><li>What is Learning? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning = change in the learner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No change – No learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is Significant Learning? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>= Lasting change in the learner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important in the learner’s life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables students to continue to learn throughout life </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Take a Closer Look <ul><li>Faculty Dreams and Significant Learning – pg 58 </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of Different Paradigms – pg 56 </li></ul><ul><li>Major Educational Goals – pg 37 </li></ul>
  22. 22. How to get Started? <ul><li>Start with your topic </li></ul><ul><li>Decide how to arrange the sequence of events – Foundational – Application – Integration? </li></ul><ul><li>Think – How can I incorporate the six dimensions? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Why Lesson Planning? <ul><li>Shifts the focus of design from teaching to learning </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to ensure that your students reach the course objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Planning allows you to incorporate good teaching practices in every lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Saves you time! You don’t have to re-invent the wheel each semester </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates critical reflection in your teaching </li></ul>
  24. 24. Other Recipes? <ul><li>Inquiry-based - </li></ul><ul><li>Project-based - </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-based - </li></ul><ul><li>ARCS (motivation) - </li></ul><ul><li>Situated Learning - </li></ul>
  25. 25. Resources <ul><li>Teaching Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Chickering & Gamson’s 7 Principles of Good Practice </li></ul><ul><li>U. of Hawaii - </li></ul><ul><li>Western Washington U. - </li></ul><ul><li>Skip Downing On Course Success Strategies h ttp:// </li></ul><ul><li>U. of Illinois </li></ul>
  26. 26. Thanks for Coming!!