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1 Visions of America, A History of the United States
CHAPTER
1 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Slavery ...
2 Visions of America, A History of the United States
3 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Slavery and Sectionalism
I. The Slavery Question in the Territories
I...
4 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Slavery Question in the Territories
A. The Gold Rush
B. Organizin...
5 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Gold Rush
What was the fate of most fortune seekers
who headed we...
6 Visions of America, A History of the United States
7 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Organizing California and New Mexico
Why did Southerners react so neg...
8 Visions of America, A History of the United States
9 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850 – A congressional
attempt t...
10 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Compromise of 1850
What did Seward mean by a “higher law”?
How d...
11 Visions of America, A History of the United States
12 Visions of America, A History of the United States
13 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Sectionalism on the Rise
Why did Southerners demand a Fugitive
Slave...
14 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Sectionalism on the Rise
Underground Railroad – A network of safe
ho...
15 Visions of America, A History of the United States
16 Visions of America, A History of the United States
17 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Choices and Consequences
RESISTING THE FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT
In Februar...
18 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Choices and Consequences
RESISTING THE FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT
Choices re...
19 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Choices and Consequences
RESISTING THE FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT
Decision a...
20 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Choices and Consequences
RESISTING THE FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT
Continuing...
21 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Political Realignment
A. Young America
B. The Kansas-Nebraska Act
C....
22 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Young America
What ideals inspired Young America’s vision
of westwar...
23 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Young America
Young America – The movement within the
Democratic Par...
24 Visions of America, A History of the United States
25 Visions of America, A History of the United States
26 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
Why did most Northerners oppose the
repeal o...
27 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
Kansas-Nebraska Act – An 1854 act
designed t...
28 Visions of America, A History of the United States
29 Visions of America, A History of the United States
30 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Republicans and Know-Nothings
What events led to the formation of th...
31 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Republicans and Know-Nothings
Know-Nothing Party – The nickname for
...
32 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Ballots and Blood
What anti-immigrant laws did the American
Party pr...
33 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Ballots and Blood
Bleeding Kansas – The wave of vigilante
reprisals ...
34 Visions of America, A History of the United States
35 Visions of America, A History of the United States
36 Visions of America, A History of the United States
37 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Images as History
THE “FOREIGN MENACE”
In the 1840s and 1850s, nativ...
38 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Images as History
The barrels that the
immigrants wear suggest
that ...
39 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Images as History
The eagle emphasizes the
importance of public scho...
40 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Deepening Controversy
How did the Supreme Court use the Dred
Scott c...
41 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Deepening Controversy
Dred Scott v. Sandford – The highly
controvers...
42 Visions of America, A History of the United States
43 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Two Societies
A. The Industrial North
B. Cotton Is Supreme
C. The Ot...
44 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Industrial North
What developments helped spur
industrialization...
45 Visions of America, A History of the United States
46 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Envisioning Evidence
Growth of the
textile industry in
the North and...
47 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Envisioning Evidence
Cotton production
grew 6,600% between
1800 and ...
48 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Cotton Is Supreme
What did Southerners mean by the phrase
“Cotton is...
49 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Other South
Why did Southern whites who owned no
slaves support ...
50 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Divergent Visions
How did the Panic of 1857 strengthen the
Southern ...
51 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Divergent Visions
Free Labor – A pro-capitalist Northern
philosophy ...
52 Visions of America, A History of the United States
53 Visions of America, A History of the United States
A House Divided
A. The Lincoln-Douglas Debates
B. John Brown’s Raid
...
54 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Lincoln-Douglas Debates
How did the Lincoln-Douglas debates harm...
55 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Lincoln-Douglas Debates – A series of
hi...
56 Visions of America, A History of the United States
John Brown’s Raid
John Brown’s Raid – A failed assault led
by radica...
57 Visions of America, A History of the United States
John Brown’s Raid
Why did many Northerners consider John
Brown a mar...
58 Visions of America, A History of the United States
59 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Election of 1860
What was unique about Lincoln’s victory in
the ...
60 Visions of America, A History of the United States
61 Visions of America, A History of the United States
62 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Secession
What prevented a compromise the spring of
1861?
Why did Li...
63 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Secession
Crittenden Compromise – An
unsuccessful proposal by Kentuc...
64 Visions of America, A History of the United States
65 Visions of America, A History of the United States
66 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Competing Visions
SECESSION OR UNION?
Both Mississippi’s declaration...
67 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Competing Visions
Mississippi argued that
staying in the Union would...
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Chapter 12: Slavery and Sectionalism: The Political Crisis of 1848-1861

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Chapter 12: Slavery and Sectionalism: The Political Crisis of 1848-1861

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Chapter 12: Slavery and Sectionalism: The Political Crisis of 1848-1861

  1. 1. 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States CHAPTER 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States Slavery and Sectionalism The Political Crisis of 1848–1861 12 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  2. 2. 2 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  3. 3. 3 Visions of America, A History of the United States Slavery and Sectionalism I. The Slavery Question in the Territories II. Political Realignment III. Two Societies IV. A House Divided THE POLITICAL CRISIS OF 1848–1861 3 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  4. 4. 4 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Slavery Question in the Territories A. The Gold Rush B. Organizing California and New Mexico C. The Compromise of 1850 D. Sectionalism on the Rise
  5. 5. 5 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Gold Rush What was the fate of most fortune seekers who headed west to mine for gold? How did the Gold Rush affect the Native Americans of California?
  6. 6. 6 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  7. 7. 7 Visions of America, A History of the United States Organizing California and New Mexico Why did Southerners react so negatively to Present Taylor’s plan?
  8. 8. 8 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  9. 9. 9 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Compromise of 1850 Compromise of 1850 – A congressional attempt to resolve the slavery question by making concessions to both the North and South Fugitive Slave Act – A component of the Compromise of 1850 that increased the federal government’s obligation to capture and return escaped slaves to their owners
  10. 10. 10 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Compromise of 1850 What did Seward mean by a “higher law”? How did the Congressional vote on the Compromise of 1850 reveal growing sectionalism?
  11. 11. 11 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  12. 12. 12 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  13. 13. 13 Visions of America, A History of the United States Sectionalism on the Rise Why did Southerners demand a Fugitive Slave Act? What made Uncle Tom’s Cabin such an influential piece of antislavery literature? What caused the furor over the Fugitive Slave Act to eventually subside?
  14. 14. 14 Visions of America, A History of the United States Sectionalism on the Rise Underground Railroad – A network of safe houses and secret hiding places along routes leading to the North and into Canada • Helped several thousand slaves gain their freedom between 1830 and 1860
  15. 15. 15 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  16. 16. 16 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  17. 17. 17 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences RESISTING THE FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT In February 1851, federal authorities captured an escaped slave, Shadrach Minkins, in Boston. 200 white and black abolitionists gathered outside the jail where he was held to protest.
  18. 18. 18 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences RESISTING THE FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT Choices regarding the Fugitive Slave Act Declare the act immoral and work to free Minkins Respect the laws and work through the courts to free Minkins Respect the laws and accept Minkins’ return to slavery, but organize a more effective effort to help fugitive slaves leave the country
  19. 19. 19 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences RESISTING THE FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT Decision and consequences • 20 African-American men burst into the courtroom and took Minkins to Canada. • Similar incidents occurred elsewhere. • Southerners were outraged and discussed secession. What caused the furor over the Fugitive Slave Act to eventually subside?
  20. 20. 20 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences RESISTING THE FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT Continuing Controversies •When are acts of civil disobedience and violence to further the cause of justice legitimate?
  21. 21. 21 Visions of America, A History of the United States Political Realignment A. Young America B. The Kansas-Nebraska Act C. Republicans and Know-Nothings D. Ballots and Blood E. Deepening Controversy
  22. 22. 22 Visions of America, A History of the United States Young America What ideals inspired Young America’s vision of westward expansion? Why did many Southerners support efforts to annex Cuba and seize other Caribbean and Latin American countries?
  23. 23. 23 Visions of America, A History of the United States Young America Young America – The movement within the Democratic Party that embraced Manifest Destiny and promoted territorial expansion, increased international trade, and the spread of American ideals of democracy and free enterprise abroad
  24. 24. 24 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  25. 25. 25 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  26. 26. 26 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Kansas-Nebraska Act Why did most Northerners oppose the repeal of the Missouri Compromise line of 36°30′?
  27. 27. 27 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Kansas-Nebraska Act Kansas-Nebraska Act – An 1854 act designed to resolve the controversy over whether slavery would be permitted in the western territories • Repealed the ban on slavery north of 36°30′ (the Missouri Compromise) • Created two separate territories, Kansas (west of Missouri) and Nebraska (west of Iowa).
  28. 28. 28 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  29. 29. 29 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  30. 30. 30 Visions of America, A History of the United States Republicans and Know-Nothings What events led to the formation of the Republican Party?
  31. 31. 31 Visions of America, A History of the United States Republicans and Know-Nothings Know-Nothing Party – The nickname for the constituents of the nativist, or anti- immigrant, American Party • Called for legislation restricting office holding to native-born citizens • Wanted to raise the period of naturalization for citizenship from five to twenty-one years
  32. 32. 32 Visions of America, A History of the United States Ballots and Blood What anti-immigrant laws did the American Party propose? Why did anti-immigrant sentiment rise in the 1850s? How did events in Kansas expose the flaw in the policy of popular sovereignty?
  33. 33. 33 Visions of America, A History of the United States Ballots and Blood Bleeding Kansas – The wave of vigilante reprisals and counter-reprisals by proslavery and antislavery forces in Kansas in 1856 Black Republicans – A racist pejorative used to suggest that Republicans were dangerous radicals who favored abolition and racial equality
  34. 34. 34 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  35. 35. 35 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  36. 36. 36 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  37. 37. 37 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History THE “FOREIGN MENACE” In the 1840s and 1850s, native-born Americans feared that the political power, habits, and the Catholic religion of the immigrants would undermine American democracy.
  38. 38. 38 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History The barrels that the immigrants wear suggest that they drink too much alcohol. The brawl at the polls in the background suggests that immigrants threaten democracy through violence. The ballot box in the immigrants’ hands reveals the fear of their political power. THE “FOREIGN MENACE”
  39. 39. 39 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History The eagle emphasizes the importance of public schools to American democracy. The Pope is seated on a throne, making him the antithesis of American democracy. The Pope points to the public school, where a priest is organizing an attack. The bible under the Pope’s foot suggests that Catholics are discouraged from reading the Bible on their own. THE “FOREIGN MENACE”
  40. 40. 40 Visions of America, A History of the United States Deepening Controversy How did the Supreme Court use the Dred Scott case to expand and protect the rights of slaveholders? Why did Congress reject the Lecompton Constitution?
  41. 41. 41 Visions of America, A History of the United States Deepening Controversy Dred Scott v. Sandford – The highly controversial 1857 Supreme Court decision that rejected the claim of the slave Dred Scott • Scott argued that time spent with his owner in regions that barred slavery had made him a free man. • The decision declared that Congress lacked the right to regulate slavery in the territories.
  42. 42. 42 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  43. 43. 43 Visions of America, A History of the United States Two Societies A. The Industrial North B. Cotton Is Supreme C. The Other South D. Divergent Visions
  44. 44. 44 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Industrial North What developments helped spur industrialization in the North? How did new technology transform American agriculture?
  45. 45. 45 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  46. 46. 46 Visions of America, A History of the United States Envisioning Evidence Growth of the textile industry in the North and Britain created demand for cotton. Between 1815 and 1860, millions of white settlers moved south. Settlers brought slaves and began to raise cotton. THE RISE OF KING COTTON
  47. 47. 47 Visions of America, A History of the United States Envisioning Evidence Cotton production grew 6,600% between 1800 and 1860. Cotton was the most profitable product in the South. Profit from cotton allowed for the purchase of more slaves. THE RISE OF KING COTTON
  48. 48. 48 Visions of America, A History of the United States Cotton Is Supreme What did Southerners mean by the phrase “Cotton is King”?
  49. 49. 49 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Other South Why did Southern whites who owned no slaves support slavery?
  50. 50. 50 Visions of America, A History of the United States Divergent Visions How did the Panic of 1857 strengthen the Southern argument for secession?
  51. 51. 51 Visions of America, A History of the United States Divergent Visions Free Labor – A pro-capitalist Northern philosophy that presented an idealized vision of the industrial North • Celebrated the virtues of individualism, independence, entrepreneurship, and upward mobility
  52. 52. 52 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  53. 53. 53 Visions of America, A History of the United States A House Divided A. The Lincoln-Douglas Debates B. John Brown’s Raid C. The Election of 1860 D. Secession
  54. 54. 54 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Lincoln-Douglas Debates How did the Lincoln-Douglas debates harm Douglas’s presidential ambitions?
  55. 55. 55 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Lincoln-Douglas Debates Lincoln-Douglas Debates – A series of high-profile debates in Illinois in 1858 between Senate candidates Stephen A. Douglas and Abraham Lincoln that focused primarily on the slavery controversy
  56. 56. 56 Visions of America, A History of the United States John Brown’s Raid John Brown’s Raid – A failed assault led by radical abolitionist John Brown on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, on October 16, 1859 • Intended to seize the guns and ammunition and then touch off a wave of slave rebellions
  57. 57. 57 Visions of America, A History of the United States John Brown’s Raid Why did many Northerners consider John Brown a martyr?
  58. 58. 58 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  59. 59. 59 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Election of 1860 What was unique about Lincoln’s victory in the election of 1860?
  60. 60. 60 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  61. 61. 61 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  62. 62. 62 Visions of America, A History of the United States Secession What prevented a compromise the spring of 1861? Why did Lincoln attempt to resupply Fort Sumter? How did the slavery issue factor into Mississippi’s decision to secede?
  63. 63. 63 Visions of America, A History of the United States Secession Crittenden Compromise – An unsuccessful proposal by Kentucky senator John J. Crittenden to resolve the secession crisis with constitutional amendments to protect slavery
  64. 64. 64 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  65. 65. 65 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  66. 66. 66 Visions of America, A History of the United States Competing Visions SECESSION OR UNION? Both Mississippi’s declaration of secession and Lincoln’s inaugural address from March 1861 invoke the Constitution and other American traditions to justify their positions on secession. Mississippi’s declaration of secession argues that the North attacked slavery, which violated rights granted by the Constitution. Lincoln asserted that he was not hostile to Southern interests, and that the Constitution did not give states the right to secede.
  67. 67. 67 Visions of America, A History of the United States Competing Visions Mississippi argued that staying in the Union would mean subjugation. Lincoln argued that any conflicts would be the result of Southern aggression. SECESSION OR UNION?

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