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Chapter 10: Revivalism, Reform, and Artistic Renaissance, 1820-1850

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Chapter 10: Revivalism, Reform, and Artistic Renaissance, 1820-1850

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Chapter 10: Revivalism, Reform, and Artistic Renaissance, 1820-1850

  1. 1. 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States CHAPTER 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States Revivalism, Reform, and Artistic Renaissance, 1820–1850 10 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  2. 2. 2 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  3. 3. 3 Visions of America, A History of the United States Revivalism, Reform, and Artistic Renaissance, 1820–1850 I. Revivalism and Reform II. Abolitionism and the Proslavery Response III. The Cult of True Womanhood, Reform, and Women’s Rights IV. Religious and Secular Utopianism V. Literature and Popular Culture VI. Nature’s Nation 3 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  4. 4. 4 Visions of America, A History of the United States Revivalism and Reform A. Revivalism and the Market Revolution B. Temperance C. Schools, Prisons, and Asylums 4 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  5. 5. 5 Visions of America, A History of the United States Revivalism and the Market Revolution What was the Second Great Awakening? How did Finney use the tools of the market revolution to further the goals of the Second Great Awakening?
  6. 6. 6 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  7. 7. 7 Visions of America, A History of the United States Temperance What does this painting of a militia muster reveal about alcohol consumption in America?
  8. 8. 8 Visions of America, A History of the United States Temperance Temperance – A reform movement that developed in response to concern over the rising levels of alcohol consumption in American society
  9. 9. 9 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  10. 10. 10 Visions of America, A History of the United States Schools, Prisons, and Asylums How did Mann’s vision of educational reform differ from that of the Working Men’s Party? What was a panopticon?
  11. 11. 11 Visions of America, A History of the United States Schools, Prisons, and Asylums Penitentiary – A new reform-based model of incarceration that isolated individuals from one another and gave them a chance to repent and reform – A radical departure from earlier approaches to crime, which cast behavior in terms of sinfulness, innate depravity, and punishment
  12. 12. 12 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  13. 13. 13 Visions of America, A History of the United States Abolitionism and the Proslavery Response A. The Rise of Immediatism B. Anti-Abolitionism and the Abolitionist Response C. The Proslavery Argument
  14. 14. 14 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Rise of Immediatism Why was David Walker’s Appeal so radical? Who was Henry “Box” Brown?
  15. 15. 15 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Rise of Immediatism Immediatism – Abolitionist doctrine that rejected gradualism and advocated an immediate end to slavery
  16. 16. 16 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  17. 17. 17 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  18. 18. 18 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History Hiram Powers’s statue, “The Greek Slave”, became part of the larger debate about slavery in the mid-nineteenth century. Why did the public accept the nudity of “The Greek Slave”? “THE GREEK SLAVE”
  19. 19. 19 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History “THE GREEK SLAVE” She modestly turns away from viewers. The chains around her wrists signify her status as a slave. Because she was “clothed in Christian virtue,” the statue drew even women and children viewers.
  20. 20. 20 Visions of America, A History of the United States Anti-Abolitionism and the Abolitionist Response What was the “gag rule”?
  21. 21. 21 Visions of America, A History of the United States Anti-Abolitionism and the Abolitionist Response Gag Rule – A procedural motion that required that the House of Representatives automatically table antislavery petitions and not consider them
  22. 22. 22 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  23. 23. 23 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Proslavery Argument What was the proslavery argument?
  24. 24. 24 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Proslavery Argument Peculiar Institution – A term that John C. Calhoun coined to describe Southern slavery – In Calhoun’s view, slavery was not “an evil” or a cause of shame but rather “a good—a positive good” to be championed.
  25. 25. 25 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  26. 26. 26 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Cult of True Womanhood, Reform, and Women’s Rights A. The New Domestic Ideal B. Controlling Sexuality C. The Path toward Seneca Falls
  27. 27. 27 Visions of America, A History of the United States The New Domestic Ideal How does “Domestic Happiness” represent the ideal of the family?
  28. 28. 28 Visions of America, A History of the United States The New Domestic Ideal Cult of True Womanhood – A set of beliefs that defined women’s values in opposition to the aggressive and competitive values of the marketplace
  29. 29. 29 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  30. 30. 30 Visions of America, A History of the United States Controlling Sexuality Which reform movements attracted antebellum women?
  31. 31. 31 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  32. 32. 32 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Path toward Seneca Falls How did Stanton’s upbringing influence her approach to women’s rights?
  33. 33. 33 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Path toward Seneca Falls Seneca Falls Convention – A convention of women’s rights supporters held in Seneca Falls, New York – Attendees drafted a Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions, which declared that “all men and women are created equal”
  34. 34. 34 Visions of America, A History of the United States Religious and Secular Utopianism A. Millennialism, Perfectionism, and Religious Utopianism B. Secular Utopias
  35. 35. 35 Visions of America, A History of the United States Millennialism, Perfectionism, and Religious Utopianism How did the Shakers recast the idea of the family? What did the Oneida community believe?
  36. 36. 36 Visions of America, A History of the United States Millennialism, Perfectionism, and Religious Utopianism Complex Marriage – A system developed by John Humphrey Noyes’s followers at Oneida, in which any man or women who had experienced saving grace was free to engage in sexual relations with any other person
  37. 37. 37 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  38. 38. 38 Visions of America, A History of the United States Competing Visions REACTIONS TO SHAKER GENDER ROLES The Shakers reconfigured traditional gender and family roles.
  39. 39. 39 Visions of America, A History of the United States Competing Visions REACTIONS TO SHAKER GENDER ROLES What do reactions to Shaker gender roles reveal about nineteenth-century American values? In The Shaker Bridal, Hawthorne’s main character is unhappy and pitied after forsaking conventional marriage. In an 1829 account, a visitor to a Shaker community describes a joyful religious utopia of tranquility and comfort.
  40. 40. 40 Visions of America, A History of the United States Secular Utopias Why did Mormon values appeal to farmers and other small producers in the era of the market revolution? What geographical patterns are evident from this map of utopian communities?
  41. 41. 41 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  42. 42. 42 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences George Cragin, Mary’s husband, was interested in Noyes’s ideas. Moved to Vermont and joined the community at Putney The Putney community required participation in complex marriage. MARY CRAGIN’S EXPERIMENT IN FREE LOVE AT ONEIDA
  43. 43. 43 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Mary’s choices regarding free love MARY CRAGIN’S EXPERIMENT IN FREE LOVE AT ONEIDA Persuade her husband to leave the community with her Leave regardless of her husband’s decision Stay with her husband and participate in complex marriage
  44. 44. 44 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Decision and consequences • Mary stayed at Putney and participated in complex marriage. • Eventually traveled to Oneida and became one of the founding members. • Declared that life at Oneida brought her closer to God. Why might a woman like Mary Cragin have been drawn to the Oneida Community? MARY CRAGIN’S EXPERIMENT IN FREE LOVE AT ONEIDA
  45. 45. 45 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Continuing Controversies •Why would a nineteenth-century woman be attracted to utopian movements that rejected mainstream views of the family and marriage? MARY CRAGIN’S EXPERIMENT IN FREE LOVE AT ONEIDA
  46. 46. 46 Visions of America, A History of the United States Literature and Popular Culture A. Literature and Social Criticism B. Domestic Fiction, Board Games, and Crime Stories C. Slaves Tell Their Story: Slavery in American Literature D. Lyceums and Lectures
  47. 47. 47 Visions of America, A History of the United States Literature and Social Criticism How did Thoreau, Hawthorne, and Melville respond to the market revolution?
  48. 48. 48 Visions of America, A History of the United States Literature and Social Criticism Transcendentalism – A loose set of ideas that looked to nature for inspiration and insights
  49. 49. 49 Visions of America, A History of the United States Domestic Fiction, Board Games, and Crime Stories What ideas about the family and religion are reflected in “The Mansion of Happiness”?
  50. 50. 50 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  51. 51. 51 Visions of America, A History of the United States Slaves Tell Their Story: Slavery in American Literature Why did Douglass need to prove that he was the author of his autobiography?
  52. 52. 52 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  53. 53. 53 Visions of America, A History of the United States Lyceums and Lectures Why was phrenology so popular during this period?
  54. 54. 54 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  55. 55. 55 Visions of America, A History of the United States Nature’s Nation A. Landscape Painting B. Parks and Cemeteries C. Revival and Reform in American Architecture
  56. 56. 56 Visions of America, A History of the United States Landscape Painting What does Cole’s painting reveal about American views of nature?
  57. 57. 57 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  58. 58. 58 Visions of America, A History of the United States Parks and Cemeteries What was the rural cemetery movement? Why did Egyptian architectural styles inspire Americans in the 1830s?
  59. 59. 59 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  60. 60. 60 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  61. 61. 61 Visions of America, A History of the United States Revival and Reform in American Architecture What was the Greek revival? What does Shaker furniture reveal about Shaker values? Why did phrenologists favor the octagon as an architectural style?
  62. 62. 62 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  63. 63. 63 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  64. 64. 64 Visions of America, A History of the United States

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