Fact and Opinion

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Fact and Opinion

  1. 1. Recognising the difference between facts and opinions and their usesThere is usually a question on the Reading Paper which asks you about the writer’s use of fact and opinion in the text.What is a fact? What is an opinion? How are they used?
  2. 2. Fact and opinion• Fact – can be proved to be true• Opinion – a belief, attitude or viewpoint. Opinions can represent an individual or group• Bias is shown in people’s opinions when personal feelings are allowed to influence their judgement. It can be evident in the words writers use to put across a point of view. Bias can be created through the way facts are selected and used, as well as through opinion Higher end marks MUST explain the use of fact and opinion.
  3. 3. Which of these are facts? Which are opinions? Lisa is the This is my nice one. family. Homer Most of the works at the time, Homer power plant. would like to strangle Bart.
  4. 4. Facts are often near: Opinions are often near:numbers maybestatistics perhapsnames possibly probably likely could/should/might I believe I think
  5. 5. Things to remember about fact and opinion:my job in the exam is not to prove true or false – this would be mostly impossible!my job is to find what could (in theory) be tested for true or false = factsif it can be tested (in real life), it is factual – even if it’s a false fact!my job is also to find what could never be tested for true or false = opinionsopinions cannot be tested/provenI must comment on why the writer is using them
  6. 6. Underline the facts and opinions in this text
  7. 7. AVRIL LAVIGNE Talented Tomboy! If you could have any pop star as your best mate, you could do a lot worse than Avril. Everything about her screams “normal chick”. She doesn’t pose for the cameras, wear tiny skirts or “do” dance routines. “People want me to look all pretty and sexy for pictures and it’s just not my thing,” she reckons. Nah, forget girlie, Avril’s all about songs, boardin’ moves and hanging out with sk8er bois. She’s an average girl, who lives with her parents and, er, just happens to be worth a fortune! Avril comes from a sleepy town in mid-Canada but always knew she was destined for greater things. “I remember when I was really young, standing on my bed like it was a stage, singing at the top of my lungs and visualising thousands of people surrounding me.” At the age of 18, she’s already achieved her ambition. Her debut single Complicated topped charts all over the world and her rockin’ album Let Go has shown everyone that she’s no one hit wonder. And instead of going down the usual “kit off to sell records” route, Avril has made it her way. She reckons the main thing that female fans write to her about is how she sells music, not her body. And in a world where you can’t flash too much flesh, that’s quite an achievement. “I smash guitars in my videos, I swear in my interviews because that’s the attitude I’ve always had,” she admits. Hey, who are we to argue? Aren’t girls just great? We wear the coolest clothes, chat up the best boys and when it comes to music, we win hands down. J17 salutes the girls putting the ggrrrr back into the charts...Donna Channy, Michelle Langan, J17 Spring 2002
  8. 8. Fact and Opinion A question may asks you to explain HOW the fact and opinions are used in a text. You can do this by:• Identifying as many facts and opinions in the text as possible• Select the 2-3 facts and opinions that you think you can explain the use of (sometimes the question will tell you how many to explain)• For each, think about how this fact/opinion specially has been used either to support the writer’s purpose or the audience’s reaction to the text (think P.A.F.T.)For example: in using the fact: “at the age of 18, she’s already achieved her ambition”the writer is appealing to the audience of the text, who are 15-17 year old girls. Thisfact interests them as they can imagine themselves in Avril’s shoes. This is one of thefeatures which makes the text appeal to it’s target audience.
  9. 9. Take 3 facts or opinions you’ve found in the text and for each EXPLAIN HOW it is used in thetext. Remember to link it to an element of P.A.F. and tone.
  10. 10. Fact and opinion• Not true or false!• Facts can be tested/proven – opinion can’t. You can have ‘false facts’.• Unless the question asks otherwise, select 2/3 of each.• Higher grades will require the explanation of the uses of facts and opinions. Use the following: – “Why has the writer used these specific facts/opinions for this specific audience?” – “Why has the writer used these specific facts/opinions for this specific purpose?” – Also – you could explain how they make the audience feel – shocked? amused? horrified? and why.
  11. 11. Last lesson Fact and opinionwe looked at: • Not true or false! • Facts can be tested/proven – opinion can’t. You can have ‘false facts’. • Unless the question asks otherwise, select 2/3 of each. • Higher grades will require the explanation of the uses of facts and opinions. Use the following: – “Why has the writer used these specific facts/opinions for this specific audience?” – “Why has the writer used these specific facts/opinions for this specific purpose?” – Also – you could explain how they make the audience feel – shocked? amused? horrified? and why. Today we will continue to develop a secure understanding of HOW writers use fact and opinion in their texts.
  12. 12. Gloucestershire Cheese Rolling http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KOyQBSMeIhM• Read through the text once and identify the P.A.F.T.. How do you expect texts of this P.A.F. to use fact and opinion?• Read through the text a second time and highlight the key facts and opinions .• Complete the worksheet exploring HOW the writer uses facts and opinions in the text.
  13. 13. Gloucestershire Cheese Rolling Complete the grid below exploring HOW the writer uses facts and opinions in the textFACT/OPINION HOW it is used by the writer Is it being used to support the purpose, audience or tone of the text?“While Spain has...Gloucestershire is...”“...an unbelievablespectacle to top them all.” The facts about the dangers of competing The facts make the race sound dangerous but in the race make it sound exciting. The not deadly. This helps the article fulfil it’s fact supports the previous mentions of purpose to entertain and inform as the reader “fearless competitors” and “death-defying enjoys picturing the excitement of such a slopes”. dangerous race.“... one of the world’swackiest spectator events.”“With a disputed historydating back to at least the1800s...” To reinforce the writer’s claim that the This supports the tone of the text which is event is very popular. It supports the excited and celebratory because it suggests that point with the large number of people many people enjoy the event and find it exciting and the fact that they are more than just enough to watch on video many times. locals.EXTRA:•Overall, how does the article use fact and opinion? What is the balance? Is it as we would expect for the purpose andform?•How does the writer build a sense of the excitement and spectacle that rolling a cheese down a hill can bring?
  14. 14. Fact and opinion Last week we learnt: • Fact and opinion is not as simple as true or false! • Facts can be tested/proven; opinion cannot be proven. You can have ‘false facts’. • Unless the question asks otherwise, select 2/3 of examples to support your answer to a question about a writer’s use of fact and opinion. • Higher grades will require the explanation of the uses of facts and opinions. Think about the following: – “Why has the writer used these specific facts/opinions for this specific audience?” – “Why has the writer used these specific facts/opinions for this specific purpose?” – Also – you could explain how they make the audience feel – shocked? amused? horrified? and why.Today we are continuing to develop a secure understanding of HOW writers use fact and opinion in their texts. So can you answer:
  15. 15. Gloucestershire Cheese Rolling• Overall, how does the article use fact and opinion? What is the balance? Is it as we would expect for the purpose and form?• How does the writer build a sense of the excitement and spectacle that rolling a cheese down a hill can bring through their use of these specific facts/opinions? How does the reader feel because of the specific facts/ opinions used by the writer?
  16. 16. The Olympics: better than they looked on the tinWatching sport is usually less interesting thanwatching cardboard exist. Now my eyeballs are Still, despite my confusion over the more pageant-eating up the Games. like events, Im finding the Olympics hypnoticallyThanks, Olympics, for confounding my inner cynic. watchable, and its because … well … look, I dontIn the run up to the Games, I was expecting the know.whole thing to be awful. They announced plans to I dont know. Understand this: for 100% of my lifeban non-Olympic vehicles from every single road in so far, I found watching sport – any sport –the capital apart from Horn Lane in Acton, which marginally less interesting than watchingmeant people were going to be forced to drive cardboard exist. Now my eyeballs are eating it up,their cars through buildings and rivers and way up even while my brain fails to make sense of it. Takeinto the sky just to get to work. the swimming. I have no idea why there are soEverything was terrible. And then the Games many different flavours: 50m, 200m, 400m, 800m,began and suddenly everything sort of wasnt. The breaststroke, butterfly, freestyle, relay, marathons,opening ceremony helped, with its mix of medleys. Ive seen endless hours of swimming. Byspectacle and eccentricity. I was in America and choice. You could leave it on in the background. Itthe ceremony leaked through to make me feel a was like having a fish tank full of mysterious watertad sniffly and homesick. I flew home the following people in the corner of the room. Made me feelday. The mood when I landed was markedly like a god tinkering in his shed, glancing at his petsdifferent from when I left. Was the nation pleased now and then. Oddly comforting.to see me? No. It was indoors, watching sport. And At the time of writing, the running-and-jumpingsoon, I was joining them. stuff has begun in earnest; the sheer physicalI have no idea why some things qualify as Olympic agony of which I can personally relate to thanks tosports and others dont, though theres an obvious hours spent playing the Track and Field computerand heavy class bias in favour of things you can game in the 80s. No reason to believe this wontimagine royals doing in a tapestry, such as archery become another time sponge. So yes, thanks,or dressage. Falconry would surely be included if Olympics, for confounding my inner cynic, and notKen Loach hadnt depicted a commoner doing it in being awful. And for, I suppose, on balance, Ithe film Kes. You need your own castle grounds to admit, I confess, in a whisper – actually being quitepractise half these sports. No wonder a good.disproportionate number of our victors thus farseem notably posh, apart from Bradley Wiggins, Charlie Brookerthe first member of Oasis to attend a London The Guardian, Sunday 5 August 2012comprehensive school and win four gold medals.
  17. 17. The Olympics: better than they looked on the tin• Read through the text once and identify the P.A.F.T.. How do you expect texts of this P.A.F. to use fact and opinion? This article is from The Guardian newspaper. It is an example of an EDITORIAL. An editorial is a particular style of writing in which a newspaper editor presents the newspaper’s/their opinion about current issues.• Read through the text a second time and highlight the key facts and opinions .• Overall, how does the article use fact and opinion? What is the balance? Is it as we would expect for the purpose and form?• What does the writer show about their feelings towards the Olympics through the use of these specific facts/opinions? How does the reader feel because of the specific facts/opinions used by the writer? Remember to evidence particular phrases from the article to support your answers (PEARL)
  18. 18. The Olympics: better than they looked on the tinWatching sport is usually less interesting thanwatching cardboard exist. Now my eyeballs are Still, despite my confusion over the more pageant-eating up the Games. like events, Im finding the Olympics hypnoticallyThanks, Olympics, for confounding my inner cynic. watchable, and its because … well … look, I dontIn the run up to the Games, I was expecting the know.whole thing to be awful. They announced plans to I dont know. Understand this: for 100% of my lifeban non-Olympic vehicles from every single road in so far, I found watching sport – any sport –the capital apart from Horn Lane in Acton, which marginally less interesting than watchingmeant people were going to be forced to drive cardboard exist. Now my eyeballs are eating it up,their cars through buildings and rivers and way up even while my brain fails to make sense of it. Takeinto the sky just to get to work. the swimming. I have no idea why there are soEverything was terrible. And then the Games many different flavours: 50m, 200m, 400m, 800m,began and suddenly everything sort of wasnt. The breaststroke, butterfly, freestyle, relay, marathons,opening ceremony helped, with its mix of medleys. Ive seen endless hours of swimming. Byspectacle and eccentricity. I was in America and choice. You could leave it on in the background. Itthe ceremony leaked through to make me feel a was like having a fish tank full of mysterious watertad sniffly and homesick. I flew home the following people in the corner of the room. Made me feelday. The mood when I landed was markedly like a god tinkering in his shed, glancing at his petsdifferent from when I left. Was the nation pleased now and then. Oddly comforting.to see me? No. It was indoors, watching sport. And At the time of writing, the running-and-jumpingsoon, I was joining them. stuff has begun in earnest; the sheer physicalI have no idea why some things qualify as Olympic agony of which I can personally relate to thanks tosports and others dont, though theres an obvious hours spent playing the Track and Field computerand heavy class bias in favour of things you can game in the 80s. No reason to believe this wontimagine royals doing in a tapestry, such as archery become another time sponge. So yes, thanks,or dressage. Falconry would surely be included if Olympics, for confounding my inner cynic, and notKen Loach hadnt depicted a commoner doing it in being awful. And for, I suppose, on balance, Ithe film Kes. You need your own castle grounds to admit, I confess, in a whisper – actually being quitepractise half these sports. No wonder a good.disproportionate number of our victors thus farseem notably posh, apart from Bradley Wiggins, Charlie Brookerthe first member of Oasis to attend a London The Guardian, Sunday 5 August 2012comprehensive school and win four gold medals.
  19. 19. Fact and opinion We’re learnt: • Fact and opinion is not as simple as true or false! • Facts can be tested/proven; opinion cannot be proven. You can have ‘false facts’. • Unless the question asks otherwise, select 2/3 of examples to support your answer to a question about a writer’s use of fact and opinion. • Higher grades will require the explanation of the uses of facts and opinions. Think about the following: – “Why has the writer used these specific facts/opinions for this specific audience?” – “Why has the writer used these specific facts/opinions for this specific purpose?” – Also – you could explain how they make the audience feel – shocked? amused? horrified? and why.Today we continued to develop a secure understanding of HOW writers use fact and opinion in their texts. So can you answer: How do the two texts differ in their use of fact and opinion?

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