Marsden making grammar matter in the input london network for languages june 2014

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Marsden making grammar matter in the input london network for languages june 2014

  1. 1. Making grammar matter in the input. Dr Emma Marsden & Rowena Hanan Centre for Language Learning Research Department of Education University of York emma.marsden@york.ac.uk
  2. 2. Outline PART 1: What do learners attend to in the input? PART 2: Practising Form Meaning Connections – Reducing reliance on certain cues PART 3: Limits of this kind of practice • The kind of knowledge gained • How far can practising FMCs be applied?
  3. 3. Part 1: What do learners attend to in the input? Evidence shows… • Learners produce, esp. in spontaneous oral production, even after several years of learning: – Le garçon m’appelle – Le weekend dernier je manger – Nous j’habite… or …Nous habiter – Tu aimer les carrottes? – Je pas manger – Il lave (for he washes himself) • And write: – Tu joue au tennis? – Vous aller en Angleterre? – Tu a visité York?
  4. 4. Part 1: What do learners attend to in the input? Do we mind about these errors? • On the one hand… – Natural, developmental errors – Chunks are very useful – Too much emphasis on accuracy is de-motivating – need interesting content, fluency, complexity, risk- taking • On the other hand, learners need to – break down and analyse the chunks – gradually become more accurate in using grammar
  5. 5. PART 1: Theories about how learners process the input Input - the raw material for learning language Carroll 2002, Long 1996, Krashen 1980 Explaining what is and isn’t learnt: – Frequency & saliency of grammar doesn’t explain it all – ‘knowledge about rules’ doesn’t explain it all! ‘Noticing and extracting’ some features of the input seems to be difficult…
  6. 6. PART 1: Theories about how learners process the input Semantic / pragmatic processing Which of these people do these activities? Answer as quickly as you can!!!! 1. The cat or parents walks the dog 2. The men or child work in a bank 3. The parents or baby cry all night 4. The child or adults listen to the news
  7. 7. PART 1: Theories about how learners process the input Semantic / pragmatic processing You will hear what someone said about your friend. Choose the phrase that best fits 1. No creo que coma en casa mucho Es delgado Es gordo 2. Dudo que baile mucho en las discotecas Sabe bailar No sabe bailar 3. Estoy seguro que hace su tarea por la noche Saca buenas notas Saca mala notas
  8. 8. Den Mann verfolgt der Computer. PART 1: Theories about how learners process the input Semantic / pragmatic processing
  9. 9. Jean fait laver la voiture à Paul Qui a lavé la voiture? Jean Paul PART 1: Theories about how learners process the input Semantic / pragmatic processing
  10. 10. PART 1: Theories about how learners process the input Semantic / pragmatic processing Al hombre lo invita la mujer
  11. 11. PART 1: Theories about how learners process the input Semantic / pragmatic processing Forms are embedded, but attention not oriented to it… Order the items. Do you like /do you do these activities? Did you hear the activity?
  12. 12. Part 1: Theories about what learners do with the input Semantic / pragmatic processing Although some morphosyntax may be perceived, it is not connected to a meaning or function VanPatten & Cadierno 1993; VanPatten 1996; Marsden 2005; Marsden & Chen 2011 Learners’ attention to some features of the input is ‘blocked’ by lexical items (reading a telegram) the L1 (English ‘habits’ entrenched) common sense , expectations (computers don’t chase people, men invite women)
  13. 13. PART 2: INSTRUCTION THAT SEEMS TO HELP: Practising form-meaning connections • Taking out the cues that learners rely on • Repeated practice in perceiving the input (phonemes, syntax) to map to meaning/function • ‘Processing Instruction’ VanPatten & colleagues • Approx 50 experimental studies since early 1990s • Form Meaning Connections = FMCs
  14. 14. Practise in making form meaning connections from the input • Training the ear • Improving analysis of language • Adaptable to a huge range of ages, proficiencies, languages, grammar features • Principle, concept
  15. 15. The following sentences have become jumbled. Underline who you think does the activities: 1. The cat / parents walks the dog 2. The child / men work in a bank 3. The baby / parents cry all night 4. The child / adults listen to the news PART 2: Instruction that seems to help Form-meaning connections
  16. 16. PART 2: Instruction that seems to help Form-meaning connections You will hear the second half of a statement that someone recently made about your friend. Circle the opinion phrase that correctly fits 1 coma en casa mucho He/she eat-SUBJ at home a lot a) Yo sé que b) No creo que 2 baile mucho en las discotecas He/she dance-SUBJ a lot in clubs a) Es obvio que b) Dudo que 3 hace su tarea por la noche He/she do-IND his/her homework at night a) Estoy seguro que b) No es verdad que (Farley, 2000)
  17. 17. PART 2: Instruction that seems to help Form-meaning connections Marsden (2005) Remember: je = present tense (now) j’ai = past (done!) 1) 2) 3)
  18. 18. PART 2: Instruction that seems to help Form-meaning connections Hanan & Marsden (ongoing) Which picture matches the sentence? Den Mann verfolgt der Computer.
  19. 19. French Causative Jean fait laver la voiture à Paul Qui a lavé la voiture? Jean Paul Jean lave la voiture pour Paul Qui a lavé la voiture? Jean Paul PART 2: Instruction that seems to help Form-meaning connections From Whong (2004)
  20. 20. Al hombre lo invita la mujer El niño besa a la niña PART 2: Instruction that seems to help Form-meaning connections Cadierno (1993), VanPatten & Cadierno (1993)
  21. 21. La mujer invita al hombre A la niña la besa el niño PART 2: Instruction that seems to help Form-meaning connections Cadierno (1993), VanPatten & Cadierno (1993)
  22. 22. Part 3: CHALLENGES
  23. 23. Challenge 1: What kind of knowledge is gained? • Learners worked out the rule (Marsden & Chen 2011; Sanz & Morgan-Short 2005) • Learning consisted of explicit knowledge about rules • No gains on more implicit measures (conversation, narration) • So is this useful for spontaneous use? See Rowena Hanan’s findings ! Part 3: Challenges for practice FMCs
  24. 24. Challenge 2: Production practice might be equally beneficial (DeKeyser, Farley, Toth) Challenge 3: Perhaps don’t need repeated FMCs. Just need to notice the form over and over - spot the form! (Hanan & Marsden, Schmidt, Ellis’ tallying hypothesis) PART 3: Limitations and challenges for FMCs practice
  25. 25. Part 3: Limitations of FMCs BUT this approach useful because… • It makes us think about what learners do with specific features in the input … • With limited time, autonomy, engagement • A little controlled, repetitive practice can be appealing! • requires little time or money • difficult to make production of some grammar essential, without becoming meaningless, mechanical practice (Marsden 2004)
  26. 26. Can FMCs help with everything?! PART 3: Limitations and challenges for FMC research
  27. 27. Can FMCs help when lack of transparent L1-L2 relations? French Imparfait • Kevin McManus (University of York) • First year undergraduates, then 6th formers • Full use of Imparfait acquired late due to many learning problems PART 3: Limitations and challenges for FMC research
  28. 28. Can FMCs help when lack of transparent L1-L2 relations? French Imparfait (McManus & Marsden) • L1/L2 similarities and differences • Different mappings to express habitual… La femme promenait le chien IMP context The woman walked the dog (every day) ≠ a promené le chien (complete, unique event) • Similar mappings for progressive (=ongoing/ interrupted) La femme promenait le chien PC context The woman was walking the dog (when…) PART 3: Limitations and challenges for FMC research
  29. 29. Practice in interpreting habitual versus progressive meanings Remove semantic biases inherent in verbs Frédérique mangeait à la cantine quand il perdait son porte-monnaie [Fred used to eat in the cantine when he used to lose his wallet] Choose… Ongoing/interrupted Or Regularly repeated Can FMCs help when lack of transparent L1-L2 relations? French Imparfait (McManus & Marsden)
  30. 30. Explicit Negative Feedback You chose ONGOING/INTERRUPTED, but it should have been REGULARLY REPEATED. Remember: REGULARLY REPEATED = Imparfait + IMPARFAIT Can FMCs help when lack of transparent L1-L2 relations? French Imparfait (McManus & Marsden)
  31. 31. Frédérique mangeait une pomme au moment où on est arrivé chez le dentiste [Fred was eating an apple when we arrived at the dentist] • Ongoing/Interrupted or Regularly repeated? You chose REGULARLY REPEATED instead of ONGOING/INTERRUPTED. Remember ONGOING/INTERRUPTED = Imparfait + PASSÉ COMPOSÉ Can FMCs help when lack of transparent L1-L2 relations? French Imparfait (McManus & Marsden)
  32. 32. And in listening tasks • Ongoing or regularly repeated? (live) Referential hab and prog • Ongoing or regularly repeated? (eat) referential hab and prog Well done! You chose ONGOING/INTERRUPTED = PASSÉ COMPOSÉ + Imparfait You chose ONGOING/INTERRUPTED, but it should have been REGULARLY REPEATED. Remember: REGULARLY REPEATED = Imparfait IMPARFAIT Can FMCs help when lack of transparent L1-L2 relations? French Imparfait (McManus & Marsden)
  33. 33. Can FMCs help abstract syntax? S V inversion for interrogatives Interrogative word order often redundant Bist du schlank? (are you slim?) Du bist schlank (you are slim) Other cues indicate ‘question’: Intonation Paralinguistic cues World knowledge, expectations Can you make the word order matter? PART 3: Limitations and challenges for FMC research
  34. 34. Can FMCs help abstract syntax? German Verb 2nd (Designed for LLAS Materials Bank, Marsden 2005) The reception on your mobile isn’t good. Decide whether you have missed something. Remember, in German the verb is the 2nd idea in the sentence! 1) gehe ich ins Kino 2) ich schlafe bis 12 Uhr Mittags Did you miss: Am Wochenende or nothing? Did you miss: Im Winter or nothing? PART 3: Limitations and challenges for FMC research
  35. 35. Part 3: Limitations and challenges for FMCs Can FMCs help abstract syntax?: Gender German articles agree with the gender of the noun Der Hund (the dog) Die Katze (the cat) • Can gender in articles be made non-redundant? Tick the picture Die schhhhhhhh heisst Tweety (the schhhhhhhh is called Tweety) NO!!!!!!!
  36. 36. Can FMCs help abstract syntax? Gender Spanish adjectival endings agree with gender of noun • el libro viejo (the book old) • una casa blanca (a house white) Make feature essential in reading or listening Choose the appropriate noun. leí el libro divertido la revista (I read the book funny) the magazine Es hermosa Victoria or David Beckham? PART 3: Limitations and challenges for FMC research
  37. 37. Conclusions (1) • All these listening and reading activities force learners to pay attention to grammar to determine function and meaning
  38. 38. Conclusions (2) Role for FMCs Practising task-essential FMCs, with feedback – Helps knowledge about grammar – Emerging evidence: also helps knowledge that is • accessible in real time • under communicative pressure • to convey meaning Of course, one small component in lessons, amongst many other more interesting things!!
  39. 39. Making FMCs - French inflectional system For more examples of simple activities which help learners make Form-Meaning Connections: see IRIS www.iris-database.org Or email: emma.marsden@york.ac.uk
  40. 40. With thanks to collaborators: Rowena Hanan, Kevin McManus, Hsin-Ying Chen, Alaidde Berenice Villanueva Aguilera, John Williams, Gerry Altmann, Xierong Liu, Michelle St Claire Acknowledgements to funders: ESRC, British Academy, University of York VISIT: http//:www.iris-database.org
  41. 41. ReferencesCollins, L., Trofimovich, P., White, J., Cardoso, W., & Horst, M. (2009). Some Input on the Easy/Difficult Grammar Question: An Empirical Study. The Modern Language Journal, 93(3), 336-353. Ellis, N., Hafeez, K., Martin, K. I., Chen, L., Boland, J., and Sagarra, N. (Forthcoming, 2013). Learned attention in adult language acquisition: Overt then covert. Applied Psycholinguistics. Ellis, N. and Sagarra, N. (2010). The bounds of adult language acquisition: Blocking and learned attention. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32(4), 1-28. Ellis, N. and Sagarra, N. (2011). Learned attention in adult language acquisition: A replication and generalization study and meta-analysis. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33(4), 589-624. Farley, A. 2004. ‘Processing instruction and the Spanish subjunctive: Is explicit information needed?’ in B. VanPatten (ed.), Processing instruction: Theory, Research, and Commentary (pp. 227–239), Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Isabelli, C. (2008) First Noun Principle or L1 Transfer Principle in SLA? Hispania HISPANIA -WICHITA THEN MASSACHUSETTS- 91, 2; 465-478 MacManus & Marsden (ongoing) The role of explicit information in learning French imparfait. Marsden, E. (2006). Exploring Input Processing in the classroom: An experimental comparison of Processing Instruction and Enriched Input, Language Learning, 56, 507-566. Marsden, E. & Chen, H.-Y. (2011). The roles of structured input activities in processing instruction and the kinds of knowledge they promote. Language Learning, 61, 4. pp. 1058–1098. Marsden, E., Altmann, G., St. Claire. (2013). Priming of verb inflections in L2 French amongst beginner learners, and the effects of orientation of attention during different instructional activities. International Review of Applied Linguistics for Language Education, 51 (3) 271–298. Marsden, E., Williams, J., Liu, X. (2013) Learning novel morphology: The role of meaning and orientation of attention at initial exposure. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35 (4) 619-654 O’Grady (2014) Anaphora and the case for emergentism. In O’Grady & MacWhinney, The Handbook of Language Emergence. Wiley Blackwell . Sagarra, N. and Ellis, N. (2013). From seeing adverbs to seeing morphology. Language experience and adult acquisition of L2 tense. Special issue “Eye tracking and SLA” (Eds. A. Godfroid, S. Gass, & P. Winke). Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35(2) pp 261-290.

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