N6 Interview concepts (Communication students at FET Colleges South Africa)


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N6 Interview concepts focuses on the interviewer and the interviewee during an interview process. Especially for N6 Communication student at South African FET Colleges.

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N6 Interview concepts (Communication students at FET Colleges South Africa)

  1. 1. N6: Interviews Chapter 9 Page 199-222 1
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  3. 3. An interview is a specialised form of pre-planned verbal and nonverbal interpersonal communication between two or more parties on matters of mutual interest, which has to be completed within a restricted period of time. 9.1 DEFINITION OF THE INTERVIEW 3
  4. 4. 9.2 The employment interview 1. The employment interview as a communication process Interviewer/Employer: Communicator/sender Message: questions to interviewee Interviewee/Employee: Respondent/receiver Feedback=answers to the questions 4
  5. 5. 9.2 Important concepts p.199 • Interviewer = Employer = Sender of the message = Communicator • Interviewee = Applicant = Receiver of the message = Respondent • Message: questions put during the interview • Feedback: answer to the questions • Two-way process and a continuous changing of roles: • The respondent can also ask questions and in doing so becomes the sender of the message 5
  6. 6. 9.2 Barriers during an interview p.200 • Physical barriers: • telephone or other interruptions, excessive bright lighting, poor air-conditioning, a very broad desk • Psychological barriers: • nervous gestures, lack of eye contact, sitting on edge of chair, stuttering voice, nervous giggle • Perceptual barriers: • differences in background, qualifications, experience, religion 6
  7. 7. 9.2 Verbal barriers • Verbal communication can lead to the success or failure • Interviewer must used words with “shared” / “pooled” meaning • Must indicate what he means when using words with more than one meaning like infrastructure, logistic problems • Semantic barriers could arise • Avoid negative connotations • I notice you have varied job experience (positive) • I see you chop and change quite a bit (negative) • Avoid using slang • Check non-verbal indications to see if interviewee understands 7
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  9. 9. 9.2.2 Aims and objectives interviewer p.201 • Interviewee must make the most of time available • • • • • • Find the best applicant Will applicant fit in? Gain more info than in CV Provide info about company Provide info about position Interview is good investment of company’s time/money • Promote the image of company 9
  10. 10. 9.2.2 Aims & objective of interviewee • Info about qualities & skills • Get info about company, staff, products etc. • Gain info about position • See if properly qualified • See if he/she will fit in • Reasonable salary? • Is job opportunity for future career, development, pro motion? 10
  11. 11. 9.2.3 Psychological aspects p.201 • Interviewer must have psychological expertise • Should have understanding of employee’s background, culture, personality, attitude and reactions in interview • Should be able to meet the interviewee at his level’s interest and needs • Should create pleasant atmosphere, positive climate, positive relationship between him and interviewee • Should be treated as equal partner in interview situation • May not have a firing squad of a staccato question and answer session • Interviewer should accept the interviewee’s need to be recognised as individual. • Accept him with tolerance and empathy. 11
  12. 12. 9.2.4 Types of employment interviews p.202-203 1. Unstructured or non-directive • Questions asked as they come to mind 2. Semi-structured or patterned • Have a predetermined sequence of questions. 3. Structured or situational • Job-related questions with predetermined preferred answers 4. Sequential or serialised • Interviewed by separately or several interviewers 5. The Panel interview • Applicant faces a group of interviewers 6. Stress interview • How applicant would react to stress in the job situation 12
  13. 13. 9.2.5 Characteristics, skills, techniqu es in a good interview Characteristics of a good interviewer • • • • Tactful and polite Tolerant Goal-oriented Intelligent, sensitive, aler t • Get down to interviewee’s level of understanding • Good listener • Responsible, hardworkin g 13
  14. 14. 9.2.5 Skills and techniques to be acquired by a good interviewer • Establish relaxed atmosphere • Put applicant at ease • Direct conversation quickly towards purpose • Various types of questions • Get interviewee to do most of the talking • Interpret non-verbal comm accurately • See if questions were understood 14
  15. 15. Hints for interviewer p.204 • Prepare thoroughly for interview • Establish exactly what the position involves • Study all info regarding the applicant • Venue be prepared properly • Welcome applicant, invite him to be seated, put him at ease • Direct conversation quickly towards purpose of interview • Is the applicant’s qualifications & expertise suitable for position? • Will he fit into organisation (personality, age, attitude etc) • • • • • • Ask incisive questions – get applicant to talk Make sure if applicant understands questions Do not do all the talking himself (interviewer) Beware of embarrassing questions Listen carefully to applicants answers (analyse, evaluate) Give applicant opportunity to ask questions throughout 15
  16. 16. Hints for the interviewer p.205 • Indicate tactfully that interview has been concluded • Rise, thank applicant, greet him, see him to door • Assess and evaluate inconspicuously • Complete written evaluation immediately after he has left 16
  17. 17. Different types of questions Type of question • Open-ended • Closed • Specific • Reflective • Leading • Hypothetical Example • “Why did you decide to do a secretarial course?” • According to your CV, you have matric, is that true? • In what year did you start? • I enjoy jogging, do you enjoy jogging? • I think a woman’s place is at home, don’t you? • If you have to reschedule appointments, how will you do it? 17
  18. 18. 9.2.6 Phases of the interview 1. Planning the interview 2. Establishing rapport 3. Questioning 4. Conclusion 5. Reviewing or evaluation of the interview 18
  19. 19. 9.2.7 Common mistakes p.207 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Snap judgements Negative emphasis Poor knowledge of the job Pressure to make an appointment Candidate-order error Non-verbal behaviour 19
  20. 20. 9.2.8 Hints for the applicant p.208 Before the interview • Pay attention to appearance, dress, posture • Prepare thoroughly for the interview • • • • Determine: where, when, who is conducting interview Get info: the firm, the particular position You may have to prove skills (word processing) Be prepared for typical interview questions • • • • • Your background Your salary Reason you want to give up current job Reason you are interested in that position Which aspects of your studies you enjoyed • Be prepared for strange questions (stress questions) 20
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  23. 23. 9.2.8 Hints for the applicant During the interview: • You are being evaluated all the time (remember it!) • Be punctual • Wait until invited to be seated • Maintain eye-contact throughout interview • Do not chew gum or smoke • Use acceptable language, avoid slang • Concentrate on questions asked • Answer concisely but comprehensively • Be honest, tactful, positive • Be realistic about salary you want • Try to be relaxed for duration of interview • Pay attention to non-verbal clues given 23
  24. 24. 9.2.8 Hints for the applicant p.210 After the interview • Thank the interviewer for having given you opportunity • Write a letter of thanks if you feel it is appropriate • Remember – no interview is a waste of time, even if you do not get the job 24
  25. 25. 9.2.9 Criteria for evaluating applicants p.210 Interview assessments may include the following: • • • • • • • • • Appearance Health Scholastic achievement Intellectual ability Relevant experience Personality Sincerity Leadership-qualities Potential • Attitude • Enthusiasm • Positive approach • Motivation • Determination • Goal-settings • Goal orientated • Comm skills • Sense of judgement • Decision-making abilities 25
  26. 26. 9.3 Radio & TV Interviews p.213 The radio or television interview is also a communication process • Interviewer/presenter = sender of message • Interview questions = message conveyed in a code consisting of words or words and facial expressions or gestures • Interviewee/respondent = provisional receiver of message • Feedback or reaction = direct and immediate: verbal or nonverbal, positive or negative, conscious or unconscious • Listener/viewer = ultimate receiver for which message is intended • Feedback from listener/viewer is indirect and delayed; positive or negative, usually conscious and verbal, can be directed at interviewer, interviewee or both • Channel: studio equipment or line, how message reaches the listener or viewer, radio or satellite signal and related equipment. 26
  27. 27. 9.3.2 Radio vs TV-interviews – differences p.213 Radio interviews • Participants can be heard • Listeners judge participants by the quality of their voice Television interviews • Participants can be heard and seen • Listeners judge according to voice quality but also appearance • They are judged harshly by appearance, should concentrate on clothing, posture, facial expressions, body language and mannerisms. 27
  28. 28. 9.3.3 Types of radio & tv interviews p.214 • Short, informative interview • Slot up to 3 minutes on magazine or actuality programme. Examples of this on Carte Blanche, Frontline, Top Billing • News interview • Very brief, could be restricted to 1 minute slot following reportage of factual information regarding accident, a disaster, a strike, amalgamation of two companies or any other news item. • The in-depth interview • Forms part of an actuality programme and fills a relatively huge large time-slot. Respondent is an expert in his field who has been invited on a programme such as Focus to discuss issues of political, religious, moral, social, industrial or economical nature. 28
  29. 29. 9.3.4 Guidelines for interviews Before the interview p.215 • Find out as much possible from the editor or presenter hosting the programme – see questions on p.215 • Research your topic well, be prepared to answer difficult or hostile questions. • Select three or four main points which you would like to put across as “your side of the story”, and stick to them • Put down main points and any figures you want to quote on small record cards which you can hold in your hand. DO NOT read straight from these cards • Try to rehearse the interview beforehand, using a friend • Dress to suit the occasion, which will project and enhance the image of your firm. • Arrive early at the studio, it gives you time to get acquainted 29
  30. 30. 9.3.4 Guidelines for the interview During the interview p.216 • Listen carefully to the interviewer’s questions. Only answer what is asked. Be brief and to the point. • Give direct answers to direct questions. Admit if you do not know the answer, tell the truth: even if it hurts. • Use simple, everyday language; avoid being pompous, using jargon which the viewers/listeners might not understand. • Look straight at the interviewer when answering. This way you can pick up non-verbal clues indicating if you should conclude. • Try to be lively, enthusiastic and natural. Try not to be intimidated by the lights and technical equipment. • Try to be courteous and control your temper throughout the interview, even if questions are aggressive and hostile. • Avoid mannerisms such as gesturing, blinking, twirling in your chair. This will irritate the audience at home. 30
  31. 31. 9.3.4 Guidelines for the interview After the interview p.216 • Thank the interviewer and producer for the opportunity to air your views. A telephone call or letter would be in order. • Ask to see a pre-recorded programme in full before it is viewed. • Lodge a complaint with the producer if you feel the programme has been edited to such an extent that you have been quoted out of context or treated unfairly in any way. 31
  32. 32. 9.3.5 Guidelines for interviewer - planning p.217 • Meticulous preparation is essential. Research • The topic to be discussed • Possible (obvious and controversial) questions to be asked • Most suitable participants to discuss the matter • Background of each of eventual participants • Before programme starts, get the interviewees to relax. • Courteous conduct • Discussing interview strategy and programme sequence, subject outline, possible line of questioning • What to expect in terms of lights, cameras, microphones etc. 32
  33. 33. 9.3.5 Guidelines for interviewer – conducting the interview p.217 • An experienced interviewer do not read from a piece of paper and will ask questions to get more than a “yes” or “no”. • Refrain to interrupt the interviewee. • Interviewer must control interview at all times, direct it and keep it on track. • Use effective non-verbal gestures such as direct eye-contact, nods and smiles. • Good listening skills are essentials, prompt questions for a lively discussion. • Should be concluded by thanking participants for their time. 33
  34. 34. 9.3.5 Guidelines for interviewer –reviewing the interview p.218 • Get the opinion of colleagues • Get the opinion of participants in various interviews – orally or by a questionnaire • Survey done among viewers or listeners • Take note of opinions on interview skills in “Letters to the Editor” section of daily and weekly newspapers 34
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