New Directions in Metadata


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Panel presentation to a graduate class at the University of Arizona School of Information Resources and Library Science. Invited by Dr. Jana Bradley. July 2006.

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New Directions in Metadata

  1. 1. Overview of Metadata For IRLS 504 Class, Summer II, 2006 Panel Discussion: New Directions in the Organization of Information in Libraries Yu Su 7/26/2006
  2. 2. What is metadata? <ul><li>Literally, &quot;data about data”. </li></ul><ul><li>Functionally, &quot;structured data used to describe other data.” </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata includes data associated with either an information system or an information object for purposes of description, administration, legal requirements, technical functionality, use and usage, and preservation. </li></ul>Where does metadata live? <ul><li>Embedded within the information object </li></ul><ul><li>Separate from the information object </li></ul>
  3. 3. A sample metadata record (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Digital Library Systems) Full Color Depth 150 dpi (mid, presentation quality) Resolution 7.22 x 4.89 inches Print Screen: 1083px x 734px Dimensions JPEG image (image/jpeg) Format 231 KB File size No coverage information exists for this record Coverage No relation information exists for this record Relation November 07 2001 Date.Modified November 07 2001 Date.Issued November 12 2001 Date.Available No description information exists for this record Description Animals Tanzania Subject (general) Audience (public domain) Rights EN - ENGLISH Language DIVISION OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS Contributor U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Publisher WO/81-007 Source Stolz, M. Gary Creator (none) Alternative Title African elephant Title
  4. 4. What does metadata do for us? <ul><li>Identify information items </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate information retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Help manage and administer data/system </li></ul><ul><li>Help maintain data over time </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate data exchange </li></ul>
  5. 5. Metadata categorized… <ul><ul><li>Descriptive metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are arbitrary categorization according to the functions each metadata elements serve. </li></ul><ul><li>Some metadata elements can be classified into more than one category. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Dublin Core Metadata Schema <ul><li>A metadata schema: a structured set of metadata elements. </li></ul><ul><li>A proposed minimal set of data elements for describing network-accessible materials. </li></ul><ul><li>It was initially proposed at a workshop held in March 1995 at Dublin, Ohio. </li></ul>Title Creator Subject Description Publisher Contributor Date Type Format Identifier Source Language Relation Coverage Rights Dublin Core Metadata Element Set Version 1.1 Date Issued: 2004-12-20
  7. 7. Other metadata standards… <ul><li>MARC </li></ul><ul><li>Dublin Core (DC) </li></ul><ul><li>Global Information Locator Service (GILS) </li></ul><ul><li>Encoded Archival Description (EAD) </li></ul><ul><li>Content Standard Digital GeoSpatial Metadata (CSDGM) </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM) </li></ul><ul><li>Core Categories for Visual Resources (VRA Core) </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin Core </li></ul>
  8. 8. What are metadata crosswalks? <ul><li>A table that maps the relationships and equivalencies between two or more metadata schemes. </li></ul><ul><li>(Dublin Core Metadata Initiative Glossary) </li></ul><ul><li>A crosswalk is used for translating between metadata formats. </li></ul><ul><li>Crosswalks or metadata mapping enables information systems to exchange data that is organized according to different standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Crosswalks or metadata mapping support the ability of search engines to search effectively across heterogeneous databases. </li></ul>
  9. 9. What do crosswalks look like? <ul><li>Semantic Mapping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually presented in a table fashion with equivalent elements from different standards listed side by side. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata mapping is subjective. There is no definite right or wrong answers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical Mapping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical mapping is semantic mapping represented in programming language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical mapping uses various programmatic solutions to transform metadata records computer files. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Example of Semantic Mapping by Tony Gill, Anne Gilliland-Swetland and Murtha Baca, Introduction to Metadata. <archdesc> with LANGMATERIAL attribute <language> Language <unitid> with COUNTRYCODE and REPOSITORYCODE attributes <eadid> Identifier0   SGML or XML 0Format <unitdate> <publicationstmt><date> Date INSTANTIATION     Rights <repository> <publisher> Publisher <origination><persname> <origination><corpname> <origination><famname> <author> Contributor <origination><persname> <origination><corpname> <origination><famname> <author> Creator INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY <unititle> <titleproper> Title <controlaccess><subject> <notestmt><subject> Subject     Source     Relation <archdesc> with LEVEL attribute ** Type <abstract> <notestmt><note> Description <geogname> (spatial) <unitdate> (temporal)   Coverage CONTENT EAD <archdesc> EAD <eadheader> Dublin Core
  11. 11. Example of Technical Mapping Mapping between the ASDM Digital Library metadata schema to Qualified Dublin Core. Created by Travis Bowen on Sep 6, 2005 { mappings.put(&quot;identifier&quot;, &quot;dc:identifier&quot;); // ASDMCounter, ASDMObject, ASDMObjectHistory, ASDMWorkflow mappings.put(&quot;classification&quot;, &quot;dcq:ispartof&quot;); // ASDMObject mappings.put(&quot;sciname&quot;, &quot;dc:title&quot;); // ASDMObject mappings.put(&quot;source&quot;, &quot;dc:source&quot;); // ASDMObject mappings.put(&quot;caption&quot;, &quot;dcq:abstract&quot;); // ASDMObjet mappings.put(&quot;format&quot;, &quot;dc:format&quot;); // ASDMObject mappings.put(&quot;date&quot;, &quot;dcq:created&quot;); // ASDMObject, ASDMObjectHistory, ASDMWorkflow mappings.put(&quot;location&quot;, &quot;dcq:spatial&quot;); // ASDMObject mappings.put(&quot;type&quot;, &quot;dc:type&quot;); // ASDMObject, ASDMObjectHistory, ASDMWorkflow mappings.put(&quot;creator&quot;, &quot;dc:creator&quot;); // ASDMObject, ASDMObjectHistory mappings.put(&quot;creatorurl&quot;, &quot;dcq:isreferencedby&quot;); // ASDMObject mappings.put(&quot;program&quot;, &quot;dcq:references&quot;); // ASDMObject mappings.put(&quot;keywords&quot;, &quot;dc:subject&quot;); // ASDMObject mappings.put(&quot;mined&quot;, &quot;dcq:spatial&quot;); // ASDMObject mappings.put(&quot;caption&quot;, &quot;dc:description&quot;); // ASDMObjectHistory, ASDMWorkflow }
  12. 12. What does interoperability mean? <ul><ul><li>The ability of different types of computers, networks, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>operating systems, and applications to work together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>effectively, without prior communication, in order to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exchange information in a useful and meaningful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manner. There are three aspects of interoperability: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>semantic, structural and syntactical. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Dublin Core Metadata Initiative Glossary) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Metadata standards and system interoperability… <ul><li>Metadata standards are one type of many standards that facilitate the dissemination, communication, and use of information by multiple producers and users. </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized metadata can be easily transferred from one system to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata organized according to shared standards is more likely to be understood correctly by different systems. </li></ul>
  14. 14. New developments in the field… <ul><ul><ul><li>METS: Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standards (Library of Congress) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A metadata schema used to coordinate and display metadata elements from other schemas. See http:// </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PREMIS: PREservation Metadata Implementation Strategies (OCLC) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A data dictionary for preservation metadata </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http:// / </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Actions in other worlds… <ul><li>Management Information Systems, Computer Science, search engine industry, publishing industry, bookstores </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic indexing: automatic metadata generation </li></ul>
  16. 16. Questions to consider… <ul><ul><ul><li>Are metadata standards still holding up their value with all the local alternations? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is normalized data good enough? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How about user-created metadata? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is search engine the ultimate answer? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Recommendations to library science students <ul><li>Pay more attention to the fundamentals of the problems, and solution, worry less about the profession or discipline lines. </li></ul><ul><li>Be open to contradictory views and try to understand the arguments of both sides. </li></ul><ul><li>Take responsibility in the evolving field. Make your own contribution. </li></ul>
  18. 18. References <ul><li>Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum Digital Library Project </li></ul><ul><li>-Under development by the University of Arizona Libraries and Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian Heritage Information Network </li></ul><ul><li>- http:// </li></ul><ul><li>Dublin Core Metadata Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul><ul><li>Coleman, Anita. 2002. “Metadata: The Theory behind Practice.” 4th State GILS Conference. Scottsdale, AZ. 26 April 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Digital Library System </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul>
  19. 19. Thank you! <ul><li>Yu Su </li></ul><ul><li>Information Systems Librarian </li></ul><ul><li>University of Arizona </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>(520) 307-2821 </li></ul>Please feel free to contact me if you have any thoughts, questions or ideas. I like to hear from you!