It social and emotional development s13 part ii


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It social and emotional development s13 part ii

  1. 1. Chapter 7Part IISocial and Emotional Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood
  2. 2. 2Temperament• Temperament is an individual’s behavior styleand way of responding to the world• Temperament is influenced by genetics (nature)and interactions (nurture)• Although considerable evidence indicatestemperament is consistent across development, itdoes not always follow a predictable course
  3. 3. 3Temperament Types• The nine characteristics of temperamentaccording to Thomas and Chess:6. Intensity of Reaction6. Threshold of Reaction6. Distractibility6. Quality of Mood1. Activity Level2. Rhythmicity3. Approach-withdrawal4. Adaptability5. Attention span
  4. 4. 4Temperament Types• The six reliable and nonoverlappingtemperamental constructs according to MaryRothbart and colleagues:4. Activity level4. Attention span/persistence4. Regularity1. Fearful distress2. Anger/frustration3. Positive affect
  5. 5. 5Goodness of Fit• The match between a child’s temperamentand the demands of his/her environment– Environment may include family, school, child-caresetting• Because caregivers cannot change ordetermine the child’s temperamental style,caregiving styles need to be molded aroundthe child’s temperament
  6. 6. 6Temperament – Thomas and Chess• The three temperament types include:– Easy, flexible• Behave predictably and respond positively to new situations– Difficult• Irregular in schedules and bodily functions, slow to adapt tochange, cry longer and louder than other infants, and generallywary of new people or situations– Slow-to-warm• Active but initially do not respond well to new situations orpeople
  7. 7. 7Temperament• Temperament theorists believe that temperament has aprofound influence on the course of an individual’sdevelopment• Children’s development of conscience and morality alsomay be related to temperament• Temperament influences how children respond to theircaregivers’ efforts of socialization• The perception of temperamental qualities in an infant isinfluenced by cultural factors
  8. 8. 8Attachment• An enduring emotional tie characterized by atendency to seek and maintain closeness to aspecific figure (the attachment figure)particularly under conditions of stress• Attachment Theory– based on the work of John Bowlby and MaryAinsworth– Places great emphasis on the caregiver-childrelationship as a foundation for individual differences
  9. 9. 9Attachment Theory• Attachment is distinct from bonding, whichgenerally refers to the caregiver’s tie to theinfant• Infants use the attachment figure as a base fromwhich they attend to, learn about, and exploretheir world
  10. 10. 10Attachment Theory• Through attachments, children develop aninternal working model• The internal working model– Child’s general expectations of their own worthinessand the availability of others– It serves as a model for future relationships– Children differ in the quality of their internal workingmodels
  11. 11. 11The Development of Attachment• Preattachment Phase• Attachment-in-the-Making Phase• Clear-Cut Attachment Phase• Stranger Anxiety• Separation Anxiety
  12. 12. 12Phases of Attachment• Preattachment Phase – Birth to 8 weeks– Infants rarely protest when caregivers leave– Do not distinguish among the various caregivers whoattend to them• Attachment-in-the-Making Phase – 2 to 6 months– Infants may recognize caregivers– Respond with delight and pleasure– Do not show these responses to strangers– Attachment is not fully developed
  13. 13. 13Phases of Attachment• Clear-Cut Attachment – 7 to 12 months– Stranger anxiety emerges• Wary and fearful reaction to strangers– Separation Anxiety also emerges• Reflected in an infant’s negative protests that accompanyseparation from the attachment figure• Usually peaks between 12-18 months
  14. 14. 14Assessing Attachment• Harlow’s Experiment– Infant monkeys were fed on wire or cloth-coveredmother substitutes– His findings indicated the infant monkeys showed aclear stronger attachment to the cloth substitute– The findings suggest physical contact maycontribute to attachmentClick on the picture to watch a short video on Harlow’s Experiment
  15. 15. 15Assessing Attachment:The Strange Situation• Mary Ainsworth and colleagues– Developed the Strange Situation– Participants involved:• Caregiver• Infant between 11 and 18 months of age• Adult stranger– Eight three-minute episodes involving threesequences:• Exploration• Separation• ReunionClick on the picture to viewa short video on theStrange Situation
  16. 16. 16Secure Attachment• Pattern in which infants use their attachment figuresas a secure base, obtaining comfort from theirpresence and becoming distressed by their absence• Involves– High levels of exploration– Positive affective exchanges between caregiver and child– Effective soothing of distress
  17. 17. 17Avoidant Attachment• Pattern characterized by conspicuousavoidance of contact or interaction with thecaregiver• Involves– High levels of exploration– Low levels of overt distress at separation– Avoidance of caregiver upon reunion
  18. 18. 18Ambivalent Attachment• Pattern characterized by inconsistentbehavior towards a caregiver• Involves– Low levels of exploration– Intense separation distress– A mix of anger and distress at reunion– Failure to settle quickly at reunion
  19. 19. 19Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment• Pattern characterized by a lack of a coherentstrategy for handling separation from and reunionwith a caregiver• Involves– Inconsistent behaviors– Disorganized strategies• These children are at risk for adjustment problems
  20. 20. 20Factors Affecting Attachment:Caregiver Sensitivity• Sensitive caregiving is an important predictor ofthe development of secure attachment• Synchrony– The degree to which caregiver’s and baby’sbehaviors occur together and are coordinated toproduce a state of mutual enjoyment andengagement
  21. 21. 21Factors Affecting Attachment:Infant Characteristics• Certain characteristics shape the behavior ofcaregivers– E.g., cuddly infants foster caregiver sensitivity• Some infants are at risk because of theircharacteristics– E.g., blind or deaf infants do not respond in typicalways, which can impede attachment
  22. 22. 22Culture and Attachment• Attachment isinfluenced by culture– E.g., in Japan, wherecontact anddependency arevalued, there are noavoidant infantsD. Greco/Image Works
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. 24Consequences of Attachment• Children with secure attachment– Have better social skills– Tolerate frustration better– Express a wide range of emotions– Approach situations with interest and pleasure– Follow directions well– Show a bias for remembering positive events
  25. 25. 25Attachment to Fathers• There are wide individual differences ininvolvement in fathers• Fathers serve as attachment figures in thesame manner that mothers do• How fathers play with their infants appears tobe a key feature– Interact as playmate as opposed to protector,comforter, or care provider
  26. 26. 26Day Care• Patterns of Day Care Use• Effects of Day Care• Guidelines for Quality Day Care• Culture and Day Care
  27. 27. 27Patterns of Day Care Use• About 60% of mothers in the U.S. work outside thehome• More than half of all mothers with infants underage 1 work• Most infants are cared for by relatives• Mothers who work full-time are more likely to useday care centers or non-relatives
  28. 28. 28Patterns of Day Care Use• Ethnic differences– African American children are more likely to be cared forin center-based programs– Latino children are more likely to be cared for by familymembers– Caucasian children are more likely to be cared for bynannies• These differences reflect income, access to childcare arrangements and cultural values
  29. 29. 29Patterns of Day Care Use• Most child care facilities are privately owned andoperated• Requirements for standards of care are minimal• The following guidelines should be used to judgea program’s quality:– Safety– Adult/child ratios and group size– Staff training and program– Curriculum
  30. 30. 30Effects of Day Care• There are contradictory conclusions– Day care may benefit low and middle-class children– High quality day care may have positive effects onintellectual and verbal development– Day care may increase aggression and decreasecompliance– Poor quality day care may affect attachmentadversely