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A Little Review - Observation helps us… Understand individual childrens… • Interests • Strengths • Challenges Plan… • The kinds of activities and materials to provide • When and how to rotate activities • How to expand on activities4
A Little Review…We Might Use Information From Ongoing Observation To… Plan curricula and learning activities Share the good work of our Document childrens program with progress the community Share information Let children with families know that we value their work Complete an assessment instrument5
Your Final • The next slides will discuss different methods of documenting information. • Some of these methods we have already discussed but some are new. • Review each method carefully.6
Work SamplesAn assortment of work s amples collated over a period of time can help trace the child‟sdevelopment. Work samples can include drawings, paintings, collages, writingsamples, and photographs of construction projects. Dated examples of children‟s workreflect creativity and provide specific examples to share with parents.Work samples can include a comment from the child about their work. These worksamples can be displayed in scrap books or folders as a record to share with familyand friends as a method of documenting creative growth. Adding additionalinformation, observations or brief comments to children‟s work samples enhances themeanings behind the work created by the child. These could include adding children‟sinterpretations, ideas, theories or brief comments on the setting or circumstancessurrounding the event.
PhotographsPhotographs of the child at work, play or on an outing are very valuable. For theparent they are an excellent medium in providing insights into a child‟s day.Photographs can be taken of children climbing on the play structure, sitting in a highchair, dancing or gardening. They are suitable for any aspects of a child‟s day.Photographs capture a glimpse of a child‟s day that otherwise would not be seen.Mounted and accompanied by captions or narratives, photographs reflect a record ofthe child at work. They make an excellent display within the educational setting andare a useful tool for parent/ carer communication.Digital cameras can be extremely useful when copying photographs for a variety ofuses, or copying for a number of children‟s records, as you can select only those youwant to print.It is good practice to always seek parental permission for the use of their child‟sphotograph in any publication.
Audio & VideoPlanning ahead for the effective use of this observational tool needs to be consideredas filming can be intrusive. Children will feel more comfortable if they are familiarwith this happening. E xplain the purpose of what you are doing to the children.Include them in the process of when and why they are being recorded. The morechildren see this method being used the more relaxed they will become about it.Video footage makes an ideal presentation at a parent gathering, information nightor further professional development for staff. Families appreciate seeing a recordingof their children interacting with other children and staff members. Audio taping or theuse of a cas ette player can capture a child‟s conversational language. This is also a suseful tool to observe and interpret your own interactions with children.
Anecdotal RecordsAn anecdote is a story. When used for observing, it is a story about a child‟s behavior.Similar to how we might recount a story to family and friends, it is told in the pasttense. It has its beginning when a child starts to participate in an activity and itsconclusion when the child leaves/ completes/ exits the experience.Anecdotes are the most commonly used tool in gathering information about children. Date: 22nd March 2008 Observer: Claire Time: 10:00 am Background information: Hannah has been spending much more time Child: Hannah (3.8 yrs) outdoors. Place: Playground Other children: Tom (4.1 yrs), Setting: Obstacle course Jake (3.6 yrs), Beth (3.10 yrs) Hannah walked towards the climbing frame. She placed her right foot on the first step then stopped. Tom, Jake and Beth lined up behind her. She stood back and waved them on. ‘You go,’ she said. When they had passed she stepped up again but backed away when more children arrived for their turn at the climbing frame. Hannah stood at the base of the frame for a moment looking toward the painting easels. She walked towards them. This may have been the method you used when making your practice observations
Running Records A running record is a very detailed description of behavior or an event, which is recorded as it happens. It is a bit like a sport commentators running commentary at a football game. That is the commentator describes in detail what is exactly happening. In a similar way a running record records exactly what a child is doing and saying within a particular time-frame. R unning records are used mainly to provide very objective information about a particular situation. Because you are writing a description of behavior as it happens, the running recordThis may will be written in the present tense, e.g. Claire holds onto the string with one hand.have been Date: 05.07.07 Observer: Jane Time: 9:30 am – 9:33 am Background information: For the past weekthe method Child: Karly (3.2 years) Karly has spent the majority of her free playyou used Place: On the puzzle mat time at the puzzles. Others involved: N/Awhen Setting: Karly is at the puzzle mat during indoor free play.making your Time Observationpractice 9.30 am Karly kneeling, reaches across the mat with her right hand. Slowly and still using one hand, she brings the puzzle toward her. She places her left handobservations onto the puzzle mat. Dropping her right knee, then her left, Karly crosses her legs, bending slightly over the puzzle in front of her. „There, this one‟s easy,‟ she says to herself with a smile. 9.31 am Very slowly, Karly turns the puzzle upside down and the pieces fall to the mat. Using her right hand, Karly turns each puzzle piece over carefully. Still sitting cross-legged, Karly turns her attention to a group of girls giggling loudly as they run past the puzzle mat. She shifts her focus back to the puzzle. 9:32 am She looks intently at the pieces. Choosing the four corner pieces, Karly places one in each corner of the puzzle frame. Using two fingers of the right hand, Karly switches two of the pieces from the top to the bottom of the frame. „There‟, she states and hits both her hands on her knees.
ChecklistsChecklis can be useful when observing a particular skill or a certain aspect of a tschild‟s behavior. In a checklist, children are “checked off” against a list of skills orbehaviors. Checklists usually look at the skill level of a particular age group andconsider developmental norms. They provide a typical/ average approximation ofdevelopment to assist in measuring development across an age range. Checklist for 0 - 12 months: Gross motor development Child: Date: Observer: Skill Present/ Not Yet Comments Observed Observed (Date) Sits without support Crawls Pulls self to standing and stands unaided Walks with aid Rolls ball in imitation of adult Checklist for 0 - 12 months: Self-help skills Child: Observer: Skill Present/ Not Yet Comments Observed Observed (Date) Feeds self with biscuit: munching, not sucking Holds drink with two hands Drinks with assistance Holds out arms and legs while getting dressed
Rating ScaleRating scales are observation tools that indicate the degree to which a child possessesa certain trait or behavior. E behavior is rated on a continuum from lowest to the achhighest level (or vice versa) and is marked off at certain points along the scale. Theobserver must make a judgment about where on the scale the child‟s behavior.Example
Time SamplesA time s ample provides a snapshot of a child‟s day. It is used to record the occurrenceof a child‟s behavior at particular times of day, for example group time or meal times.It is often used when a there is a concern about a particular behavior and the providerneeds to know how often it occurs. Time samples can be taken every half hour over aday or for shorter time intervals of five or ten minutes.A table needs to be drawn up with regular time intervals marked on it. For example,the observation may run for 30 minutes with five minute intervals recorded on thetable. Comments or tally marks are recorded every five minutes to track thefrequency of the behavior being observed. Date: 12/3/08 Background information: Jessica has Name: Jessica started to show signs of walking. Age: 11 months Frequency: Every five minutes Observer: Ken Time: 9:00 am – 9:30 am Time Behavior 9:00 am J is standing upright holding onto a table with two hands. 9:05 am J is sitting on the ground by the table looking toward the block corner. 9:10 am J is holding a block in her right hand. 9:15 am J is lying on the floor in the block area holding the block. 9:20 am J is moving from the block area. She is standing upright and holding onto the table for support as she moves. 9:25 am J is sitting quietly on a chair. 9:30 am J is holding her carers hand as they walk across the room.
Your Final (continued) • Download the Documentation Methods worksheet (you can find the worksheet in the same area as this PowerPoint.) • On the worksheet, list ONE advantage and ONE disadvantage of each method in the areas provided. • Save your file – example: suttonfinal.doc SUBMIT YOUR FINAL VIA THE FINAL LINK UNDER THE DROPBOX TAB.15