Chapter 6 pp modified i

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Infant Toddler Cognitive Language Development

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Chapter 6 pp modified i

  1. 1. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Cognitive and Language Development inInfancy and ToddlerhoodChapter 6Part I
  2. 2. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Jean Piaget• Studied how children becomeproblem solvers beginning in theirinfancy• Theorized the differences betweenhow infants and older children think• His theory is called “Theory ofCognitive Development”
  3. 3. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage• During the first two years:• Infant behavior progresses from non-purposeful movements topurposeful experimentation on the properties of objects• Infants move from narrow and repetitive reflex actions to theuse of symbols for representing people and objects• At 12 to 18 months, the first signs of truly intelligent behavior areseen in planning and trying actions to obtain a goal• From birth to 2 years, infants learn about the world through theirsenses and actions
  4. 4. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Substage I:Using Reflex Schemes – Birth to 1 month• Piaget viewed neonatal reflexes as sensorimotor schemas• Infants assimilate information about the world by using schemas• Infants accommodate their schemes to fit the demands of new anddifferent situations• Actions are not purposeful or goal-oriented• Through applying schemes, infants start learning about the world
  5. 5. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Substage II:Exploring Movements of the Body – 1 to 4months• By two to three months, infants recognize that their actions havespecific effects• Primary circular reactions• Repetitive actions that are centered on an infant’s own body andmotions• First occur accidentally, then become purposeful• e.g. thumbsucking
  6. 6. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Substage III:Exploring Objects – 4 to 8 months• Schemes are now coordinated to connect vision and movement andto connect the movement of different body parts• Secondary circular reactions• Repetitive actions focused on the qualities of objects• Infants explore objects rather than their own bodies• Infants enjoy making appealing sights and sounds continue
  7. 7. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Substage IV:Active Problem Solving – 8 to 12 months• First signs of intelligence in the intentional application ofschemes to reach a goal• Infant can become upset if failing at a task• Objects have form, depth, and solidity• Object permanence forms
  8. 8. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Substage IV:Object Permanence – 8 to 12 months• The concept that people and objects continue to have anindependent existence beyond one’s perception of them• In Substages I and II (0-4 months) – the infant has no realization ofthe independent existence of objects; will not search for an unseentoy• In Substage III (4-8 months) – the infant will search for an objectpartially in view• In Substage IV (8-12 months) – the infant is able to actively searchfor objects that have disappeared; will look in first place an object ishidden
  9. 9. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Click the picture to see a video on object permanence
  10. 10. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Substage V:Creative Problem Solving (12 to 18 months)• The infant is able to apply entirely new strategies to solveproblems• Tertiary circular reactions• The infant will systematically modify their behavior in subtleways to explore the effects• The infant is able to search for hidden objects that have beenmoved several times
  11. 11. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Substage VI:Using Symbols to Represent Reality (18 to 24months)• The beginning of symbolic representation• The use of mental symbols to represent objects• Infants• Rely less on motor actions• Can think about the past and future• Think flexibly• Remember actions to use in new situations• Able to imagine actions beforehand and mentally problem solve
  12. 12. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Beyond Piaget: Newer Research• Piaget was an astute observer of child behavior; however, heunderestimated the abilities of children• Many researchers, neo-nativists, now believe some skills areinnate• Infants are born with cognitive abilities to understand space,language and objects• These “modules” develop rapidly• The environment triggers their development
  13. 13. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Reassessing Object Permanence• Children’s failure to display object permanence may have been anissue of performance rather than competence• Infants look more at novel or surprising stimuli• We can show infants “possible” or “impossible” events and see iftheir looking patterns change• So, visual attention can be used to indirectly assess infants’understanding of objects• If infants did not have object permanence, they would not besurprised by the “impossible” event
  14. 14. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Infant Number Concepts• Infants have a basic understanding of the concept of number• Addition and subtraction of objects in “possible” and“impossible” events• Infants looked longer at “impossible” events• This effect has not been consistently supported whichsuggests the numerical abilities of young infants are fragileand inconsistent
  16. 16. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Perception in Early CognitiveDevelopment• After about a year, infants begin to name objects and peopleand recognize how objects are used• While some researchers believe that concepts arise fromperception, others believe that conceptual categorization is adifferent process that involves higher order thinking andlanguage• Infants increasingly scrutinize the differences and similaritiesbetween objects starting as young as six months
  17. 17. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Perception in Early CognitiveDevelopment• Image schemas are formed, which are primitive notions,based on the visual appearance of objects, that lay afoundation for thinking about them• By 10 months, infants begin to understand the relationshipbetween objects and show a basic ability to categorize peopleinto groups• In relational play, children act in ways that demonstrate theirunderstanding of the relationship between two objects
  18. 18. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Understanding DifferencesAmong People• The recognition that different people have different desirestakes a few years to develop• 18-month-old infants will give an adult who indicates they likebroccoli a piece of broccoli rather than a cracker• 14-month-old infants will not
  19. 19. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.The Social Contextof Cognitive Development• Lev Vygotsky believed• Social interactions are essential for learning• Older children and adults serve as role models for thinking• Much of learning occurs while interacting with others• So, the form that learning takes varies with the cultural context
  20. 20. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.ZPD and Scaffolding• Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)• The range of learning that a child is capable of with help from moreskilled and experienced partners• Scaffolding• Caregivers provide structure and support for children’s thinkingthrough informal teaching methods• Caregivers help infants interpret solutions through their actions,emotions, and tone of voice
  21. 21. The Zone of Proximal DevelopmentThe distance between what a child can do withoutassistance and what the child can accomplish withassistanceActual developmentallevel of childActual developmentallevel of child withassistance fromknowledgeable adult orpeerScaffoldingScaffolding are the strategies used to help the child throughthe Zone of Proximal Development
  22. 22. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Joint Attention• A shared focus of attention between two people• By about six months, infants and their caregivers begin to share andnegotiate learning tasks during play• 10-12 month old infants and their caregivers are well practiced intheir routine interactions• Provides common ground for interpreting and understandinginteraction• Influences cognitive development
  23. 23. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Contingency and Association• Newborns as young as two hours old can be trained throughclassical conditioning to expect a contingency• E.g., they can be taught that being stroked on the face will leadto being offered food• Infants can also learn via operant conditioning• E.g., they can be taught to associate a behavior (sucking) with aconsequence (hearing their mother’s voice)
  24. 24. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Habituation and Dishabituation• Infants naturally look at things they find interesting• Habituation• A decrease in attention to a stimulus that has been presentedrepeatedly• Dishabituation• An increase in attention to a new stimulus after habituation to aprevious stimulus• When babies habituate and dishabituate, they demonstrate thatthey make a perceptual distinction between objects
  25. 25. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Habituation and Novelty Responses• Habituation is found early in life• With age, habituation becomes more rapid as information isprocessed more efficiently• By 9 months, infants distinguish between the appearances ofmen and women• There are individual differences in habituation speed
  26. 26. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Developing Long-Term Memory• There are marked improvements at• 2-3 months• 6-10 months• 18-20 months• Improvements are due to• Increased myelination of the neurons• Increased numbers of synapses• Development of frontal cortex• Increased attention span
  27. 27. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Repeated Exposure• Infantile amnesia• Inability to recall events that occurred very early in life• Young infants need repeated exposure to form lastingmemories• Memory is improved when infants are placed in familiarsituations and motivated to perform
  28. 28. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Situational Cues• Infants remember best when the testing conditions aresimilar to the original learning conditions• Memory is context-bound• Context is identified by situational cues• Therefore, situational cues improve memory• Deferred imitation• Imitation of an action after a delay• Provides evidence of long-term memory• Develops in first 2 years• Unusual situations may be used as memory cues
  29. 29. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.Principles of Infant Memory• Older infants remember longer than younger infants• Older infants use a wider range of cues to help themremember than do younger infants• Forgotten memories can be retrieved through thepresentation of reminders

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