Successfully reported this slideshow.

Chapter 5a


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Chapter 5a

  1. 1. CHAPTER 5Infants and ToddlersPhysical Development
  2. 2. Brain Development Half of all human genes are involved in building the brain by providing the codes for its basic structures and functions.
  3. 3. Early Brain DevelopmentFormation and Migration of Neurons • The brain is built of cells called neurons • Neurons are the communication system of the brain • A neuron’s job is to make connections with other neurons, constantly exchanging information • A baby is born with 100 billion neurons
  4. 4. Early Brain DevelopmentFormation and Migration of Neurons • Each neuron has an axon – a transmitter • The axon is the long part of the neuron • Axons send messages to other neurons
  5. 5. Early Brain DevelopmentFormation and Migration of Neurons • Each neuron also has dendrites • Dendrites are extensions that branch out • Dendrites receive messages
  6. 6. Early Brain DevelopmentFormation and Migration ofNeurons • Information is transmitted through electrical impulses • These impulses travel down the length of a neuron • The impulse causes the neuron to produce a chemical response
  7. 7. Early Brain DevelopmentFormation and Migration of Neurons • The chemical messenger then transmits the info from one neuron to the next through small gaps between the cells, called synapses • Synaptogenesis is the creation of new neural connections or synapses
  8. 8. The Importance of Myelination• Myelination consists of smooth layers of fatty proteins that sheath the neuron The most dramatic myelination occurs• Electrical impulses travel 3x faster before 2 years of age• During prenatal development myelination occurs along the spinal cord
  9. 9. Early Brain Development• During early development, the brain generates about 2 to 3 times more neurons and connection than are needed to survive and function
  10. 10. Early Brain DevelopmentPruning• Little used neural connections are eliminated• These connections are ones that are not reinforced by the child’s environment• Early experiences play a crucial role• Pruning occurs throughout early childhood and into adolescence K T e Due to genetics or lack of o e reinforcement s (use it or lose it) p s Reinforcement
  11. 11. Brain Development – Cerebral Cortex• This is the largest part of the brain• Controls higher thought process• Last part of the brain to finish growing• Easily influenced by the environment• Left Hemisphere • Right Hemisphere • Language processing • Spatial relationship • Develops rapidly around the • Rapid development around the age of 2 age of 4 or 5 Hi! Hey!
  12. 12. Brain Development – Cerebral Cortex • Left Hemisphere • Right Hemisphere • Logic • Intuition • Reason (facts) • Emotions • Objective • Subjective • Verbal • Visual • Self-oriented • Group-oriented • Categorical • Relational • Detail focused • Whole picture focused • Memory • Creative • Purposefulness • Playfulness • Words of Songs • Tune of Songs • Mathematics • Arts (motor skill) • Forms strategy • Forms possibilities • Order • Imagination • Safe • Risk taking • Acknowledges • Appreciates
  13. 13. Infant Brain Development• By the time a baby is born, the brain controls important survival functions… • Breathing • Swallowing • Sucking • Heartbeat• Sensory areas develop early • Smell • Taste • Touch • Sight • Hearing
  14. 14. Infant Brain DevelopmentBrain Plasticity • Infant brains are more flexible than adults • Allows the brain to be fine-tuned • Helps the brain adjust to different situations • Helps the brain recover from serious harm
  15. 15. Brain DevelopmentEnvironmental Effects• Environment shapes the way the brain forms • Experiences are the chief architect of the brain• Structure of the brain influences children’s interpretation of information
  16. 16. Brain Development Two types of environmental influencesEnvironmental Effects EXPERIENCE - EXPECTANT EXPERIENCE - DEPENDENT• Development will not • Environmental inputs happen unless a particular actively contribute to experience occurs during brain structure this critical period • Experiences are not highly typical • Can be positive or negative
  17. 17. Brain DevelopmentEnvironmental Effects• Negative environmental effects increase risk for problems in brain development • especially during ‘experience – expectant’ processes• Disruptions during the brain’s growth spurt can cause • Permanent reduction in brain size • Reduction in the number of neurons • Reduced myelination of cells • Decreased numbers of synaptic connections
  19. 19. Neonatal and Infant Development Sight • Poor vision • Looks for edges/contrasts • Not fully developed at birth • Blurry • Can track slow moving objects Red,Contrast Colorful blue, Patterns green
  20. 20. Neonatal and Infant DevelopmentPerception • Infants prefer to watch moving objects • Infants are good at coordinating their movements with the movements of objects • Infants also recognize and prefer complex patterns of motion made by people • Infants detect depth and distance before they can crawl
  21. 21. The Visual Cliff Click here to view the Visual Cliff video
  22. 22. Neonatal and Infant DevelopmentSound • Can hear sounds that are whispered but not softer than that • Cannot hear sounds of short duration as well as adults • Prefer relatively high-pitched sounds • Seem to be particularly attuned to human voices, especially own mothers’ • Prenatal exposure to sounds appears to “set” infants’ preferences for sounds after they are born
  23. 23. Neonatal and Infant DevelopmentTaste • Newborns can distinguish among tastes that are sweet, salty, bitter, and sour – prefer sweetSmell • Newborns turn away and make faces when presented with strong or unpleasant smells • Smells may be one of the first and most basic connections between neonates and their caregivers
  24. 24. Neonatal and Infant DevelopmentTouch • The parts of the nervous system that process information about touch develop very early • At birth, the presence of reflex responses to touch suggest the newborn is particularly sensitive on the face, hands, soles of the feet, and abdomen • Temperature cues are used by infants to locate nourishment
  25. 25. Stages of Motor Development• Infants’ movements become more localized and specialized during the first few years of life• During the first year, infants’ reflexes become inhibited as the brain develops and they gain voluntary control over many of their movements• After the first year, motor development mainly involves practicing and mastering previously learned skills
  26. 26. Neonatal Reflexes Sucking Blinking Stepping Rooting Tonic Neck Babkin Palmar Moro Swimming grasp BabinskiClick here to watch a short video on neonatal reflexes
  27. 27. Stages of Large Motor DevelopmentInvolves movements of large muscles in thebody• Motor control precedes in a cephalocaudal direction, which means from the head to the feet.• Head, trunk, and arm control appears before children are able to coordinate their hands and fingers – this is called proximodistal development
  28. 28. Stages of Large Motor Development• Lift head• Sitting• Crawling, Creeping• Standing• Walking• The first year is achieving the above while the second year is when children try many variations in their movements
  29. 29. Stages of Fine Motor DevelopmentInvolves movement of the small muscles in the body• Reaching• Grasping• Fingers in mouth• Hands / feet• Potty Control
  30. 30. Healthy Development• Safety • Failure-to-Thrive (FTT) • Baby proof • Undernutrition • Lack of food • Avoid Accidents • Malnutrition • Car Seat • Lack of proper calories • Problems• Nutrition • Passive • Breast-feeding • Inactivity • Withdrawn • Bottle • Avoid physical contact • Lag behind • Language • Verbal • Reading • socialAfter children learn to walk, the leadingcause of death is physical injuries1/3 of all deaths for children 1 to 4 years of age
  31. 31. Benefits of Breast-Feeding for Infants and Mothers, page 160 Table 5.4 For Infants • Protein / Iron • Cholesterol / lactose (brain development) • Resistance to infections • Protection against diseases • Minimized risk of obesity • Slightly higher IQ & reading comprehension For Mothers • Contact / intimacy • Weight loss • Faster recovery from childbirth • Delayed ovulation • Convenience • Less expense