Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I


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Imperialism refers to the events in history in which European countries started colonizing and then taking advantage of countries around the world to monopolize natural resources.
World War I

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Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I

  1. 1. 758–759 CORBISImperialism and World War I The Palace of Westminster in London, England, home to Big Ben and the Houses of Parliament 1860 1880 1900 1920 1869 1884 1900 1914 1917 Suez France sets up Boxer World Lenin seizes Canal protectorate Rebellion War I power in opens in Vietnam sweeps China begins Russia
  2. 2. Chapter Preview Chapter Overview Visit for a preview The early 1900s was a period of conflict in much of the of Chapter Read this chapter to find out how a war in Europebecame a world war that affected millions of people. View the Chapter 20 video in the World History: Journey Across Time Video Program. The New Imperialism By 1900, many industrial nations, including Britain, France, Germany, Spain, and the United States, had expanded their trade and built empires in different parts of the world. Nationalism in China and Japan During the 1800s, Chinese and Japanese societies were influenced by Europeans and Americans. World War I Begins Growing tension between European powers eventually led to World War I. World War I Changes the World World War I led to the fall of empires, a revolution in Russia, and the creation of new nations and governments. Identifying Make this foldable to help you identify and learn key terms. Step 1 Stack four Step 2 With the Reading and Writing sheets of paper, one papers still stacked, As you read the chapter, on top of the other. cut out all four write the terms from On the top sheet of circles at the same Locating Places, Meeting paper, draw a large time. People, and Building circle. Your Vocabulary in your foldable. Write a definition for each term. Step 3 Staple the paper circles Step 4 Label the Then turn your foldable together at one point around the edge. front circle as over (upside down) to Chapter 20 shown and take Key write a short sentence This makes notes on the Terms using each term. Staple a circular pages that open here. booklet. to the right. 759
  3. 3. Prioritizing What’s Important? As you study history, it may seem impossible to keep all the facts in your head. Once you understand that the author does not expect you to remember every word of the text, you can begin to focus on what is truly important or prioritize. Prioritize means “to list in order of importance.” Prioritizing will help you read more critically and do better on tests. Read the sentences below. World War I, also called the The words in Great War, was different from blue show the any earlier war. Both sides ideas that the developed new, more power- author intended to be most ful weapons to help them important. break through enemy lines. Machine guns fired bullets one after the other at a rapid The other speed. Huge artillery guns sentences act as fired shells more than supporting 75 miles (120 km). Poison details. te- gases were used for the lumn no Use th e two-co n yo u hod whe t first time, and tanks and tak ing met e mos cord th flamethrowers were read. Re s in one nt point impor ta e suppo r t- introduced. colu m n and th ther in the o in g ideas column. 760
  4. 4. Bettmann/CORBIS Read this paragraph from Section 4, page 791. Read to Write Discuss the questions that follow with a learning Choose any three topics partner to practice prioritizing. from Chapter 20 with interesting headings. Write a “study sheet” for each topic, noting the most important fact, In January 1919, peace talks began sentence, or concept. at Versailles (vuhr•SY) outside Paris. Then explain why your The principal figures at the talks were statement reflects the most important part of U.S. president Woodrow Wilson, the topic. British prime minister David Lloyd George, French premier Georges Clemenceau, and Italian prime minis- ter Vittorio Orlando. 1. Is it important to remember the date of the peace talks? 2. Is it important to remember where the peace talks occurred? 3. Is it important to remember the principal figures at the talks? 4. If you had to remember only one of the principal figures, who would it be? 5. Is it important to read further to find out more about the peace talks? Read the first page of Section 2 on page 772. What do you think is the most important idea on that page? Support your answer. Unit Title 761 761
  5. 5. The New Imperialism What’s the Connection? Philippines (FIH • luh • PEENZ) In past chapters, you learned how Panama (PA • nuh • MAH) the Industrial Revolution changed the lives of Europeans. By the 1800s, Meeting People industry had also changed Europe’s Robert Clive relationship with the world. Leopold II William McKinley Focusing on the • European nations built empires to Building Your Vocabulary help their economy and to spread imperialism their ideas. (page 763) (ihm • PIHR • ee • uh • LIH • zuhm) • Control of India passed from the colony East India Company to the British. protectorate (page 764) (pruh • TEHK • tuh • ruht) • European nations ruled almost all of sphere of influence Africa by 1914. (page 766) sepoy (SEE • POY) • The United States became an Reading Strategy imperial nation after defeating Spain Organizing Information Use a chart and taking control of the Philippines like the one below to show the colonies and Puerto Rico. (page 769) that each imperialist nation controlled. Locating Places Imperialist Nation Colonies Singapore (SIHNG • uh • POHR) Cuba (KYOO • buh) 1850 1875 1900 1857 1869 1884 1914 NORTH EUROPE Revolt against Suez Canal France sets up PanamaAMERICA CHINA British in India opens protectorate in Canal INDIA Vietnam opens AFRICA SOUTH AMERICA AUSTRALIA762 CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I
  6. 6. The Rise of ImperialismRoger Viollet/Liaison/Getty Images European nations built empires to help their economy and to spread their ideas. Reading Focus A store owner with too many goods on the shelves must find new customers or he or she will lose money. Read on to find out how Europeans solved a similar problem on a grander scale. As nationalism spread, the industrial countries of Europe looked abroad for raw materials and new markets. In the 1800s, they rushed to take over lands in Asia and Africa where these markets and goods were found. As a result, the world entered the Age French military officers with peasants in the Tonkin region of Vietnam of Imperialism. Imperialism (ihm • PIHR • ee • uh • LIH • zuhm) is a type of relationship between countries in which one nation Philippines and the East Indies. During the directly or indirectly controls the govern- 1800s, Europeans began taking over ment or the economy of another nation. Southeast Asia’s mainland. There they grew crops, such as coffee and tea. They also Building Empires Europeans wanted new began to use the area’s raw materials, such lands for more than just trade and profit. as petroleum, rubber, and tin. They believed that ruling foreign peoples In 1819 a British official named Thomas would add to a country’s power. They also Stamford Raffles founded a colony on a believed that imposing their ideas and small island at the tip of the Malay practices on others would improve the lives Peninsula. Known as Singapore (SIHNG • uh • of foreign peoples. POHR), or “the city of the lion,” it became an Imperial nations ruled other people in important port for ships going to and from many different ways. Sometimes they cre- China. ated a colony, which they ruled directly. The French followed the British to main- Sometimes they set up a protectorate (pruh • land Southeast Asia. Both countries soon TEHK • tuh • ruht). There the local people had competed for territory. The British took their own government, but the imperial gov- control of the rest of the Malay Peninsula ernment controlled the military and could and Burma to the north. Meanwhile, French tell the local rulers what to do. In other cases Catholic missionaries entered nearby they set up a sphere of influence, a region Vietnam. Fearing the British would move where only one imperial power had the right into Vietnam, the French sent in troops, and to invest or to trade. in 1884 Vietnam became a French protec- torate. In all of Southeast Asia, only Siam— The First Empires: Southeast Asia As today known as Thailand—kept its freedom. early as the 1500s, Europeans were drawn to Southeast Asia for its spices. They took con- Contrast What is the dif- trol of many island groups, including the ference between a colony and a protectorate? CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I 763
  7. 7. Britain’s Empire in India What Was the East India Company? In 1600 British traders from the East India Company Control of India passed from the East arrived in India. Over the nextIndia Company to the British. 50 years, they built a string of trading fortsReading Focus Has a new business ever moved into along India’s coasts. The East Indiayour neighborhood? What things did it make better or Company set up an army and supportedworse? As you read, ask how Britain made things better local Indian rulers who agreed to work withand worse in India. them. The company’s army also fought the French, Britain’s main rival in India. Earlier you learned that the Moguls ruled One of the most energetic East IndiaIndia in the early 1600s. As time went on, Company officials was Robert Clive. He ledtheir power weakened. Rulers spent too British and Indian soldiers against Frenchmuch money on wars and palaces, and forts. By 1757, Clive and his army hadIndian people began to resent this waste. At pushed the French out of most of India. Thethe same time, Hindus did not like the French were left with only one fort and a fewMoguls trying to make them Muslims. Rising coastal holdings.discontent made it easy for Europeans to take During the next 100 years, Britain’s Eastover India. India Company took over much of India and Imperialism in Asia This photo shows an upper-class Indian family during the time of British rule. Troops traveling through India These native workers are shown on a plantation in Ceylon. What year did British traders arrive in India?764 CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I(tl)Bridgeman Art Library, (tr)Laurie Platt Winfrey, Inc., (b)North Wind Picture Archives
  8. 8. grew wealthy. It brought many European India’s government was now called. The ideas and practices to the Indian people. viceroy’s government both helped and Many Indians, however, felt that the British hurt the Indian people. were trying to change their culture. The British brought order to India. The In 1857 sepoys (SEE • POYZ), or Indian government was run well, and schools soldiers in the company’s army, rebelled were founded. In addition, the British against their British officers. The revolt introduced railroads, the telegraph, and a then spread rapidly across northern India. postal service throughout India. Britain quickly sent more soldiers to India British rule, however, brought great and put down the rebellion. Afterward, there hardships as well. Cheap British textiles were bitter feelings between the British and flooded India and destroyed the local tex- the Indians. tile industry. The British also forced many farmers to grow cotton instead of food. British Rule in India Soon after the upris- Soon India did not produce enough food ing, Britain took direct control of India to feed its people. In the 1800s, millions of from the company. A viceroy, an official Indians died from starvation. standing in for Britain’s Queen Victoria, Cause and Effect Why did arrived to head the Raj (RAHJ), as British the Indians rebel against the British? Imperialism in Southern Asia c.1900 70°E 90°E 110°E N 130°E KOREA . AN W E H East JAPAN G AF NEPAL BHUTAN S China Sea CHINA INDIA Hong Formosa Kong (Taiwan) 150°E BURMA Hanoi Macau 20°N M Bay of ek Arabian on Sea Bengal PACIFIC g R. THAILAND Manila Sea Goa FRENCH OCEAN PHILIPPINES ina INDOCHINA Ch Saigon 0 500 mi. NORTH h ut 500 km So 0 CEYLON MALAYA BRUNEIBORNEO Mercator projection SARAWAK SINGAPORE EQUATOR Su 0° ma U.K. Borneo Celebes tra INDIAN DUTCH EAST INDIES New Guinea OCEAN JavaEuropean nations had colonized much of TimorSouth and Southeast Asia by the late 1800s.1. Which two European nations controlled the KEY most territory in South and Southeast Asia? Possessions:2. Which Southeast Asian country did not British Japanese come under European rule? Dutch Portuguese AUSTRALIA 20°SFind NGS online map resources @ French United German
  9. 9. seized control of the territories that areEurope Divides Africa today the countries of Algeria and Tunisia. European nations ruled almost all of The last territory France claimed in NorthAfrica by 1914. Africa was Morocco, which it divided withReading Focus Have you ever bought something just Spain in 1904.because everyone else had it? Read to learn why At the eastern end of North Africa,Europeans competed to take over Africa. European businesses began operating in Egypt. In 1869 they opened the Suez Canal. Africa was the last populated continent Built by Egyptian workers and paidto be colonized by Europeans. In previous for with French funds, it linked thechapters, you learned that Europeans in the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The Suez1500s built trading stations along Africa’s Canal provided a shorter water route towest coast. In the 1800s, European mission- India and East Asia. In 1875 the Britisharies and explorers finally opened up took control of the Suez Canal. AfterAfrica’s inland areas to European control. Egyptians rebelled, the British made Egypt a protectorate.The Struggle for North Africa The first By 1900, only Tripoli, today known aspart of Africa to be conquered by Europe Libya, remained free from European con-was also the closest. In the early 1800s, trol. Then, in 1911, Italy defeated theEuropeans crossed the Mediterranean and Ottoman empire in a brief war and wastook control of North Africa. French soldiers given control of Tripoli. “Standard Treaty” British colonists in Nigeria The British Royal Niger Company presented this fill-in-the-blank treaty to many African leaders. “We, the undersigned Chiefs of _____, with the view to the bettering of the condition of our country and people, do this day cede [give] to the Royal Niger Company, for ever, the whole of our territory extending from _____. . . . The said Royal Niger Company agree to pay native owners of land a reasonable amount for any portion they may require. The said Royal Niger Company bind themselves to protect the said Chiefs from the attacks of any neighboring aggressive tribes.” —Royal Niger Company, “Standard Treaty” What does the Royal Niger Company offer to the Africans in exchange for their land?766 CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War IHulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS
  10. 10. Imperialism in Africa c.1914 0 1,000 mi. ATLANTIC SPANISH Algiers 0 1,000 km MOROCCO OCEAN TUNISIA Mediterranean Sea Bipolar Oblique projection MOROCCO IFNI Tripoli Cairo ALGERIA RIO DE LIBYA ORO EGYPT Re dS 20N ea FREN FRENCH WEST AFRICA CH FRIC N Khartoum ERITREA FRENCH GAMBIA SOMALILAND A EQ A PORTUGUESE ANGLO- BRITISH UA W GUINEA E EGYPTIAN Addis SOMALILAND TO S SIERRA GOLD NIGERIA SUDAN Ababa INDIAN AL RI LEONE COAST ETHIOPIA TOGO CAMEROON ITALIAN OCEAN SOMALILAND LIBERIA UGANDA RIO MUNI EQUATOR Príncipe BRITISH Mogadishu 0 S`˜ao Tom´e EAST BELGIAN AFRICA Annob´on CONGO GERMAN CABINDA EAST AFRICA Zanzibar Aldabra Is. NYASALAND Comoro Is. ANGOLA NORTHERN E RHODESIA QU AR BI SC GERMAN AM SOUTHERN GA SOUTHWEST RHODESIA OZ 20S AFRICA DA M BECHUANA- KEY MABy the early 1900s, nearly all of Africa LANDwas under the control of European SWAZILAND Belgian Johannesburg Britishnations. UNION OF French1. Which two African nations remained SOUTH AFRICA BASUTOLAND German independent? Cape Town 20E Independent2. Which European 20W country controlled 0 40E 60E Italian the Suez Canal? Do you think that Portuguese control helped the country in its Spanish colonization of other areas in Africa? West and Central Africa During the 1800s, took over areas along Africa’s Atlantic coast. most of West and Central Africa also came Eventually, they moved inland. Meanwhile, under European rule. For hundreds of the only place in West Africa where non- years, Europeans had been involved in Europeans ruled was Liberia. There, African trading enslaved West Africans. By the Americans freed from slavery had founded early 1800s, however, many Europeans had the republic of Liberia in 1847. decided slavery was wrong and should be In Central Africa, European control stopped. When Britain declared the slave began when King Leopold II of Belgium trade illegal, other European nations soon decided to conquer the region. The king followed its lead. spoke often about improving the lives of Europeans then sought out West Africa’s Central Africa’s people. His main concern, gold, timber, hides, and palm oil. To control however, was making money by selling this trade, Britain, France, and Germany rubber grown on plantations in the Congo. CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I 767
  11. 11. In the 1600s, Dutch settlers Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS arrived on Africa’s southwest- ern coast. There they founded the port of Cape Town. The Dutch settlers became known as Afrikaners or Boers. In the early 1800s, Britain seized the Dutch territory and renamed it Cape Colony. The Boers resented British rule. So they moved inland and settled areas that they named the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. As the Boers moved into these areas, they fought African groups that were already living there. One group known as the Zulu had created a large empire in the 1800s. The Zulu often These African workers are shown on a rubber plantation in French fought with the Boers. By the Equatorial Africa. The pails are full of liquid rubber tapped from late 1800s, the Zulu were also rubber trees. Which European country was the first to conquer fighting the British, who even- territory in Central Africa? tually destroyed the Zulu Empire. Leopold ordered his soldiers to force Tensions grew between the British andAfricans to collect rubber for him. Anyone Boers when British settlers discovered goldwho resisted was shot. After missionaries and diamonds in the Transvaal. Britain’sand other Europeans protested, however, Cecil Rhodes—Cape Colony’s prime minis-the king turned over the Congo to Belgium’s ter and the owner of several gold and dia-government. The government did away with mond companies—decided to take theforced labor. Transvaal from the Boers. War erupted in Leopold’s move into the Congo spurred 1899 and ended with the Boers’defeat threeother European powers into action. Over the years few years, they divided the rest of the In 1910 Britain united the Boer republics,African continent among themselves. By the Cape Colony, and one other British1914, Liberia and Ethiopia were the only colony into the Union of South Africa.independent African countries. This new country became self-governing within the British Empire. The Boers andWhat Was the Boer War? The European British ran the government, keeping outrace for the African continent led to a war in South Africa’s much larger nonwhiteSouth Africa. This conflict became known as population.the Boer War. It was fought between theBritish and the Boers. How did this war Identify What territoriesbegin? in Africa had rubber plantations?768 CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I
  12. 12. Pacific. In the late 1800s, Spain still ruled theThe War of 1898 Caribbean islands of Cuba (KYOO • buh) and The United States became an imperial Puerto Rico. However, in 1895 Cubanation after defeating Spain and taking control of rebelled against Spain.the Philippines and Puerto Rico. American newspapers printed vividReading Focus Did you know Puerto Rico is part of stories of killing and cruelty in Cuba. As athe United States? Read to learn how the United States result, U.S. president William McKinleybuilt its early empire. sent the U.S. battleship Maine to protect Americans who lived and worked there. In the late 1800s, the United States joined While anchored in the harbor of Havana,European powers in the race for colonies. By Cuba’s capital, the ship exploded.that time, the United States had become an American newspapers blamed Spainindustrial nation. As its economic power and pressured the president to take action.rose, many Americans in business and gov- In April 1898, McKinley asked Congressernment came to believe that their country to declare war. Four months later, theneeded raw materials and new markets United States had won the war. Spain lostoverseas to keep the economy growing. much of its remaining empire. Cuba became a republic under American protec-America Defeats Spain In its search for tion. Puerto Rico and the Pacific islands ofmarkets and raw materials, the United States Guam and the Philippines (FIH • luh • PEENZ)looked to Latin America and islands in the became American territories. Panama CanalThe Panama Canal, completed in1914, enables ships to pass fromthe Atlantic to the Pacific Oceanwithout traveling all the wayaround South America. The canalis made up of three main locks.These locks raise and lower shipsfrom oceans to lakes and backagain. The Gatun Lock, thelargest in the canal, is picturedhere. It contains three gates thathold ships in the water before 60Nthey are raised or lowered to the 120W 90W 60W 30W New York Citynext gate. Going through the San Francisco ATLANTIC 0Gatun Lock, a ship will be raised OCEAN 30Nor lowered by over 85 feet. 12,600Passage through the 50 mile miles 4,900long canal takes 8 days! miles EQUATOR PanamaHow did the building of the canal PACIFIC Canal Naffect trade in North and South OCEAN W EAmerica? 0 1,000 mi. S 0 1,000 km 30S Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection Strait of Magellan
  13. 13. The Philippines, however, rejected coasts. The trip around South America tookAmerican rule. Led by Emilio Aguinaldo a long time. It also slowed down trade(ah • MEEL • yoh AH • gee • NAHL • doh), the between the coasts. As a result, U.S. presi-Filipinos rebelled against the U.S. and dent Theodore Roosevelt decided to build aattacked American troops. By 1903, the canal across Panama (PA • nuh • MAH) to con-Americans had crushed their uprising. nect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. At that In 1898 Hawaii also came under time, Panama was part of the country ofAmerican control. American settlers in Colombia.Hawaii had overthrown the Hawaiian queen Because Colombia was unwilling toLiliuokalani (lih • LEE • uh • woh • kuh • LAH • nee) give up its land, in 1903 Americans helpedin 1893. However, it was not until after the Panamanians rebel against Colombia. AfterWar of 1898 that Congress approved winning independence, Panama signed aAmerican control of Hawaii. treaty allowing the United States to build the canal. The Panama Canal opened inImperialism in Latin America The War of 1914, greatly shortening the route between1898 had shown how important it was for the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.the United States to be able to move its Analyze How did control ofnavy quickly between the east and west the Philippines help the U.S. economy? Study CentralTM Need help with the material in this section? Visit What Did You Learn? 1. Besides economics, what rea- 5. Compare and ContrastReading Summary sons did European countries How did British rule both helpReview the have for building empires? and hurt India?• Following the Industrial 2. What was the Boer War and 6. Analyze Describe the actions Revolution, European nations why was it fought? taken by the United States in began building empires in Asia Panama in the early 1900s. Critical Thinking Why was the United States and Africa. 3. Summarizing Information interested in Panama?• The East India Company built Draw a diagram like the one 7. Descriptive Writing Imagine Britain’s empire in India. below. Fill in the ovals with the you are a native of India in the names of areas under British late 1800s. Write a letter to a• Nearly all of Africa came under control in the 1800s. friend describing how you feel foreign rule as the Europeans about British rule. sought resources. British 8. Prioritizing Look Possessions• After the War of 1898, the back on the rise of imperialism. United States took control of Determine what the most Puerto Rico, Guam, the 4. Explain Why were European important reasons were for Philippines, and Hawaii. nations interested in the coun- countries to take control of tries of Southeast Asia? other nations.770 CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I
  14. 14. Nationalism in China and JapanWhat’s the Connection? Meeting People European imperialism changed Sun Yat-sen (SUN YAHT • SEHN)the shape of the world in the late Yuan Shigai (yu • AHN SHIHR • KY)1800s. However, Chinese nation- Oda Nobunagaalism and Japanese imperialism also (ohd • ah noh • bun • ah • gah)made their mark on global affairs. Tokugawa Ieyasu (toh • kug • ah • wah ee • eh • yahs • u) Matthew PerryFocusing on the• The arrival of Europeans greatly Mutsuhito (MOOT • suh • HEE • toh) changed Chinese society. (page 772) Building Your Vocabulary• Sun Yat-sen introduced ideas that extraterritoriality (EHK • struh • TEHR • helped cause the collapse of the Qing uh • TOHR • ee • A • luh • tee) dynasty. (page 774) daimyo (DY • mee • OH)• After Americans visited Japan, the Japanese reorganized their society Reading Strategy and economy and began building an Summarizing Information Use a empire. (page 777) chart like the one below to summarize the work of three Asian leaders.Locating Places Leader AccomplishmentsHong Kong (HAHNG KAHNG)Edo (EH • doh)Port Arthur 1850 1875 1900 1842 1868 1900 1905 The Opium Meiji era Boxer Rebellion Japan Beijing Tokyo War ends begins in erupts in China defeats (Edo) Japan Russia Shanghai Hong Kong CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I 771
  15. 15. Bridgeman/Art Resource, NY The British then tried to get the ChineseChina and the West to buy more cotton from India. When that The arrival of Europeans greatly failed, the British started selling opium tochanged Chinese society. the Chinese. Opium is an addictive drug, soReading Focus Have you ever played sports where demand shot up in southern China. Silvereveryone on the team gets a chance to play? Read to learn began flowing into, rather than out of,how the Open Door policy applied the same idea to China. British pockets. The Chinese emperor warned the During the Age of Imperialism, China British to stop trading opium. When thewas ruled by the Qing dynasty. The Qing British refused, war broke out in 1839.came to power in 1644. Qin rulers were Chinese troops surrounded the port atdescended from the Manchus, warriors Guangzhou. They demanded that traderswho lived to the northeast of China. The surrender their opium. British warshipsQing dynasty ruled China until 1911. responded by destroying forts on China’s Under Qing rule, the Chinese followed coasts and rivers. The Chinese emperortheir traditional way of life until the 1800s. surrendered, and the Opium War endedThen came the Industrial Revolution in in 1842.Europe. European businesses and merchants After the war, the Chinese agreed towanted to increase their trade with China. open five ports to British ships, limit taxes on British goods, and pay for the costs ofWhat Was the Opium War? By 1800, the the war. They also gave the British theChinese already were trading with many island of Hong Kong (HAHNG KAHNG),Europeans, including the British. Chinese which in time became one of the world’sdemand for British goods, however, was busiest ports. Europeans who lived inlow. On the other hand, British demand for China were subject to their own laws butChinese goods, especially tea, was high. As a not Chinese laws. This legal practice isresult, the British had to trade more valuable called extraterritoriality (EHK • struh • TEHR •goods, such as silver, for Chinese products. uh • TOHR • ee • A • luh • tee). Britain’s navy was important to the spread of British power around the world. Here a British warship attacks Chinese naval forces. What did the British gain by their victory in the Opium War?
  16. 16. Spheres of Influence in China 1911 60E 0 600 mi. SIBERIA 0 600 km Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection Amu rR N 50N . W RUSSIA E S MANCHURIA MONGOLIA Vladivostok Sea of Japan JAPAN (East Sea)AFGHANISTAN Beijing KOREA Port Arthur Tokyo (Edo) He g Weihai 30 N an Qingdao (U.K.) Hu Yellow Sea CHINA Nanjing INDIA TIBET g Wuhan Shanghai (U.K.) ia n East a ng J China PACIFIC Ch Sea OCEAN 140E GUANGDONG Guangzhou Taiping TAIWAN BURMA Macao (Port.) Hong Kong (U.K.) (U.K.) Zhanjiang KEYIn the late 1800s, many European PHILIPPINES Qing Empire, 1911 THAILAND (U.S.)countries established spheres of South Spheres of influence: FRENCH Chinainfluence in China. INDOCHINA Sea 10N British1. Which country had the largest French sphere of influence in China? German2. Which country do you think had the Italian best-placed sphere of influence in Japanese China? Explain. Russian China Tries to Reform During the 1850s, captured many cities and controlled much Chinese peasants were subject to high of southern China. Eventually, Europeans taxes and suffered from harsh weather. helped the Chinese government destroy the Crops failed, and many Chinese starved to rebel army. About 20 million people lost death. As a result, peasant unrest spread their lives in the Tai Ping Rebellion. across China. Reform-minded Chinese officials con- In 1851 a religious leader named Hong vinced the emperor that Western technology Xiuquan (HAHNG ZHOO • GWAHN) organ- could help stop uprisings and foreign ized a huge rebellion. He convinced many takeovers. As a result, the Chinese built rail- Chinese peasants that the time had come to roads, weapons factories, and shipyards. overthrow the emperor and build a Despite these changes, Europeans continued “Heavenly Kingdom” in China where life to chip away at the emperor’s power. would be much better. The words Tai Ping mean “Heavenly Kingdom,” so this rebel- European Spheres of Influence After the lion became known as the Tai Ping Tai Ping Rebellion, powerful leaders arose in Rebellion. It lasted for 13 years. The rebels China’s heartland. They sold the right to CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I 773
  17. 17. trade, build, and mine in their area toEuropean nations. In this way, different parts The Revolution of 1911of China became spheres of influence under Sun Yat-sen introduced ideas thatthe control of Russia, Britain, France, and helped cause the collapse of the Qing dynasty.Germany. Even Japan, now a rising power, Reading Focus If you could, how would you changetook part of China—the offshore island of the government? Read to find out what Chinese rebelsTaiwan. did when they had the chance to make changes. The United States did not claim a sphereof influence in China. Instead, it called for an Chinese leaders tried to hold on to theirOpen Door policy under which China was power by making more changes. For exam-open to trade with all countries. In 1899 the ple, they replaced China’s civil service exam-other nations agreed to this policy. ination system with a European-style Many Chinese hated the foreigners in educational system. They also set uptheir country and began to organize secret regional assemblies and a national assembly.societies to drive them out. Some members of Middle-class Chinese considered theseChina’s government, including the Empress changes to be too little too late. They grewTzu Hsi (TSOO SHEE), supported these angry when they learned that the assem-secret societies. Europeans and Americans blies could not pass laws but only givecalled them Boxers, because the name of their advice to the emperor. Furthermore, peas-secret society meant “righteous and harmo- ants, artisans, and miners continued tonious fists.” resent the high taxes the government had In 1900 the Boxers attacked foreigners imposed to pay its debts to foreign nations.and Chinese Christians in Beijing. Britain, In 1905 a young medical doctor namedFrance, Germany, Russia, Japan, and the U.S. Sun Yat-sen (SUN YAHT • SEHN) foundedsent in troops and crushed the Boxer a movement of revolutionaries that laterRebellion. became known as the Nationalist Party. Its Describe What did Great members believed the Qing dynasty couldBritain gain from winning the Opium War? no longer rule the country. Unless China was united under a strong govern- ment, it would be at the mercy of other countries. Sun developed a three-stage plan to change China: (1) take over the government, (2) prepare the people for self-rule, and (3) establish a constitution and a democracy. In 1911 Sun’s followers staged an uprising, and the Qing dynasty fell. Sun’s Nationalists did not have the military or political backing to set up a government, however. As a result, Members of the secret society known as the Boxers are they turned to the head of the rounded up after the failed rebellion. Why did the Boxer Chinese army, General Yuan Shigai Rebellion fail? (yu • AHN SHIHR • KY).774 CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War IBettmann/CORBIS
  18. 18. Hong Kong Modern Hong Kong Hong Kong is made up of one large island,235 small rocky islands, a peninsula, and somemountains on the mainland. When China gavethe large island to Britain in 1842, theBritish named it Hong Kong, which means“fragrant harbor.” At that time, only a fewfarmers and fishermen lived on the island.The British soon built it into a majortrading center. Hong Kong today is a center of finance, trade, and manufacturing. It is home to nearly 7 million people. In 1997 Britain returned Hong Kong to China. China agreed that Hong Kong could trade freely with the world and have a separate government for 50 more years. What effect did British colonization have on Hong Hong Kong waterfront, 1879 Kong’s economy? General Yuan agreed to serve as presi- provinces and fought one another. Theirdent of a new Chinese republic. However, soldiers caused widespread destruction.Yuan understood little about democracy Sun Yat-sen returned to China in 1917and freedom. He ruled in a traditional and worked to rebuild the Nationalist Party.way and refused to listen to those who In the early 1920s, he decided to create acalled for democracy. When Yuan put an Nationalist army with the help of Chiangend to the new parliament, the Nationalist Kai-shek, a young Chinese officer. Sun diedParty launched a revolt. The rebellion in 1925, but three years later Chiang led thefailed, and Sun Yat-sen fled to Japan. army to victory and reunited China under a Yuan died in 1916. One of his officers Nationalist government.succeeded him, but the central govern-ment started to fall apart. Warlords, or Identify What was Sunlocal military leaders, seized power in the Yat-sen’s three-stage plan to change China? CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I 775 (l)Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS, (r)Derek M. Allan; Travel Ink/CORBIS
  19. 19. SUN 925 AT-SEN –1 Y 1866 Sun Yat-sen was born in 1866 to a e farming family from the small Chines ng village known as Cuiheng. From a you what age, he wanted a life different from to be his society offered. He did not want fields a farmer, although he did help in the did he and raised chickens and ducks. Nor ice. He want to enter the Chinese civil serv to begged his parents to let him travel other lands with his older brothe r, Sun Sun Yat-sen Mei. At first they refused because of his young they age, but once Sun Yat-sen turned 12, agreed to let him go to Honolulu, Haw aii. There“[N]ationalism does not mean he attended an Anglican boys’ school , where he discriminating against people was introduced to Christianity. Because his brother became a wealthy and of different nationality.” Yat-sen —Sun Yat-sen respected businessman in Hawaii, Sun did most did not have to become a laborer, as ead, Sun Yat-sen concentrated on his other Chi nese who migrated to the West. Inst ge and European and American studies. He studied the English langua that China needed a revolution. political ideas. He became convinced ounced that he wanted to become He attended Oahu College and ann o sent him back to China. a Christian. This upset his brother, wh friends purposely damaged In China, Sun Yat-sen and some of his , a patron god of Cuiheng. His a wooden statue of the Northern God ily and the villagers. He was sent rebellious behavior shocked his fam dical degree and became to Hong Kong, where he earned a me involved in politics. pare him How did Sun Yat-sen’s education pre research to for his role as a Chinese leader? Do cation find how our current president’s edu . prepared him for his leadership role Pagoda at the tomb of Sun Yat-sen(t)Keystone, Paris/Sygma, (b)Bettmann/CORBIS
  20. 20. The Rise of Imperial JapanCourtesy of the United States Naval Academy Museum After Americans visited Japan, the Japanese reorganized their society and economy and began building an empire. Reading Focus Have you ever watched what some- one else did and then changed how you did things to match what they did? Read to learn how the Japanese changed their society to be more like Europeans and Americans. Like China, Japan felt pressures from Europe and the United States. Previously you learned that Japan was in chaos at the end of the 1400s. The shogun, or the coun- try’s military ruler, no longer controlled the country. Daimyo (DY • mee • oh), or heads of This Japanese painting shows Commodore noble families, ruled their own lands and Perry’s arrival in Edo Bay in 1853. Before Perry waged war on their neighbors. arrived in Japan, who were the only Europeans During the 1500s, three powerful leaders allowed to trade there? restored strong central government to Japan. banned Christian activities, expelled all The first was Oda Nobunaga (ohd • ah noh • missionaries, and persecuted Japanese bun • ah • gah). He seized Kyoto, the capital, Christians. European merchants were the and placed the shogun under his control. next to go. Ieyasu allowed only the Dutch to Then, he spread his rule over Japan’s central remain in Japan at the port of Nagasaki. plains. After Nobunaga, another strong Tokugawa rulers oversaw major military leader named Toyotomi Hideyoshi changes in Japan. The samurai gradually (toh • yoh • toh • mee hee • dee • yoh • shee) ruled ceased to be a warrior class. Many became Japan. Hideyoshi was, in turn, followed by managers on the lands of the daimyo. Trade the powerful daimyo Tokugawa Ieyasu (toh • and industry spread, especially in cities kug • ah • wah ee • eh • yahs • u), who became such as Edo (known today as Tokyo), shogun in 1603. Ieyasu’s descendants Kyoto, and Osaka. The class system became remained in power until 1868. The Tokugawa rigid. It excluded eta, or outcasts, who family’s long rule was known as the “Great worked in trades thought to be impure, Peace.” such as killing animals and tanning hides. Europeans in Japan Meanwhile, Europeans Laws stated where the eta lived, how they were starting to trade with Japan. In fact, dressed, and even how they wore their hair. Hideyoshi and Ieyasu used European Women also led very restricted lives. firearms to help unify Japan. Jesuit mission- aries arrived soon after the traders and con- Perry Arrives in Japan In 1853 Commodore verted thousands of Japanese to Christianity Matthew Perry and four American warships by the late 1500s. arrived in Edo Bay (now Tokyo Bay). Perry The Jesuits angered Hideyoshi by presented a letter from U.S. president Millard destroying Japanese shrines. As a result, he Fillmore to the shogun. The letter invited CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I 777
  21. 21. The Japanese Empire 0 600 mi. The Meiji Restoration At the time the Sakhalin N 0 600 km Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection W shogun was overthrown, Emperor E S Mutsuhito (MOOT • suh • HEE • toh) was RUSSIA 50N South Sakhalin known as the Meiji, or “Enlightened,” (Karafuto) KURIL emperor. Thus, the late 1800s and early ISLANDS MANCHURIA 1900s is known in Japan as the Meiji era. Just as shoguns controlled earlier emper- Vladivostok ors, Japan’s new ruling samurai now con- Sea of trolled Mutsuhito. Japan (East Sea) The Meiji leaders were determined to JAPAN Beijing make Japan a great power able to stand up KOREA Kyoto Tokyo Port (Edo) to the Europeans and Americans. First, ait Arthur CHINA they did away with the old social system. Str Shikoku a Yellow him Sea 30N The daimyo lost much of their land, power, us Ts Nagasaki KEY Shanghai and privileges. Then, in 1889, Japanese Japanese Empire, 1870 East PACIFIC 140E leaders wrote a new constitution to set up China OCEAN Japanese Sea a constitutional monarchy. The people RYUKYU ISLANDS acquisitions by 1910 TAIWAN elected lawmakers to the legislature. Japanese Power, however, was held by the spheres of Meiji leaders, who acted on behalf influence, 1918 of the emperor. They chose the In the late 1800s, Japan began to South China build an empire in Asia. prime minister and his advisers. Sea 1. What areas had Japan acquired by Japan’s new government set up 120E 1910? 2. How might Japan’s geography a modern army and navy. All have influenced the nation to Japanese men were expected to expand? serve for a certain amount of time in the armed forces. Meiji leaders also made major changes in Japan’sJapan to have trade and diplomatic relations society. They improved roads and openedwith the United States. public schools. Education was required for Within six months, Perry and an even all, including women.larger fleet returned to Japan for an answer Above all, the Meiji pushed for Japan toto the president’s letter. Fearing an industrialize. They helped build new facto-American attack, the Japanese agreed to ries and gave certain privileges to the richopen ports to U.S. trade and to exchange and powerful families who ran them. Japan’sambassadors. Japan soon made similar new industrial society also had a dark sideagreements with European nations. though. Mill workers often worked 20-hour Many Japanese were unhappy with the days, and miners were shot when they refused to work in extreme heat.treaties and considered them unfair. Theyfeared the treaties would keep Japan weak.In 1868 a group of samurai attacked the Japan Builds an Empire As they watchedshogun’s palace in Kyoto and took power European nations and the United States risein the emperor’s name. in power and wealth, Japanese leaders came778 CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I
  22. 22. to believe a nation needed an empire to beCulver Pictures strong. Colonies would supply Japan with raw materials, cheap labor, and markets for manufactured goods. As the first step toward building an empire, in 1876 the Japanese navy forced Korea to open its ports to Japanese trade. The Chinese had controlled Korea for a long time and resented Japan’s presence there. In 1894 China and Japan went to war. The Japan’s modern naval fleet easily defeated Japanese destroyed China’s fleet and cap- Russia’s forces. Why did Japan come into tured the Manchurian city of Port Arthur. In conflict with Russia? the peace treaty that followed, China agreed to give Taiwan to Japan and independence to Meanwhile, Russia sent its main fleet all Korea. the way around the world to attack Japan. Russia also wanted to trade with Korea. When it arrived, Japan’s new modern navy As a result, Japan and Russia competed for quickly sank the Russian ships. In 1905 markets there. In 1904 Japan attacked a Russia agreed to give up Port Arthur and Russian naval base at Port Arthur, which part of Sakhalin (SA • kuh • LEEN), an island Russia had seized from China in 1898. The north of Japan. The whole world now recog- Japanese army then marched into nized Japan as a major power. Manchuria. Russian troops in the area tried Explain Why did the samu- to stop them but were driven back. rai attack and replace the shogun? Study CentralTM Need help with the material in this section? Visit What Did You Learn? Reading Summary 1. What were the causes of the Boxer Rebellion? 4. Cause and Effect How did trade between Britain and Review the China lead to the Opium War? 2. Why did Admiral Perry sail to • In the 1800s, European powers Japan? What was the result of 5. Compare and Contrast created spheres of influence and his mission? What was the Open Door pol- controlled trade within China. icy, and how was it different Critical Thinking • A revolution overthrew the Qing from European policies? dynasty in 1911 but failed to 3. Sequencing Information Draw a time line like the one 6. Summarize Describe Japan’s create a democratic government rise to power in the in the late for China. below. Fill in dates and events related to changes in China in 1800s and early 1900s. • The Meiji Restoration changed the 1800s and 1900s. 7. Persuasive Writing Write an Japan’s society and economy editorial for a newspaper in and made Japan into a major China presenting your views on world power. 1842 1916 China’s treatment by the European powers. CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I 779
  23. 23. World War I Begins What’s the Connection? Meeting People You have seen how imperialism Franz Ferdinand contributed to tensions among (FRANZ FUHR • duhn • AND) Europeans. Eventually, these tensions Woodrow Wilson led to a worldwide conflict. Building Your Vocabulary militarism Focusing on the (MIH • luh • tuh • RIH • zuhm) • Alliances, militarism, conscription (kuhn • SKRIHP • shuhn) and nationalism led to a crisis in entente (ahn • TAHNT) Europe. (page 781) mobilization • The assassination of Archduke Franz (MOH • buh • luh • ZAY • shuhn) Ferdinand sparked World War I. rationing (page 784) propaganda (PRAH • puh • GAN • duh) • Americans supported the Allies blockade because of pro-British feelings and business links. (page 786) Reading Strategy Contrasting Use a Venn diagram like the one below to show the major Locating Places countries that made up the Allies and Balkans (BAWL • kuhnz) the Central Powers. Serbia (SUHR • bee • uh) WWI Central Allies Alliances Powers 1910 1915 1920 BRITAIN 1908 1914 1915 1917 London GERMANY RUSSIA Austria-Hungary World War I German sub- U.S. enters Paris Berlin takes over begins marine sinks World War I FRANCE AUSTRIA- Bosnia the Lusitania HUNGARY Rome780 CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I