Ch. 18 Enlightenment and Revolution


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Ch. 18 Enlightenment and Revolution

  1. 1. 654–655 Buddy Mays/CORBISEnlightenment and Revolution A statue of Louis XIV on horseback outside of the palace of Versailles in France 1500 1600 1700 1800 1492 1543 1690 1776 Columbus Copernicus sup- John Locke Declaration of reaches the ports idea of sun- writes about Independence Americas centered universe government is signed
  2. 2. Chapter Preview Chapter Overview Visit for a preview By the end of the Renaissance, Europe and the rest of the of Chapter were entering a time of rapid change. Read this chapterto find out how voyages of exploration and scientific discover-ies affected people in different parts of the world. View the Chapter 18 video in the World History: Journey Across Time Video Program. The Age of Exploration In the 1400s, Europeans began to explore overseas and build empires. Trade increased and goods, technology, and ideas were exchanged around the world. The Scientific Revolution Scientific ideas and discoveries gave Europeans a new way to understand the universe. The Enlightenment During the 1700s, many Europeans believed that reason could be used to make government and society better. The American Revolution Britain and France established colonies in North America. Britain’s American colonies eventually rebelled against Britain and formed a new nation, the United States. Summarizing Information Make this foldable to help you organize and summarize information about the Enlightenment and era of revolutions. Step 1 Mark the Step 2 Fold the Reading and Writing midpoint of a side paper in half As you read the chapter, edge of one sheet again from write information under of paper. Then side to side. each appropriate tab. Be fold the outside sure to summarize the edges in to touch information you find by the midpoint. Step 4 Label writing only main ideas as shown. Scienti and supporting details. fi Revolu c Enlighten- Step 3 Open the tion ment paper and cut Cut along the along the inside fold lines on Age can fold lines to form both sides. Explo of Ameri on ti ratio n Revolu four tabs. 655
  3. 3. Monitor and Adjust Your Reading Strengths Different people read differently. Some people read and understand something quickly, while other people may need to read something several times to comprehend it fully. It is impor- tant to identify your own strengths and weaknesses as a reader. Read the following paragraph describing the story of how Newton discovered gravity: According to tradition, Newton was sitting in his garden one day when he watched an apple fall to the ground. The apple’s fall led him to the idea of gravity, or the pull of the earth and other bodies on objects at or near their surfaces. —from pages 675–676 on what Depen ding up ing, you you are read ow down d to sl • Can you visualize this scene in your mind, may nee p. W hen you almost like a movie? u or speed re slowl y. study, read mo • Are there any words you do not know? for ou read W hen y can read • What questions do you have about this passage? pleasu re, you • What does this scene make you think of based ickly. more qu on what you have previously read, seen, or experienced? • Do you need to reread it? 656 Unit Title 656
  4. 4. (t)Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia/Bridgeman Art Library, (b)Michael Holford Improve Your Reading Read to Write Choose one explorer, The paragraph below appears in Section 3. Read the philosopher, or scientist passage and answer the questions that follow. that you were intro- duced to in this chapter. Write a list of questions that a modern talk- During the 1600s and 1700s, many show host might ask if he or she interviewed European thinkers favored limits on this person. government power. However, power- ful kings and queens ruled most of Europe. This system was known as Catherine the Great absolutism. In this system, monarchs held absolute, or total, power. They claimed to rule by divine right, or by the will of God. This meant that rulers did not answer to their people, but rather to God alone. —from page 686 • What words or sentences made you slow down as you read? • Did you have to reread any parts? • What questions do you still have after reading this passage? Peter the Great As you read the chapter, identify one paragraph in each section that is diffi- cult to understand. Discuss each para- graph with a partner to improve your understanding. 657
  5. 5. The Age of Exploration What’s the Connection? Meeting People You have learned how Italy’s cities Vasco da Gama grew rich from trade. In the 1400s, Christopher Columbus other European states began exploring Magellan (muh • JEH • luhn) the world in search of wealth. John Cabot (KA • buht) Focusing on the Jacques Cartier • In the 1400s, trade, technology, and (ZHAHK kahr •TYAY) the rise of strong kingdoms led to a new era of exploration. (page 659) Building Your Vocabulary mercantilism • While the Portuguese explored Africa, (MUHR • kuhn • TUH • LIH • zuhm) the Spanish, English, and French export (EHK • SPOHRT) explored America. (page 661) import (IHM • POHRT) • To increase trade, Europeans colony (KAH • luh • nee) set up colonies and created joint- commerce (KAH • muhrs) stock companies. (page 666) invest (ihn •VEHST) • Exploration and trade led to a worldwide exchange of products, Reading Strategy people, and ideas. (page 668) Cause and Effect Complete a diagram like the one below showing Locating Places why Europeans began to explore. Strait of Magellan (muh • JEH • luhn) Netherlands (NEH • thuhr • luhnz) Moluccas (muh • LUH • kuhz) 1400 1500 1600 1420 1492 1520 1588 NORTH EUROPE Portugal begins Columbus Magellan’s EnglandAMERICA CHINA INDIA mapping Africa’s reaches the crew sails defeats the AFRICA coast Americas around the world Armada SOUTH AMERICA658 CHAPTER 18 Enlightenment and Revolution
  6. 6. Europe Gets Ready to Explore In the 1400s, trade, technology, and Early compassthe rise of strong kingdoms led to a new era ofexploration.Reading Focus Do you like traveling to places thatyou have never been? Read to see why WesternEuropeans set off to explore the world. In the 1400s and 1500s, nations inWestern Europe began exploring the world.They soon gained control of the Americasand parts of India and Southeast Asia aswell. Why did they begin exploring in the1400s? Many events came together to createjust the right conditions for exploration.Trade With Asia As you have read, in theMiddle Ages, Europeans began buying vastamounts of spices, silks, and other goods European explorers and traders began tofrom Asia. In the 1400s, however, it became use smaller, fasterharder to get those goods. ships called caravels First of all, the Mongol Empire had col- in the 1400s. Whatlapsed. The Mongols had kept the Silk Road advantage did tri-running smoothly. When their empire col- angular sails offer a ship? Astrolabelapsed, local rulers along the Silk Roadimposed new taxes on merchants. Thismade Asian goods more expensive. New Technology Even though the Euro- Next, the Ottoman Turks conquered peans wanted to go exploring, they could notthe Byzantine Empire and blocked Italian do it without the right technology. Themerchants from entering the Black Sea. Atlantic Ocean was too dangerous and diffi-The Italians had trading posts on the coast cult to navigate.of the Black Sea where they bought goods By the 1400s, they had the technologyfrom Asia. Now, they could no longer they needed. From the Arabs, Europeansreach them. They had to trade with the learned about the astrolabe and the com-Turks instead, and this drove prices even pass. The astrolabe was an ancient Greekhigher. device that could be used to find latitude. Europeans still wanted the spices and The compass, invented by the Chinese,silks of East Asia. Anyone who could find a helped navigators find magnetic north.way to get them cheaply would make a lot Even with these new tools, the Europeansof money. Merchants began looking for a needed better ships. In the 1400s, they beganroute to East Asia that bypassed the Middle using triangular sails developed by theEast. If they could not get there by land, Arabs. These sails let a ship zigzag into themaybe they could get there by sea. wind. CHAPTER 18 Enlightenment and Revolution 659 (t)Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA, (c)SuperStock, (b)Michael Holford
  7. 7. The rise of towns and trade helped make governments stronger. Kings and queens could tax the trade in their kingdom and then use the money to build armies and navies. Using their new power, they were able to build strong central governments. By the end of the 1400s, four strong kingdoms—Portugal, Spain, France, and England—had developed in Europe. They had harbors on the Atlantic Ocean and were anxious to find a sea route to Asia. The question was where to go. Did Maps Encourage Exploration? By the 1400s, most educated people in Europe knew the world was round, but they only had maps of Europe and the Mediterranean. When the Renaissance began, however, peo- ple began to study ancient maps as well as books written by Arab scholars. Twelve hundred years earlier, a Greek- educated Egyptian geographer named Claudius Ptolemy had drawn maps of the Prince Henry’s school for navigation helped world. His book Geography was discovered make possible the discovery of new water by Europeans in 1406 and printed in 1475. routes and new lands. Here, Prince Henry is With the invention of the printing shown watching for the return of his ships. press, books like Ptolemy’s could be What types of professionals did Prince Henry printed and sold all over Europe. invite to his research center? Ptolemy’s ideas about cartography, or the science of mapmaking, were very influen- They also began building ships with many tial. His basic system of longitude and lat-masts and smaller sails to make their ships go itude is still used today.faster. A new type of rudder made steering European cartographers also beganeasier. In the 1400s, these inventions came reading a book written by al-Idrisi, an Arabtogether in a Portuguese ship called the car- geographer. Al-Idrisi had published a bookavel. With ships like the caravel, Europeans in 1154 showing the parts of the worldcould begin exploring the world. known to Muslims. By studying the works of al-Idrisi and Ptolemy, Europeans learnedThe Rise of Strong Nations Even with the geography of East Africa and the Indiannew technology, exploration was still Ocean. If they could find a way aroundexpensive and dangerous. For most of the Africa, they could get to Asia.Middle Ages, Europe’s kingdoms were Summarize What were theweak and could not afford to explore. This main reasons the Europeans began exploring thesituation began to change in the 1400s. world in the 1400s?660 CHAPTER 18 Enlightenment and RevolutionBettmann/CORBIS
  8. 8. In 1420 Portugal began mappingExploring the World Africa’s coastline and trading with Africa’s While the Portuguese explored Africa, kingdoms. It also seized the Azores (AY •the Spanish, English, and French explored America. ZOHRZ), Madeira (muh • DIHR • uh), and CapeReading Focus Have you ever done something daring Verde islands. Soon after, the Portugueseor tried something new not knowing how it would turn discovered sugarcane would grow on theout? Read to learn how European explorers took chances islands.and went places no Europeans had ever been before. Sugar was very valuable in Europe. To work their sugarcane fields, the By the early 1400s, Europeans were Portuguese began bringing enslavedready to explore. England and France were Africans to the islands. This was the begin-still fighting each other, however, and Spain ning of a slave trade that would eventuallywas still fighting the Muslims. This gave bring millions of enslaved people to thePortugal the chance to explore first. Americas as well. In 1488 the Portuguese explorerWho Was Henry the Navigator? In 1419 Bartolomeu Dias reached the southern tipPrince Henry of Portugal, known as “Henry of Africa. Nine years later, Vasco da Gamathe Navigator,” set up a research center (VAS • koh dah GA • muh) rounded the tipin southern Portugal. He invited sailors, of Africa, raced across the Indian Ocean,cartographers, and shipbuilders to come and landed on India’s coast. A water routeand help him explore the world. to East Asia had at last been found.Santa MaríaThe Santa María, Columbus’s flagship, was Crow’s Nestlarger and slower than the other two The crow’s nest served asships on the voyage. What islands might a platform for a lookout.Columbus have explored on his firstvoyage to the Americas?Captain’s CabinThis room served Upper Deck as Columbus’s Sailors slept and dining room, cooked their meals bedroom, and on the upper deck. study. Hold Food, fresh water, and supplies for the voyage filled the ship’s hold.
  9. 9. European Exploration of the World 0° 2,000 mi. 60°E 120°E 0 Greenland 0 2,000 km KEY Mercator projection Dutch English French Cab Hudson 160 Portuguese Hudson Hu ot60°N ds o 9 n 1610 Bay EUROPE Spanish 14 ASIA 97 Carti NETHERLANDS er 1 ENGLAND 53 4 NORTH FRANCE PACIFIC AMERICA PORTUGAL OCEAN no 1524 Verra za JAPAN SPAIN CHINA MEXICO Bahamas INDIA Cuba Tenochtitl´an Hispaniola s 1492 Goa lumbu Philippines Death of (Mexico City) Cort´es 1519 Caribbean Sea Co 00 AFRICA a Calicut Magellan Gam 1 5 3 1 -1 5 3 15 Melaka P iza r r o 2 da April 1521 ral da EQUATOR Ga 0° da Cab ma Spice Islands PACIFIC ral Gam ATLANTIC Cab (Moluccas) Magellan Dias 14 Strait of a OCEAN Lima PERU OCEAN Malacca n) 152 2 SOUTH 87 agella for M Elcan da G a m Elcano ( AUSTRALIA AMERICA o M a 1 4 97 N ag ell an 51 9 INDIAN 15 n1 21 ella OCEAN W E ag M S Strait of Magellan 60°S 120°W 60°W For more than 100 years, Europeans undertook 180° voyages of exploration in search of new trade and trade routes. 1. Based on this map, which continents were not visited by European explorers? 2. What general region did the English explore? Find NGS online map resources @Christopher Columbus While the Port- explored Africa, an Italian navigatornamed Christopher Columbus came upwith a daring plan to get to Asia. He would Columbus thought he was in Asia. Hesail across the Atlantic Ocean. made three more voyages to the region Columbus needed money to make the but never realized he had arrived in thetrip. The rulers of Portugal, England, and Americas. Eventually, Europeans realizedFrance all turned him down. Finally in 1492 they had reached two huge continents.Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain said yes.Earlier that year, they had finally driven the Who Was Magellan? Many SpaniardsMuslims out of Spain. They could now explored the Americas in the 1500s, butafford to pay for exploration. only Ferdinand Magellan (muh • JEH • luhn) Columbus outfitted three ships: the tried to finish what Columbus had set outSanta María, the Niña, and the Pinta. In 1492 to do. In 1520 he left Spain and headed westthey left Spain and headed west. As the to sail around the Americas and then all theweeks passed, the crew grew desperate. way to Asia.Finally they sighted land, probably the Magellan sailed south along Southisland of San Salvador. Columbus claimed America. Finally, he found a way around thethe land for Spain and then explored the continent. The passage he found is namednearby islands of Cuba and Hispaniola. the Strait of Magellan (muh • JEH • luhn).662 CHAPTER 18 Enlightenment and Revolution
  10. 10. KEY KEY Mi NORTH ssis Spanish exploration French exploration N Sn AMERICA s ak Dutch exploration ippi e R. Mi R. E do o R. W R. ss o n ra 1540– 42 Arka uri R Ohi o do 0 500 mi. 534 –42 . De Soto r1 Co l Corona as S tie s 1538–42 Car R. Santa Fe ATLANTIC 0 500 km NORTH a de Vaca 15 Mercator projection Ch Cabez OCEAN am AMERICA Cab 8–36 p la 2 30°N Ri oG St. Augustine Marquette in N a ´ a ez 1 5 2 8 rill ra P and Joliet Quebec 16 0 M 3–15 o nd on Montreal iss 1673 15 e ce 42 is 1519 D 9 sip n 160 –4 e L e´o tes ´ Hu d so pi n 15 3 C or 13 R. Tenochtitl´an Plymouth Mi (Mexico City) Caribbean Sea s ou s ri R ATLANTIC . io R. N Oh Ar ka Jamestown 0 1,000 mi. Balboa nsa s OCEAN . R W E 1513 La Salle V e r r a za 0 1,000 km no 1524 1679–82 0° Mercator projection S SOUTH 30°N PACIFIC OCEAN AMERICA60°W Gulf of Mexico 60°W 120°W 90°W Important European Explorers Christopher Vasco Ferdinand Jacques Henry Columbus da Gama Magellan Cartier Hudson Voyages: 1492, 1493, Voyage: 1497–1499 Voyage: 1519–1522 Voyages: 1534, Voyages: 1607, 1608, 1498, 1502 1535, 1541 1609, 1610 First European to Led the first First European to sail sail around the expedition to sail Explored the St. Explored the west searching for a south of Africa completely around Lawrence River Hudson River and water route to Asia and reach India the world Hudson Bay After passing through the stormy strait, his known people to circumnavigate (suhr • kuhm • ship entered a vast sea. It was so peaceful, or NA • vuh • GAYT), or sail around, the world. pacific, that he named the sea the Pacific Ocean. The First English and French Explorers Magellan then headed west. His sailors As the news spread about Columbus’s nearly starved and had to eat leather, saw- journey, England decided to search for a dust, and rats. Finally, after four months at northern route to Asia. In 1497 an English sea, they reached the Philippines. After local ship commanded by John Cabot (KA • buht) people killed Magellan, his crew continued headed across the Atlantic. west across the Indian Ocean, around Africa, Cabot arrived at a large island he named and back to Spain. They became the first Newfoundland. He then traveled south CHAPTER 18 Enlightenment and Revolution 663(l)The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1900(00.18.2), (cl)Stock Montage, (c)Collection of The New-York Historical Society, (cr)Reunion des Musees Nationaux/Art Resource, NY, (r)North Wind Picture Archives
  11. 11. Europe from Spain’s empire in America. Meanwhile, England had become Spain’s enemy. As you have read, in 1534 King Henry VIII of England broke from the Catholic Church and made his To defeat the Spanish Armada, the English kingdom Protestant. By the sent ships that had been set on fire toward 1560s, the Dutch had become Protestant, too, the Spanish warships. Why was the defeat of the Spanish Armada important? even though they were part of Spain’s empire at that time. Spain was stronglyalong the coast of present-day Canada but Catholic and tried to stop Protestantism indid not find a path through to Asia. Cabot the Netherlands (NEH • thuhr • luhnz). Whendisappeared on his second trip and was the Dutch people rebelled against Spain,never heard from again. England came to their aid. In 1524 France sent Giovanni da To help the Dutch, Queen Elizabeth I ofVerrazano to map America’s coast and find England let English privateers attack Spanisha route through to Asia. Verrazano mapped ships. Privateers are privately owned shipsfrom what is today North Carolina north to that have a license from the government toNewfoundland but found no path to Asia. attack ships of other countries. People nick- Ten years later, the French tried again. named the English privateers “sea dogs.”This time they sent Jacques Cartier (ZHAHK They raided the Spanish treasure ships thatkahr • TYAY). Cartier sailed past Newfound- were bringing gold back from and entered the St. Lawrence River. England’s raids frustrated Philip II, theHoping he had found a passage to Asia, king of Spain. In 1588 he sent a huge fleetCartier made two more trips to map the St. known as the Spanish Armada to invadeLawrence River. After these trips, France England. In July 1588, the Armada headedstopped exploring. By the mid-1500s, into the English Channel—the narrow bodyFrench Protestants and Catholics were of water between England and Europe. Thefighting a civil war. There was no more Spanish ships were large and had manyexploring until it was settled. guns, but they were hard to steer. The smaller English ships moved much moreSpain Fights England After Columbus, the quickly. Their attacks forced the Armada toSpanish went on to build a vast empire in retreat north. There a great storm arose andAmerica. They forced enslaved Native broke up the Armada.Americans to grow sugarcane and mine gold The defeat of the Spanish Armada wasand silver. Later they brought enslaved an important event. The Spanish were stillAfricans to the region to work on their farms. strong, but England now had the power to Spanish nobles called conquistadors stand up to them. This encouraged thetraveled to America in the hopes of becom- English and Dutch to begin exploring bothing rich. Hernán Cortés conquered the North America and Asia.Aztec, and Francisco Pizarro conquered the Identify Who was the firstInca. Soon after their victories, vast European to sail to India? Whose crew was first toamounts of gold and silver began to flow to sail around the world?664 CHAPTER 18 Enlightenment and RevolutionNational Maritime Museum, London
  12. 12. ELIZA3BETH I –160 1533 r British rulers— Elizabeth I is one of the most popula of England than bybut she was more loved by the people young life was filledher father, King Henry VIII. Elizabeth’s n to Henry VIII andwith change and sadness. She was bor g was upset whenhis second wife, Anne Boleyn. The kin ted a boy to inheritElizabeth was born, because he wanthe throne. ounded herself When Elizabeth became queen, she surr y turned England with intelligent advisers. Together the Queen Elizabeth I into a strong, prosperou s country. Elizabeth supported of Europe. She Protestantism in England and in the rest sent aid to the French Huguenots and Protestants in Scotland “I have the heart and l with Parliament but stomach of a king and and the Netherlands. She worked wel was a skilled writer called few sessions during her reign. She and speaker and won the love and sup port of the English of a king of England, people. too.” unusual at that time. Elizabeth never married, which was —Elizabeth I, “Armada Speech” her, but she turned Ma ny men were interested in marrying abeth probably remained down their proposals. One reason Eliz a time when most rulers were men. single was to ma intain control of the government at ted to England. Many prominent men wan She also used her status to the advantage of to get him to marry someone’s enemy in order ma rry her, and she sometimes threatened to do what she wanted. ng, England’s society. She loved horse ridi Elizabeth’s personality also influenced ent of new t of the arts resulted in the developm dances, parties, and plays. Her suppor th English literature and music. Elizabe was so popular by the time of her death that the date she became an unhappy queen was celebrated as a national Even though Queen Elizabeth I had e one of holiday for 200 years. childhood, she overcame it to becom England’s England’s most popular leaders. Today situations. Queen Elizabeth II has also faced sad ay Research her life and write a short ess abeth I. comparing her life to the life of Eliz 665 National Portrait Gallery, London/SuperStock
  13. 13. The Commercial Revolution To increase trade, Europeans set upcolonies and created joint-stock companies.Reading Focus Do you know anyone who works athome? Read to learn how merchants in the 1600s gavepeople jobs at home and changed the world trade system. While Spain built its empire in America,Portugal began building a trading empirein Asia. In 1500, shortly after Vasco daGama’s trip, the Portuguese sent 13 shipsback to India. Led by Pedro Alvares Cabral(PAY • throo AHL • vahr • ihs kuh • BRAHL), thePortuguese fought a war against the These ships sailed for the Dutch East IndiaMuslim merchants in the Indian Ocean. Company, which carried out trade in Asia. After defeating the Arab fleet, the Which European nation did the Dutch replace in the spice trade?Portuguese built trading posts in India,China, Japan, the Persian Gulf, and in the way, the home country will not have toMoluccas (muh • LUH • kuhz), or Spice Islands import those goods from other countries.of Southeast Asia. From these bases, theycontrolled most of southern Asia’s sea Trade Empires in Asia Mercantilismtrade. encouraged Europeans to set up trading posts and colonies in Asia and NorthWhat Is Mercantilism? As Europeans America. By the end of the 1500s, Spain hadwatched Spain and Portugal grow wealthy set up a colony in the Philippines. Thefrom their empires, they tried to figure out Spanish shipped silver to the Philippineshow they had become rich. They came up from America and then used it to buy Asianwith the idea of mercantilism (MUHR • kuhn • spices and silk for sale in Europe.TUH • LIH • zuhm). Mercantilism is the idea that In the 1600s, English and French mer-a country gains power by building up its chants landed in India and began tradingsupply of gold and silver. Mercantilists with the people there. In 1619 the Dutchbelieve the best way to do this is to export built a fort on the island of Java, in what is(EHK • SPOHRT), or sell to other countries, more now Indonesia. They slowly pushed thegoods than you import (IHM • POHRT), or buy Portuguese out of the spice trade.from them. If you export more than youimport, more gold and silver flows in from What Are Joint-Stock Companies?other countries than goes out. Trading overseas was very expensive. In Mercantilists also thought countries the 1600s, however, new ways of doingshould set up colonies. A colony (KAH • luh • business developed in Europe. Historiansnee) is a settlement of people living in a new call this the “commercial revolution.”territory controlled by their home country. Commerce (KAH • muhrs) is the buying andColonists are supposed to produce goods selling of goods in large amounts overtheir country does not have at home. That long distances.666 CHAPTER 18 Enlightenment and RevolutionReunion des Musees Nationaux/Art Resource, NY
  14. 14. To trade goods long distance, merchants to buy goods at low prices so they can needed a lot of money. They had to buy make money selling them at higher prices many goods, store them in warehouses, and elsewhere. ship them over land and sea. They had to By the 1600s, merchants had become frus- know what people in distant lands wanted trated by artisans and guilds. They charged to buy and what prices were like there. too much and could not make goods fast This new business created a new type of enough. So merchants began asking peasants businessperson called an entrepreneur. to make goods for them. In particular, they Entrepreneurs invest (ihn • VEHST), or put asked the peasants to make wool cloth. money into a project. Their goal is to make The peasants were happy to make extra even more money when the project is done. money and glad to find work they could do Many projects were so large that a in their homes. group of entrepreneurs had to come This system was called the “putting out” together and form a joint-stock company. A system. Merchants would buy wool and put joint-stock company is a business that peo- it out to the peasants. This system is also ple can invest in by buying a share of the sometimes called the “cottage industry,” company. These shares are called stocks. because the small houses where peasants lived were called cottages. What Is the Cottage Industry? To trade over a long distance, merchants need a Explain How did merchants large supply of goods. They also have raise the money for overseas trade? European Trade in Asia c. 1700 80°E N 100°E 120°E0 1,000 mi.0 1,000 km W E CHINA N 20°Two-Point Equidistant projection S Ganges R. Me kon g Macau Daman Calcutta Philippines V IE R. INDIA Bombay N T Bay of AM Manila THAILAND PACIFIC Goa Bengal South OCEAN Madras China 0° CAMBODIA Sea Spice TO R Calicut UA Pondicherry Islands EQ Cochin Malay (Moluccas) Ceylon Peninsula 140°E Colombo (Sri Lanka) Melaka Borneo SumatraUsing their advanced weapons andships, Europeans set up trading Batavia (Jakarta) KEYposts in India and Southeast Asia. CHAPTER 18JavaEnlightenment and Revolution by: Port city controlled 6671. Which countries had trading England Portugal posts along the coasts of India? INDIAN OCEAN France Spain Netherlands2. Which country controlled the most ports? CHAPTER 18 Enlightenment and Revolution 667
  15. 15. planted potatoes instead of grain, about fourA Global Exchange times as many people could live off the same Exploration and trade led to a world- amount of land.wide exchange of products, people, and ideas. Other American foods, such as squash,Reading Focus Have you heard about insects from beans, and tomatoes, also made their wayother countries that hurt American crops? Read to learn to Europe. Tomatoes greatly changed cook-how the movement of goods and people between ing in Italy, where tomato sauces becameAmerica and the rest of the world caused great changes. very popular. Chocolate was a popular food from Central America. By mixing it with After the Age of Exploration, the milk and sugar, Europeans created a sweeteconomies of Europe, Africa, Asia, and that is still popular today.America changed. As Europe traded with Some American foods, such as chilithe world, a global exchange of people, peppers and peanuts, were taken togoods, technology, ideas, and even diseases Europe, but they also made their way tobegan. We call this transfer the Columbian Asia and Africa where they became popu-Exchange, after Christopher Columbus. lar. Both Europeans and Asians also began Two important foods—corn and pota- smoking tobacco, an American plant.toes—were taken to Europe from North Many European and Asian grains, suchAmerica. Corn was used to feed animals. as wheat, oats, barley, rye, and rice, wereLarger, healthier animals resulted in more planted in the Americas. Coffee and tropi-meat, leather, and wool. The potato was also cal fruits, such as bananas, were brought toimportant. Europeans discovered that if they America as well. Eventually, coffee and The Columbian Exchange 0° NORTH Cassava Cocoa Corn Disease Beans AMERICA Peanuts Peppers Pineapples EUROPE Beans , ASIA, AND AFRICA EUROPE Avocados S TO RICA Sweet AM E Potatoes Tobacco Tomatoes Honeybees Quinine Squash Turkeys Vanilla Pumpkins ATLANTIC Livestock - Cattle Potatoes OCEAN - Sheep Sugarcane Peaches & - Pigs Bananas Turnips Onions Olives - Horses Pears ER IC A S 30°N N T O AM Citrus AFRICA EUROPE, AFRICA, AND ASIA Fruits W E Coffee Beans S Grains Grapes Disease - Wheat 0 1,000 mi. - Rice - Barley - Oats 0 1,000 km Mercator projection 60°W 30°W Many food items were exchanged between the Americas and Europe, Africa, and Asia. 1. Which grains made their way to the Americas from Europe? 2. What, besides food, was part of the Columbian Exchange?668 CHAPTER 18 Enlightenment and Revolution
  16. 16. banana farms employed thousands of Indian princes. Across Asia, the Europeansworkers in Central and South America. forced local rulers to let them set up trading New animals such as pigs, sheep, cattle, posts. Within a short time, the East Indiachickens, and horses were also brought to Company of England had built an empireAmerica. Chickens changed the diet of in India, and the Dutch East Indiamany people in Central and South America, Company had built an empire in Indonesia.while horses changed the lives of Native The arrival of the Europeans in JapanAmericans on the Great Plains. Horses pro- also changed that society. Using guns andvided a faster way to move from place to cannons imported from Europe, a newplace. As a result, Native Americans began shogun was finally able to defeat the feudalhunting buffalo as their main food source. lords, the daimyo, and reunite Japan. A huge movement of people also took Not everything exchanged betweenplace after Europeans obtained sugarcane Europe and America was good. Whenfrom Asia and began growing it in the Europeans arrived in America, they wereCaribbean. To plant and harvest the sugar- carrying germs that could kill Nativecane, they enslaved millions of Africans Americans. Many diseases, including small-and moved them to the Americas. pox, measles, and malaria, swept across the Europeans also changed Asian society. Americas killing millions of people.With their guns and powerful ships, the Describe Describe theEuropeans easily defeated Arab fleets and Columbian Exchange. Study CentralTM Need help with the material in this section? Visit What Did You Learn?Reading Summary 1. What was a caravel, and why was it important? 4. Summarize Describe the development of the AfricanReview the 2. Describe the accomplishments slave trade.• Rising prices of Asian goods, strong central governments, and new sail- of Ferdinand Magellan. 5. Understand Cause and ing technology led to European Critical Thinking Effect Why did merchants exploration of the world. create joint-stock companies 3. Organize Information Draw and use cottage industries?• Portugal found a route to India a chart like the one below. Use while Spain, England, and France it to name the explorers dis- 6. Analyze How did foods explored America. cussed in this section, the imported from the Americas country they sailed for, and the benefit Europe? Identify some• Europeans used joint-stock com- of those foods. panies to build colonies and trad- places they explored. ing posts in Asia following the 7. Monitor and Explorer Country Area Adjust Write a 10-question ideas of mercantilism. Sailed for Explored multiple choice test to help• European exploration and trade you review the important brought about a global exchange information in this section. of goods, technology, and disease. Exchange tests with a classmate. CHAPTER 18 Enlightenment and Revolution 669
  17. 17. The Scientific Revolution What’s the Connection? Meeting People One result of the Renaissance Ptolemy (TAH • luh • mee) was a new interest in science. During Copernicus (koh • PUHR • nih • kuhs) the 1600s, people began to observe, Kepler (KEH • pluhr) experiment, and reason to find new Galileo (GA • luh • LEE • oh) knowledge. Newton (NOO • tuhn) Descartes (day • KAHRT) Focusing on the • The thinkers of the ancient world developed early forms of science Building Your Vocabulary and passed this knowledge to theory (THEE • uh • ree) later civilizations. (page 671) rationalism (RASH • nuh • LIH • zuhm) scientific method • European interest in astronomy led to new discoveries and ideas about hypothesis (hy • PAH • thuh • suhs) the universe and Earth’s place in it. (page 673) Reading Strategy Compare and Contrast Use a • The Scientific Revolution led to new diagram like the one below to show discoveries in physics, medicine, the similarities and differences in the and chemistry. (page 675) views of Ptolemy and Copernicus. • Using the scientific method, Europeans of the 1600s and 1700s Ptolemy Copernicus developed new ideas about society based on reason. (page 678) 1500 1600 1700London 1543 1632 1687 Paris Copernicus supports Galileo publishes Isaac Newton sun-centered work supporting states laws about Florence solar system Copernicus’s ideas motion and gravity Rome670 CHAPTER 18 Enlightenment and Revolution
  18. 18. The Scientific Revolution The thinkers of the ancient worlddeveloped early forms of science and passed thisknowledge to later civilizations.Reading Focus Have you ever taught a skill or passedon an idea to a younger brother or sister? Read in thischapter how the scientific ideas of early thinkers werepassed on to later generations. From earliest times, people have beencurious about the world around them.Thousands of years ago, people began touse numbers, study the stars and planets,and watch the growth of plants and ani- This model shows the universe according to the ideas of the Polish astronomer Nicolausmals. These activities were the beginnings Copernicus, with the sun at the universe’sof science. Science is any organized study of center. What did Ptolemy’s geocentricthe natural world and how it works. theory state?Early Scientists Early civilizations devel- he gathered and classified, or arrangedoped different kinds of science to solve prac- them into groups, based on their similari-tical problems. Among the first sciences ties and differences.were mathematics, astronomy, and medi- The Greeks made many importantcine. Mathematics was used for record keep- scientific advances, but their approach toing and building projects. Astronomy science had some problems. For example,helped people keep time and figure out they did not experiment, or test, new ideaswhen to plant and harvest crops. Early civ- to see if they were true. Many of their con-ilizations also developed medical practices, clusions were false because they were basedsuch as surgery, acupuncture, and the use on “common sense” instead of experiments.of herbs, for treating illnesses. For example, in the A.D. 100s, the The ancient Greeks left behind a large Egyptian-born astronomer Ptolemy (TAH •amount of scientific knowledge. They luh • mee) stated that the sun and the planetsbelieved that reason was the only way to moved around the earth in circular paths.understand nature. As they studied the After all, it did seem like the earth was theworld, they developed theories. A theory center of the universe. Astronomers in(THEE • uh • ree) is an explanation of how or Europe accepted Ptolemy’s geocentric, orwhy something happens. A theory is based earth-centered, theory for more than 1,400on what you can observe about something. years.It may not be correct, but it seems to fit thefacts. Science During the Middle Ages Under In Ancient Greece, the Greek philoso- Roman rule, most thinkers continued topher Aristotle observed nature and col- accept the scientific knowledge of thelected vast amounts of information about Greeks. After the fall of Rome, during theplants and animals. He then took the facts Middle Ages, most people were more CHAPTER 18 Enlightenment and Revolution 671 Scala/Art Resource, NY
  19. 19. interested in theology, the study of God, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. Louvre, Paris/Bridgeman Art Librarythan in the study of nature. For scientific However, in spite of these achievements,knowledge, they relied on Greek and scientists in the Islamic world did notRoman writings and saw no need to check experiment or develop the instrumentstheir facts or to make their own observa- necessary to advance their scientifictions. Many of these ancient works, how- knowledge.ever, were either lost or poorly preserved. During the 1100s, European thinkersIn the writings that survived, errors were became interested in science again as aadded as copies were made. result of their contacts with the Islamic Meanwhile, Arabs and Jews in the world. Major Islamic scientific works wereIslamic Empire preserved much of the sci- brought to Europe and translated intoence of the Greeks and Romans. They care- Latin. The Hindu-Arabic system of num-fully copied many Greek and Roman works bers also spread to Europe, where it eventu-into the Arabic language. They also came ally replaced Roman numerals. Christianinto contact with the science of the Persians thinkers, such as Thomas Aquinas, triedand the Indian system of mathematics. to show that Christianity and reason could Arabic and Jewish scientists made go together. During the 1100s, Europeansadvances of their own in areas such as began building new universities. TheyA New View of the Universe Ptolemaic Universe Fixed Stars Prime Mover Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Earth Moon The astronomical theory of Ptolemy (left) placed Earth at the center of the universe (above). His theory was accepted for more than a thousand years. According to the diagram, how many planets besides Earth were known at the time of Ptolemy?
  20. 20. would play an important role in the growthof science. A Revolution in Astronomy Beginning in the 1400s, voyages of European interest in astronomy led toexploration further added to Europe’s sci- new discoveries and ideas about the universe andentific knowledge. Better charts, maps, and Earth’s place in it.navigational instruments helped voyagers Reading Focus What would people on Earth think ifreach different parts of the world. Through life were discovered on other planets? Read to see howexploration, the size of oceans and conti- Europeans reacted to new discoveries about the universe.nents became better known. Scientists gath-ered and classified new knowledge about During the 1500s, European thinkersplants, animals, and diseases in different began to break with the old scientific of the world. They increasingly understood that advances As scientific knowledge grew, the stage in science could only come through mathe-was set for a new understanding of the matics and experimentation. This new waynatural world that would shake Europe to of thinking led to a revolution, or sweepingits foundations. change, in the way Europeans understood Describe Describe scien- science and the search for knowledge.tific knowledge during the Middle Ages. Astronomy was the first science affected by Copernican Universe Fixed Stars Saturn Moon Jupiter Mars Earth Sun Venus MercuryNicolaus Copernicus (right), a Polishmathematician, believed that the sun was at thecenter of the universe. His model (above) placedEarth and the other planets in orbits around thesun. Why did Europeans again become interested inscience in the 1100s? CHAPTER 18 Enlightenment and Revolution 673 Bettmann/CORBIS