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Webinar - Wind Powered Industrial Process : Seawater Desalination


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Already today wind power offers low and long-term stable costs of energy and therefore is able to compete with large scale conventional power generation. Using wind power directly for energy intensive industrial processes requires an optimized hybrid configuration as well as a balanced load and/or energy management. The technical and economical specifics for wind powered seawater desalination (RO) as a completely integrated solution are presented and emphasize its capability and potential to be implemented in medium and large scale within the next few years.

The technology to desalinate seawater by wind power focuses on the continuous adaptation of the membrane process to the current wind power generation (load management) what results in variable operation parameters. The wind energy share directly usable for the process (wind penetration) in a wind-desalination subgrid constellation will be influenced by many aspects:

• Installed capacities (desalination, wind turbine, potable water storage)

• Integrated management systems (load, energy & storage)

• Resource scenarios (wind)

• Demand scenarios (water)

Dependent on the installed wind power capacity three classes can be defined:

• Desalination with wind power support (low penetration)

• Wind powered desalination (medium/ high penetration)

• Wind power project with coupled desalination (high penetration)

The economic viability/application areas will be presented by the Levelized Water Cost (LWC) for typical plant configurations and relevant parameter variations. Since conventional grid power is intended to be replaced by wind power the grid tariff is the significant criteria for the economic viability/application areas of wind powered vs. conventional processing. High grid tariffs (together with low feed-in compensation) may economically rectify the installation of extended desalination capacities.

Joachim Käufler (speaker), civil engineer with main focus on steel and plant constructions. He has substantial work experience of product development, planning/consulting, project development and turn-key implementations within the fields of steel and plant constructions of conventional power plants and renewable energy systems.

Robert Pohl, mechanical engineer/mechatronics. He has research and development experience of product development of wind powered reverse osmosis and prepares a related PhD-thesis.

Hadi Sader, mechanical engineer and MSc. in renewable energies. He has research and work experience of product and project development and training in renewable energies and wind power applications.

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Webinar - Wind Powered Industrial Process : Seawater Desalination

  1. 1. Wind Powered Industrial Processes applications for electrothermal processes and seawater desalination Webinar, Leonardo ENERGY September 27, 2011Dipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 1SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  2. 2. Content Company presentation Wind powered Industrial Processes (WIP) – Basics Application for electro thermal processing Application for seawater desalinationDipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 2SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  3. 3. SYNLIFT Systems: Who We Are  project developer for turnkey wind power plants - worldwide  full range of services - from early stage investigation to final operation management  design and launch of innovative wind power applications - e.g. wind powered seawater desalination ® consulting services for other wind power applications - e.g. wind powered electrothermal processing © SYNLIFT Systems GmbHDipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 3SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  4. 4. Renewable Energy Integration The measures can be classified as follows : Generation transition to more flexible power generation capacities; Storage development of energy storage technologies at utility and consumer level; Distribution new and reinforced connections between control zones; new and reinforced transmission lines; offshore grid installation; energy exchange between control zones and subgrids; Consumption demand side management and load management;Dipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 4SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  5. 5. Load ManagementFor load balancing by load management two complementary approachesexist:Interregional approach: suitable trading and pricing or business models necessary; complex system with many power market players involved (loose connections); flexible, strong (and therefore costly) transmission system essential; smart grid philosophy;Local approach: complementary optimised generation/consumer entities coupled within local sub-grids on different levels; major energy amount transferred between generation/consumer entities directly; minor energy amount exchanged temporarily with the next grid level upwards in both directions; typical sub-grid applications are: a) large scale power plants to supply large-scale consumer directly (e.g. commercial or industrial Combined Heat and Power plant); b) PV-generators for private or communal self-consumption (micro- or mini-grids).Dipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 5SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  6. 6. Local Approach ~ conventional power ~ grid subgrid energy costs = energy costs = power generation power generation + grid use + grid use + fees & taxes (+ fees & taxes) Potential for local value creation with low and longterm stable costs...e.g. for energy intensive industrial processes...Dipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 6SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  7. 7. Energy Intensive Industrial Processes Type 1 Type 2 Energy Consumption / unit produced (EC): low high Total amount of units produced / period (TA): high low Type 1: membrane processes - e.g. seawater desalination (RO) EC = 3,5 - 5,5 kWh / t TA = 500 - 300.000 t / d energy share of product costs: 30 - 60% Type 2: electrothermal processes - e.g. aluminium melting EC = 410 - 690 kWh / t TA = 1 - 100 t / d energy share of product costs: 5 - 20% [0] Processes with a high level of energy demand and/or energy share of product costs ideal to be developed as… Wind Powered Industrial Process (WIP)…Dipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 7SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  8. 8. WIP Basics (I): Why Wind Power? Power Generation Price Increase Volatility Costs in EURcent/kWh in % p.a.Fossil fueled PG (> 5 MW) 3-10 3-5 medium to strongWind PG (> 1 MW) 3-10 <1 lowPV PG (10 … > 1,000 kW) 12-32 <1 lowSolar thermal PG (> 50 MW) 19-24 <1 low Economic prognosis for a power plant installed in 2010 (Fraunhofer ISE partly) Wind power at many (coastal) sites is competitive with large-scale fossil fueled power generation ... already today … tendency increasing. Wind power is mainly independent of price trends and volatility.Dipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 8SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  9. 9. WIP Basics (II): Relevance of tariffsThe optimal system layout is mainly affected by the level of tariffs: grid tariff low: conventional process medium: wind powered process – without LM high: wind powered process – with LM feed in tariff low: process with wind power supply medium: wind powered process high: wind project with coupled processDipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 9SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  10. 10. WIP Basics (III): Wind Power Capacity power 1 powerProcess with wind power time(feed-in tariff level: low) 2 time power Wind Powered Process 3 1 2 3 (feed-in tariff level: medium) surplus energy – wind process energy – wind process energy - grid time Wind Power with process (feed-in tariff level: high)Dipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 10SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  11. 11. WIP Basics (IV): Wind Penetration wind energy used directly for the process Wind Penetration (WP) = _________________________________ overall energy demand of the process Most influential WP parameters are:  Wind power capacity (related to process capacity);  Storage capacity (on energy and/or product side);  Process load management and/or capacity;Dipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 11SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  12. 12. WIP Basics (V): Wind Power Capacity power 1 powerProcess with wind power time(feed-in tariff level: low) 2 time power Wind Powered Process 3 1 2 3 (feed-in tariff level: medium) surplus energy – wind process energy – wind process energy - grid time Wind Power with process (feed-in tariff level: high)Dipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 12SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  13. 13. WIP Basics (VI): Storage Capacity & Technology Project integrated storage facilities increase the wind energy share directly used for the process (wind penetration) and decrease the energy exchange with the main grid respectively. 3 options of large-scale/multi-hour storage integration: Option 1: energy storage (nominal process capacity) battery Option 2.1: product storage (additional process capacity) tank Option 2.2: product storage (flexible process capacity) tankDipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 13SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  14. 14. WIP Basics (VII): Process Load ManagementDipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 14SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  15. 15. Wind powered electrothermal process (I)Dipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 15SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  16. 16. Wind powered electrothermal process (II) Principle of load management in casting house industry Type A: Variable melting & heat holding - buffering on energy side – + no new media & technology + casting process unmodified + known procedure (peak loads) - heat holding/storage ability vs. temperature / insulating Type B: Variable melting & casting - buffering on product side - + no new media & technology - casting process variable! Prior solution: Type ADipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 16SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  17. 17. Principles of Desalination Distillation Membrane Process Membrane Vapour CoolingSeawater Condensate Seawater Permeate Heat Dipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 17 SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  18. 18. Desalination Technologies Seawater Desalination Processes Phase-change Single-phase Thermal Processes Membrane Processes Multistage Flash Evaporation Reverse Osmosis (MSF) (RO) Multi Effect Distillation (MED) Vapor Compression (VC) Mechanical (MVC) & Thermal (TVC)Dipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 18SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  19. 19. Thermal vs. Membrane Process Thermal Process (MSF) Membrane Process (RO) approx. 13 kWhel/m³Energy Consumption 3.5 – 5.5 kWhel/m³ (70 kWhth + 3 to 4 kWhel)Recovery 10% to 20% (brine recycling) 30 - 50 % 700 - 1,500Investment [$/(m³/day)] 1,000 - 1,500 (10 % thereof for membranes) approx. 0.06 to 0.1Chemicals [$/m³] approx. 0.03 to 0.05 (downwards, UF pretreatment) every 5 yearsMembrane Replacement n.a. (2% of investment / year)Brine, Quantity Distillate x 4 to 9 Permeate X 1 to 4Brine, Quality Chemicals, Heat Chemicals Washing of Filters (fortnightly)O&M Scaling disposal and Membranes (bimonthly) Less High, Fouling Sensitivity,Robustness High Feed water Monitoring !!!Improvement Potential Low MediumDipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 19SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  20. 20. Economics of DesalinationConstraints: Plant Capacity 30,000 m³/day Interest Rate 7% Project Life 20 years Price Electricity 0.065 US$/kWh MSF MED VC RO (therm.) (therm.) (therm.) (membr.) Specific Investment Cost 1,200 – 1,500 900 – 1,000 950 – 1,000 700 - 900 [$/m³/day] Total Cost Product [$/m³] 1.10 – 1.25 0.75 – 0.85 0.87 – 0.95 0.68 – 0.82 Source: Seawater and Brackish Water Desalination in the Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia, World Bank 2004Dipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 20SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  21. 21. Installed Desalination TechnologiesDistribution of installed plant capacity according todesalination process 16,3 36,5 47,2 MSF RO MED, VC and Others 1) Fig.: Source: 2004 IDA Worldwide Desalting Plants Inventory Report No 18; published by Wangnick ConsultingDipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 21SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  22. 22. RO (I): Main Components. High-pressure pump Reverse osmosis Permeate flow membrane module Feed flow q Flow p Pressure Retentate flow F Feed P Permeate R Retentate 0 Ambient Energy recovery deviceDipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 22SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  23. 23. RO (II): Variable OperationPreconditions for variable / wind powered operation• broad load range to avoid excessive modularity and frequent activation/deactivation sequences;• low and uniform energy consumption per unit of product within the total load range;• high process dynamic to adjust the process to the fluctuating wind power quickly;Challenges• common operation is uninterrupted at nominal capacity with constant parameters;• no long-term experiences of membrane behaviour under strong variable operation;Tests• long-term tests with variable and constant operated membranes;• real time computer simulations based on real wind speed series;Results• deterioration of the variable operated membrane could not be observed.Dipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 23SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  24. 24. RO (III): Variabel Operation (Tests) SWRO-Membranes SW30-2540 at variable and constant feed pressure. Feed concentration of 36,4 g/l total salinity at 25°C.Dipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 24SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  25. 25. SYNWATER® The System (I)SYNWATER® components: high process flexibility for low and strong wind periods;SYNWATER® LM: load management system with: basic functionality: wind-dependent processing extended functionality: flexible tariff and demand scenarios for energy and water considerable (smart grid)SYNWATER® a modular system: wind turbine and plant capacities individually adaptable to project specifics;Dipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 25SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  26. 26. SYNWATER® The System (II) 1 Kernel modules (container option) 2 UF membranes 4 5 3 RO membranes 4 5 4 Control room 5 Consumables, spare parts 8 8 8 6 Media trench 1 1 7 Feed water intake / beach well 1 Pre-processing facilities 8 Potable water storage tanks/ Post-processing facilities 9 Wind turbine 10 Roof structure (textile option) 6 2 9 3 10 7Dipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 26SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  27. 27. Economic Aspects: Basic Assumptions (I) seawater desalination as WIP… what is meant:  desalination capacity of at least 500 m3 per day (no upper limit)  grid-connected systems (on-grid)  fully automated  only commercially available standard components used seawater desalination as WIP … what is not meant:  small scale applications  off-grid systems  special solutions (e.g. mechanical coupling wind / RO)Dipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 27SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  28. 28. Economic Aspects: Basic Assumptions (II) Project Wind Turbine SWRO (WT) project time [years] investment [€/kW inst. cap.] investment [€/m3 daily cap.] 20 1.250 - 1.450 800 - 1.100 interest rate [%] O&M cost [€/kWh] O&M cost [€/m³] 5-8 0,010 - 0,014 0,25 – 0,35 annuity factor [-] feed-in tariff [€/kWh] energy consumption [kWh/m³] 0,0802 - 0,1019 0,04 - 0,07 3,5 – 5,5 capacity factor [%] 25 - 35 Considering the local wind conditions (capacity factor) and the energy consumption the WT capacity is designed to meet the annual energy demand of the plant (category: Wind Powered Process). CDM effects are not considered.Dipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 28SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  29. 29. Economic Aspects: Fields of Application Extended SYNWATER® capacities Standard SYNWATER® capacities Conventional desalinationDipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 29SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  30. 30. SYNWATER® Our Services For SYNWATER® projects we are offering the following services...separately or as full- service package: • Fact Finding Mission • Feasibility Study / Proposal • Investment Consulting / Financing • Technical Design • Turn-key Implementation • Operation & Maintenance • Training Beside Delivery Transactions also BOT/BOO business models are negotiable. profitable & sustainable already today!© SYNLIFT Systems GmbHDipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 30SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin
  31. 31. Wind Powered Industrial Processes profitable & sustainable already today! Thank you for your attention info@synliftsystems.deDipl.-Ing. Joachim Käufler, 31SYNLIFT Systems GmbH, Berlin