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Passive House


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The heating system of the future, without traditional heating system. Can a house be constructed without a conventional heating system and still achieve a good comfort level in summer as well as in winter? Yes it can. Nothing magical: the right design, the right materials, and a ventilation system with heat exchanger can be enough. The following minute lecture by way of introduction to this innovative construction standard.

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Passive House

  1. 1. Passive House
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>The term ‘Passive House’refers to a specific construction standard for residential buildings with good comfort conditions during winter and summer, without traditional heating systems and without active cooling </li></ul>Acknowledgement This presentation is based on material contributed by Erwin Mlecnik from the Passive House Platform (PHP) Belgium . The graph on screen 5 comes from PHI Darmstadt
  3. 3. Scientific definition <ul><li>“ The term passive house refers to a specific construction standard for residential buildings with good comfort conditions during winter and summer, without traditional heating systems and without active cooling. Typically this includes very good insulation levels, very good airtightness of the building, whilst a good indoor air quality is guaranteed by a mechanical ventilation system with highly efficient heat recovery. Thereby the design heat load is limited to the load that can be transported by the minimum required ventilation air. However space heating does not have to be carried through the ventilation system. </li></ul><ul><li>For 40 - 60˚ Northern latitudes, under conditions specified in the PHPP calculation model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the total energy demand for space heating and cooling is limited to 15 kWh/m2.a treated floor area; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the total primary energy use for all appliances, domestic hot water and space heating and cooling is limited to 120 kWh/m2.a </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Specific final energy demand <ul><li>Existing house: typically >250 kWh/m2.a </li></ul><ul><li>New construction: typically >150 kWh/m2 .a </li></ul><ul><li>Low energy house: typically >100 kWh/m2 .a </li></ul><ul><li>Passive house: typically <50 kWh/m2 .a </li></ul>
  5. 5. Total cost of ownership (TCO) TCO drops through minimising the investment in the heating system
  6. 6. How can heating be minimised? <ul><li>A maximum, effective insulation </li></ul><ul><li>An excellent airtight construction </li></ul><ul><li>Rational use of the sun by intelligent glazing </li></ul><ul><li>Comfort ventilation with efficient heat exchange </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ventilation with heat recovery Heat collecting windows Airtightness Thermal insulation
  8. 8. Insulation <ul><li>Minimum heat transfer values (U). For example: </li></ul>
  9. 9. An airtight construction <ul><li>For example: </li></ul>
  10. 10. Rational use of the sun <ul><li>A right design for the size and position of windows </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent glazing (e.g. triple pane glazing) </li></ul><ul><li>Limit the risk of overheating in summer, for example by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra ventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical ventilation at night </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A removable sun protection on the windows </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Ventilation <ul><li>The ventilation system with heat recovery is a crucial part of a passive house </li></ul><ul><li>The ventillation system should be controllable by the owners. It has to be adaptable according to the situation (guests, a party, cooking or not …) </li></ul><ul><li>Wet rooms (bathroom, kitchen…) need extra air extraction to avoid moisture </li></ul>
  12. 12. Heat recovery <ul><li>A heat exchanger in the ventilation system recycles a large part of the heat. Efficiencies are typically 80% - 90% </li></ul><ul><li>Extra heating can be provided by a system of tubes in the ground that pre-heat the air coming from outside </li></ul><ul><li>The ground is warmer than the air in winter, but colder than the air in summer, so the same system can pre-cool the incoming air in summer </li></ul><ul><li>In some cases, an extra after heating by a solar boiler or a solar-gas boiler is provided </li></ul>
  13. 13. Combined with other energy efficient techniques <ul><li>In most cases, the construction standards of a passive house are combined with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High efficient domestic appliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A solar water heater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or a photo-voltaic system for generating electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>making a dwelling to a large extent independent from external energy sources </li></ul>
  14. 14. Also for renovation? <ul><li>The passive house standard is mostly applied for new construction </li></ul><ul><li>In some cases, it can be applied during renovation </li></ul><ul><li>Making a passive house out of a standard house will often lead to a loss of space </li></ul>
  15. 15. Pioneering countries <ul><li>Germany is the trendsetter in passive houses </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, passive houses have been built in Austria, Belgium, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Northern Italy and Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>In some countries, like Germany, Austria and Belgium, subsidies are granted for the construction of passive houses </li></ul>
  16. 16. Round-up <ul><li>A passive house is a house with a minimum heating system but with good comfort conditions </li></ul><ul><li>This can be achieved by maximum insulation, an excellent air tightness, intelligent glazing and a ventilation system with heat recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Energy consumption is up to 85% lower compared to a standard house </li></ul>
  17. 17. Links <ul><li>European Passive Houses http :// </li></ul><ul><li>International Links </li></ul><ul><li>in Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>in Germany </li></ul>