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Multiple EV charging stations

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The electric vehicle (EV) is here to stay. The number of EVs has increased steeply in recent years and this evolution is expected to continue in the years ahead, particularly as a result of the EU's commitment on the decarbonisation of the economy.


This application note is intended as a guide for organisations who have decided to install charging stations for their employees and/or customers. It describes the entire process from the moment of the decision to implement charging points on their premises through to the operation and functioning of the stations, illustrated by a real-world case study.

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Multiple EV charging stations

  1. 1. APPLICATION NOTE MULTIPLE EV CHARGING STATIONS CREARA Energy Experts July 2019 ECI Publication No Cu0263 Available from www.leonardo-energy.org
  2. 2. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page i Document Issue Control Sheet Document Title: Application Note – Multiple EV Charging Stations Publication No: Cu0263 Issue: 01 Release: Public Content provider(s) CREARA Energy Experts Author(s): Pedro Luis Espejo, José Ignacio Briano, Paolo Sonvilla Editorial and language review Bruno De Wachter (editorial), Andrew Wilson (English language) Content review: Angelo Baggini Document History Issue Date Purpose 1 July 2019 First publication, in the framework of the Good Practice Guide 2 3 Disclaimer While this publication has been prepared with care, European Copper Institute and other contributors provide no warranty with regards to the content and shall not be liable for any direct, incidental or consequential damages that may result from the use of the information or the data contained. Copyright© European Copper Institute. Reproduction is authorized providing the material is unabridged and the source is acknowledged.
  3. 3. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page ii CONTENTS Summary ........................................................................................................................................................ 1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................... 2 Corporate approach........................................................................................................................................ 5 Multiple EV charging station installations..................................................................................................... 10 Load calculation....................................................................................................................................................12 Introduction............................................................................................................................................12 Modes 1 and 2........................................................................................................................................12 Mode 3 ...................................................................................................................................................13 Mode 4 ...................................................................................................................................................15 Safety standards ...................................................................................................................................................15 International and European safety standards........................................................................................15 Infrastructure requirements.................................................................................................................................16 International and European infrastructure requirements: overview.....................................................16 National regulation...............................................................................................................................................18 Case study: implementation of multiple EV charging stations at the offices of a large financial institution .. 19 General circumstances .........................................................................................................................................19 The proposed solution..........................................................................................................................................19 Project execution..................................................................................................................................................20 Main results..........................................................................................................................................................24 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................................... 26 References.................................................................................................................................................... 27
  4. 4. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 1 SUMMARY The electric vehicle (EV) is here to stay. The number of EVs has increased steeply in recent years and this evolution is expected to continue in the years ahead, particularly as a result of the EU’s commitment on the decarbonisation of the economy. This application note is intended as a guide for organizations who have decided to install charging stations for their employees and/or customers. It describes the entire process from the moment of the decision to implement charging points on their premises through to the operation and functioning of the stations, illustrated by a real-world case study. This document is organised as follows:  Introduction outlining the current position on electric vehicles;  Decision-making process for companies installing EV charging infrastructure and selecting a business model;  Installation process for multiple EV charging stations, including: o General issues; o Technical calculations of the load transfer in Modes 3 and 4; o Safety standards and infrastructure requirements;  Case study of a 48 EV charging station installation at the offices of a large financial institution, from the initial request to charging point monitoring and economic outcome.
  5. 5. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 2 INTRODUCTION The Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) market has been steadily growing in recent years in Europe as illustrated by Figure 1. Total new PEV registrations have increased every year since 2013, reaching a total of over 290,000 by 2017. Consequently, even though the EV share remains low, the proportion of these vehicles has more than quadrupled in the market since 2013. There are two main categories of plug-in EVs. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have an internal combustion engine in addition to their electric motor. Battery electric vehicles (BEV) have only an electric motor. Figure 1 – PEV market share in Europe. The International Energy Agency anticipates two potential scenarios for EV market growth:  The New Policies Scenario is the central scenario and incorporates the policies and measures put in place by governments around the world;  The EV30@30 campaign is an optimistic scenario consistent with the pledged ambition of EVI countries (Canada, Chile, China, Finland, France, Germany, India, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States ) 3 in the EV30@30 Campaign Declaration. BEV units are expected to grow considerably in number by 2030. Figure 2 shows a compound annual growth rate of over 25% in the New Policies Scenario, with a total of more than 40 million of BEVs by 2030. In the more optimistic EV30@30 campaign scenario, almost 130 million BEVs are expected in the same time horizon. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 PHEV BEV 0.45 Total share of EV in Europe 0.68 1.26 1.30 1.78 2.11 ShareinEurope Note: From January to August, 2018 Source: EAFO; CREARA Analysis
  6. 6. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 3 Figure 2 – Expected growth in BEV numbers. The increasing number of EVs leads to the urgent need for EV charging points. Any EV can be charged through a normal domestic socket or through a dedicated EV charging point. However, there are important differences that must be taken into account.  A normal domestic socket requires no initial investment, but communication with the EV and load transfer supervision are minimal. There is a risk of overheating the installation, which could ultimately start a fire. With a dedicated EV charging point, communication between the EV and the charging device is more sophisticated, substantially enhancing fire safety.  Load intensity is very low using a domestic socket, which means that it takes a long time to charge the vehicle fully (approximately 17 hours). EV charging points are specifically designed to achieve optimum charging in the shortest possible time (3-10 hours, depending on the current and whether it is a single-phase or three-phase connection). Public charging points dedicated to EVs and can be normal (>22 kV) or fast (≤ 22 kW). Normal power public stations are by far the most prevalent in Europe with a share close to 90% in 2017, but fast charging stations are growing in popularity in recent years. Figure 3 – Evolution of public charging stations. MillionofBEV* 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 2017 2020 2025 2030 Note: BEV includes passenger light-duty vehicles and light commercial vehicles Source: International Energy Agency, CREARA Analysis CAGR (2017-2030) New Policies Scenario 25.26% EV30@30 Scenario 36.80% New Policies Scenario EV30@30 Scenario 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 28.4 Thousands of infrastructures 41.3 69.0 104.6 135.3 149.9 CAGR 2013-2017 90% 57% Note: 1 From January to August, 2018 Source: EAFO; CREARA Analysis 1 Fast charging stations Normal charging stations 47%Total
  7. 7. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 4 Figure 3 illustrates the relationship between the EV new sales market share and the number of EVs per available public charging station. EV market share is still low in most countries with the exception of Norway where almost a third of newly sold vehicles are electric. The second biggest market share belongs to the Netherlands, with over 6% EV sales penetration. The share of EVs in other countries is below 3%. Figure 4 – Relation between EV new sales market share and the number of EVs per available public charging point. 0.0% 0.5% 1.0% 1.5% 2.0% 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 EVmarketshareofnewsales Numberof electricvehiclesperavailable publiccharging point Portugal Current stateof EV(BEV + PHEV) market in selectedcountries1 (2016) Canada China France Germany India Italia Japan Korea Spain Sweden UK EE.UU Ball size indicates total BEV + PHEV stock: = 400.000 = 125.000 = 55.000 = 2.000 Norway The Netherlands 29%6,4% Note: 1Norway, the Netherlands and Sweden have not been plotted in real scale due to their higher market share compared with the rest of countries Source: IEA; CREARA Analysis 3,4%
  8. 8. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 5 CORPORATE APPROACH A company may decide to install EV charging stations based on one or a combination of the following reasons: 1. The organisation runs, or is planning to run, an EV fleet; 2. To attract clients and increase the loyalty of employees who drive EVs; 3. To enhance the corporate image; 4. Obligated by regulation; 5. To generate an additional revenue stream. 1. THE ORGANISATION RUNS, OR IS PLANNING TO RUN, AN EV FLEET There is an increasing trend among companies to establish EV fleets to reduce their carbon footprint. Although BEV manufacturing emissions are approximately 68 percent higher than for comparable conventional petrol vehicles, electric vehicles generally emit 53% less CO2e per mile compared to petrol vehicles during their lifecycle, saving 54 tonnes of CO2e 1 . Many corporations are also seeking to reduce the total cost of ownership (TCO) of their fleets. The initial investment for EVs is higher compared to petrol vehicles but the TCO can be lower, depending on the circumstances. In 2018, an analysis comparing the TCO of petrol and electric vehicles in the UK, US (California and Texas) and Japan was published. The study takes all significant vehicle ownership costs into consideration for 2015: depreciation, tax, maintenance, insurance and petrol/electricity. The research also took into account financial incentives. FIGURE 5 illustrates the results: on average, the BEV has a lower cost of ownership in all the regions studied. 1 R. Nealer, D. Reichmuth, D. Anair (2015). Cleaner Cars from Cradle to Grave. Under certain conditions: considering a full-size 265-mile-range BEV, when is powered by the electricity grid mix representative of where BEVs are sold today
  9. 9. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 6 Figure 5 – TCO component breakdown for 2015 across Japan, UK and US. 2. TO INCREASE THE LOYALTY OF EMPLOYEES AND ATTRACT CLIENTS WHO DRIVE ELECTRIC VEHICLES A further reason to install EV charging stations is to increase the loyalty of employees by offering this additional benefit. Many organizations operating charging points offer free energy to their staff. By installing EV charging stations, companies also reduce carbon emissions from the vehicles of their employees and clients. Many companies have already installed points at their facilities hoping to reduce these emissions, for example Apple (700 charging stations in Apple Park) or Ikea (charging stations at 69% of their stores and 42% of shopping centres). Some organizations have already published the economic or environmental results achieved following the installation of charging stations. For example, Air New Zealand saves €1,200 per EV per year at its 45 charging points; Google saved 2,142 tonnes of C02 in 2016 by installing 1,646 stations. A study of Dutch drivers 4 recently suggested that over half of EV drivers use only one or two points (probably at their homes overnight and at their workplaces) to charge their vehicles. These numbers reflect the fact that many drivers follow a daily loading routine. By installing charging points on their premises, companies can facilitate this routine for their employees before the number of stations increases. Installing EV charging infrastructures could also lead to a competitive advantage since customers who own an EV may prefer doing business with a company operating charging points at their premises. 0 5 10 15 20 25 Petrol BEV Petrol BEV Petrol BEV Petrol BEV Depretiation Taxes Maintenance Insurance Petrol cost Electricity cost Japan California (USA) Texas (USA) United Kingdom Totalcostofownership (thousandsEUR) Incentives Note: This research considers an ownership with an average length of 3 years Source: University of Leeds, CREARA Analysis
  10. 10. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 7 Figure 6 - Segmentation by charging points used by EVs in a 90-day period 3. TO ENHANCE CORPORATE IMAGE The installation of EV charging points is still considered innovative and can attract media interest. This can contribute to promoting an environmentally friendly image. Not surprisingly, leading companies have already announced plans to develop EV charging infrastructures at their premises, among them Coca-Cola, Ikea, Facebook, General Electric and Google. 4. OBLIGATED BY REGULATION In some countries or regions, regulation requires charging stations to be installed under some circumstances. One example is EU Directive 2018/844, which amends Directive 2010/31. According to this directive, EU Member States should ensure the installation of at least one charging point for every five parking spaces in non-residential buildings with more than ten parking spaces, whether newbuild or when undergoing major renovation. To facilitate this obligation, many countries grant tax exemption for EV charging infrastructure installation. 5. TO GENERATE AN ADDITIONAL REVENUE STREAM Charging stations could bring a new source of income to cover initial investment and generate additional profits where users pay more than the actual cost of charging. Companies select their preferred business model depending on the reason for installing the EV charging stations and the value proposition offered to EV drivers. They must first carefully analyse their company profile (e.g. size, public or private, business culture and brand image) and the profiles of potential users (e.g. time spent by users, and the mix of clients and employees) before deciding on their preferred business model. The following alternatives exist: NO COST TO THE USER, WITH NOTIFICATION In this scenario, the company assumes the total cost of EV charging. It notifies this cost to users so that they can better perceive the benefit they enjoy. NO COST TO THE USER, WITHOUT NOTIFICATION The company assumes the total cost of EV charging but does not notify the costs. 46% 20% 22% 12% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 2 charging points 1 charging point 3 to 5 charging points + 5 charging points
  11. 11. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 8 These two models are commonly applied by organizations wishing to encourage employee loyalty. Employees have extra motivation to work for companies offering free energy for EV charging, and it may also function as an incentive for potential customers. SUBSIDIZED FOR THE USER This model is considered by companies who wish to encourage the loyalty of EV users but are unwilling to bear the entire cost of EV charging. The cost is therefore only partially subsidized by the organization. TOTAL COST COVERED BY THE USER The company bears the cost of installing the EV charging stations on their premises, but the user must pay for all the energy used in charging. Through an access control system, the charging station identifies the user. TOTAL COST COVERED BY THE USER PLUS PROFIT MARGIN In addition to the user being liable for the charging cost, companies also include a profit margin in the price to recover the initial investment of installing the EV charging points or gain an additional source of income. Additionally, companies must decide whether they wish to outsource the financing and management of the charging stations. They must evaluate whether to make use of internal or external financial resources, as well as whether they have the necessary technical capacity to operate the equipment or need to outsource its management:  Financing can be procured from internal funds or external investors; o Own financing: the company allocates available internal funds to install the charging points and consequently will own new depreciating assets; o External financing: an external investor puts up the required investment. Together with the new assets, a new debt arises in the company’s liabilities. Of the different forms of external financing, those most commonly used for EV charging station installations are debt, lines of credit and leasing;  Operation. Charging stations are usually managed and operated by specialist third parties, who provide maintenance and guarantee the correct use of the chargers. Many organizations, especially larger companies, may have technical departments with the knowledge and expertise to manage such infrastructure. Based on these two parameters, companies are positioned in the matrix in Figure 7 according to the type of financing and operation employed:
  12. 12. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 9 Figure 7 – Matrix of EV charging station management. Companies that do not have the technical expertise to manage the installation and operation processes usually opt to outsource EV charging station operation and financing. In this case, it presents several advantages:  Companies can focus their resources on their core business and other strategic activities;  Technical risks and management responsibilities are covered by the third party;  Charging station energy use is optimized. • The company self- financesthe installationof the recharging stations and operatesthem from a specialized technical department • The company seeks external financing (usuallythrough renting,leasingor debt),but is in charge of operatingthe charging points • The company financesthe installationbut outsourcesthe managementof the charging stations to a specializedthird party • The company outsourcesboth the financingand management processesto a specializedexternal company FINANCING OWN SELF-OPERATEDTHIRD-PARTY EXTERNAL OPERATION
  13. 13. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 10 MULTIPLE EV CHARGING STATION INSTALLATIONS In a multiple EV charging station project, and prior to technical calculations, the following general issues need to be taken into account. DESIGN Charging stations must be designed and installed to be clearly visible to potential users. The following are key features that any charging station must incorporate:  Colours and a recognisable aesthetic to capture the attention of users.  Lighting to illuminate the charging area as well as lights indicating whether the vehicle is being charged.  Charging points must be at an appropriate ergonomic height for users.  It is recommended that cables and holders are integrated within charging stations for ease of use and for drivers who may not carry their own cables in their vehicles. The length of the cable must accommodate all type of vehicles and, if it is not retractable, there must be holders to avoid loose cables causing accidents at stations.  Instructions must be simple, clear and understandable by all drivers. Graphical directions are especially useful for novice drivers or non-native speakers.  Drivers need to know how much they are paying to charge their vehicles, and therefore pricing information is an essential requirement at the station (except where charging is free).  Problems may arise when charging a vehicle so drivers must feel confident that there will be assistance 24/7 if any issues arise. Companies can benefit from branding opportunities or even advertising to drivers at charging stations. There are also technical features to be incorporated in the wallbox:  Ideally, the charging point will include a display for better user interaction. An extra screen can include advertising, resulting in an additional income source.  The charging station operator can also offer an app to facilitate its use.  High voltage charging points should incorporate a load limiter allowing users with less powerful batteries to charge their vehicle at a lower voltage. CHARGING STATION FUNCTIONALITY Charging stations can have many functionalities depending on the following features:  Type of connection. With or without socket.  Type of socket. Different standards apply depending on the charging mode. Standard CEE 7 (e.g. shuko) SAE J1772 Yazaki IEC 62196 - 2 Mennekes IEC 62851 - 23&24 CHAdeMO IEC 62196 - 3 CCS Combo
  14. 14. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 11  Number of chargers. There could be one or two sockets integrated within each wallbox and, to allow users to charge other types of electric vehicles (such as bikes, motorbikes or scooters), it is customary to install an additional standard CEE 7 socket, independent of the wallboxes.  Network analyser or counter (if present).  Measuring equipment and invoicing system (if present).  Access control. Alternatives include the use of an app, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), digital or analogue fingerprint, or facial recognition.  Communication system. 3G or Ethernet.  Protocol. Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) including automatic upgrade.  Type of charging. Single-phase or three-phase. Companies choose the functionalities according to their needs. CHARGING AREA SURROUNDS There are factors related to charging area surrounds drivers consider when using a charging station.  Charging points must be accessible, and without physical barriers and, ideally, EV parking spaces should be close to entrances to encourage drivers to charge their vehicles;  Charging station surrounds should be clean and well-maintained;  Drivers must feel safe leaving their cars to charge in the parking areas; useful measures could include positioning parking spaces in areas where there is little traffic, installing signal lamps, and/or deploying other physical security measures such as security cameras or security staff;  Drivers will especially appreciate protection from the weather; on rainy days drivers will opt for an underground, indoor or protected station;  Offering drivers opportunities for recreation and relaxation may help to increase loyalty for a specific charging point, because charging may take at least 30 minutes.
  15. 15. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 12 LOAD CALCULATION INTRODUCTION The installation of multiple EV charging stations is a comprehensive project affecting the entire organization, with many sections of the company participating in the process. For example, the finance department will oversee the investment, personnel will be looking at how project implementation will affect staff, and marketing will be analysing opportunities for branding and positioning. So, a charging station installation cannot simply be seen as a linear project split into distinct phases. There must be an integrated plan where important decisions influencing the entire project are made before starting work. Some of the main questions are: what is the total investment the company is willing to make, what is the business model, are the charging stations only for EVs or are electric bikes and motorcycles included, what are the intended charging times, and how many charging points will there be? Two important technical factors must be evaluated to make the load calculation: 1) Charging mode. There are four charging modes – Modes 1, 2, 3 and 4 (see below) – and each comes with specific characteristics (such as current, voltage and power), as well as advantages and disadvantages. The most commonly used by European companies is mode 3. There are also charging stations on the market offering the possibility of charging in different modes. 2) Electrical installation. It may be the case that the existing installation has insufficient capacity to support the additional power required for multiple EV charging stations. If there are electrical limitations, the project must be either adapted by reducing the load power or redesigned. MODES 1 AND 2 These modes are characterized by standard sockets up to 16 A and 32 A respectively. Although they are the most usual modes for regular residential usage, they are not recommended for EVs. Their usage could lead to the electric installation overheating, with the risk of ignition and fire. In Mode 1, there is no communication device between the EV and the charging point nor any load transfer supervision. In Mode 2 the level of communication between the EV and the charging station is higher than in Mode 1, but is still very limited. In these two modes, the load intensity is very low (in Mode 2 for security reasons), so getting full load can take a lot of time (around 17 hours). As a result, these modes are not a viable option for EV charging.
  16. 16. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 13 MODE 3 Mode 3 is specifically designed for and aimed at EVs. The load is in alternating current and consequently the infrastructure can be installed cost-effectively almost anywhere. An additional characteristic is the type of socket. Type 2 connector (62196-2, commonly known as Mennekes) is the European standard (EN 62196-2). However, other sockets meeting earlier standards (such as SAE J1772) can still be found. CHARGING STATION PRICING Wallbox charging station prices for a company can range between €1,500 and €2,500, depending on the extras or additions specified. This price does not include the installation cost, which will vary according to the technical features of the facility, such as the location of the charging station, the distance to the electrical installation, the number of charging stations, and whether building work is required. Prices for public access charging stations are higher, between €7,500 and €9,000, also depending on the characteristics of the station. LOADING SPEED AND LOADING TIME The current for Mode 3 can range between 6 A and 63 A. Voltage can be single-phase (230 V) or three-phase (400 V). At the time of defining the load, it must be taken into account that some EVs (such as the Renault Zoe) cannot load at a current lower than 13 A due to their technical characteristics. The loading speed is defined by the power. To calculate the power, the formulae are different for single-phase and three-phase loads: 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑀𝑜𝑑𝑒 3 (𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 − 𝑝ℎ𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑) = 𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 ∗ 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 1000 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑀𝑜𝑑𝑒 3 (𝑡ℎ𝑟𝑒𝑒 − 𝑝ℎ𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑) = 𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 ∗ 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 ∗ √3 1000 The standard voltage level is 230 V for a single phase load and 400 V for a three phase load, but there is no standard current level, so the power will vary with the current. Table 1 shows the possible calculations for single-phase and three-phase loading transfers. At present, the most widely-used currents for EV charging in Europe are 16 A and 32 A, while single-phase load is more frequent due to its lower price. Where companies prioritize loading time over cost, they will select three-phase load.
  17. 17. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 14 Single-phase load (230 V) Three-phase load (400 V) Current Power (kW) 6 A 1.38 4.16 10 A 2.30 6.93 16 A 3.68 11.09 18 A 4.14 12.47 20 A 4.60 13.86 25 A 5.75 17.32 32 A 7.36 22.17 63 A 14.49 43.65 Table 1 – Loading speed in Mode 3. The loading time varies mainly depending on two factors: the level to which the battery is already charged and the battery capacity. The loading time is: 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 = 𝐶𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑏𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑦 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑔 Table 2 shows the loading times starting from a fully discharged battery up to a full load of 40 kWh. Power (kW) Loading time (h) Power (kW) Loading time (h) Current Single-phase load (230 V) Three-phase load (400 V) 6 A 1.38 28.99 4.16 9.62 10 A 2.30 17.39 6.93 5.77 16 A 3.68 10.87 11.09 3.61 18 A 4.14 9.66 12.47 3.21 20 A 4.60 8.70 13.86 2.89 25 A 5.75 6.96 17.32 2.31 32 A 7.36 5.43 22.17 1.80 63 A 14.49 2.76 43.65 0.92 Table 2 – Loading times in Mode 3. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Mode 3 installations present a broader range of advantages compared with Modes 1 and 2. ADVANTAGES  High level of communication between the EV and the station leading to optimized load transfer;  Most cost-effective mode for safe charging;  Designed specifically for EVs – the risks for the EV and users are minimal. DISADVANTAGES  Charging stations only for electric cars – other electric vehicles such as motorcycles or bikes cannot be charged unless there is an additional standard socket;  Loading times are longer than for Mode 4.
  18. 18. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 15 MODE 4 Mode 4 is also a power system specifically designed for EVs. However, in this case the loading is in direct current thus making the charging station installation more expensive, and also requiring specific devices such as CHAdeMO or CCS Combo sockets. CHARGING STATION PRICING Fast charging stations represent the most expensive charging infrastructure on the market, costing up to €20,000 not including installation. LOADING SPEED AND LOADING TIME In Mode 4, the loading is in direct current which means that the current flows in one direction only, and the power is calculated without any correction: 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 = 𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑥 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 Using the same assumptions – a completely empty battery and a capacity of 40 kWh – the current is up to 120 A at 500 V, resulting in the following loading time: 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 = 𝐶𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑦 𝑏𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑦 − 40 𝑘𝑊ℎ 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑔 − 60,000 𝑊 = 0.45 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠 In this scenario an EV can be totally charged in about 45 minutes, which is between 14.5 and 2.5 times faster than using Mode 3 (single-phase at 16 A and three-phase at 32 A respectively). This is why Mode 4 is known as the fast charging mode. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Mode 4 holds advantages similar to those of Mode 3, on top of being the fastest charging mode, but it also comes with a few disadvantages. ADVANTAGES  High level of communication between the EV and the station, leading to optimized loading;  Installation designed specifically for EVs. The risks for the EV and users are minimal;  Mode 4 is the fastest charging mode. DISADVANTAGES  The charging stations are used only by electric cars, unless there is an additional standard socket;  Not all EVs have the specific socket to charge in Mode 4;  The investment required to install a fast charging station is high;  Regular loading in Mode 4 may have a negative impact on battery life;  Higher monthly costs for contracted power are reflected in electricity bills. SAFETY STANDARDS INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN SAFETY STANDARDS The safety of charging stations is a key issue that must be considered in all circumstances. Several international standards have been developed to ensure the safety of EV charging stations users. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has published consensus-based International Standards affecting EV charging infrastructure. The adoption of IEC standards by any country is entirely voluntary. These standards are:
  19. 19. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 16 IEC Scope Stability date IEC 61140 Protection against electric shock - Common aspects for installation and equipment 2022 IEC 62040 Uninterruptible power systems (UPS)  Part 1: Safety requirements  Part 2: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements  Part 3: Method of specifying the performance and test requirements  Part 4: Environmental aspects - Requirements and reporting  Part 5-3: DC output UPS - Performance and test requirements  Part 1: 2022  Part 2: 2021  Part 3: 2018 (revision in 2020)  Part 4: 2020  Part 5: 2021 IEC 60529 – Amendment 2 Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code) 2025 IEC 60364  Part 7-722: Requirements for special installations or locations - Supplies for electric vehicles 2023 Table 3 – IEC safety standards. The International Standardization Organization (ISO) has also published several standards to address user safety, some of which are currently being revised. A standard on magnetic field wireless power transfer is under development. ISO Scope Published ISO 6469 Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Safety specifications  Part 1: On-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS)  Part 2: Vehicle Operational safety  Part 3: Electrical safety  Part 4: Post crash electrical safety ISO 17409 Electrically propelled road vehicles - Connection to an external electric power supply - Safety requirements Under revision / development ISO 6469 Part 1: On-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) ISO 17409 Electrically propelled road vehicles - Connection to an external electric power supply - Safety requirements ISO 19363 Electrically propelled road vehicles -- Magnetic field wireless power transfer -- Safety and interoperability requirements Table 4 – ISO standards on safety. INFRASTRUCTURE REQUIREMENTS INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN INFRASTRUCTURE REQUIREMENTS: OVERVIEW Requirements for EV charging infrastructure are also established by IEC and ISO standards. These are grouped in three categories depending on their role in the infrastructure: accessories, communication and topology.
  20. 20. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 17 Figure 8 – EV charging infrastructure standard categories. Norm Scope Stability date Accessories IEC 62196 Plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets - Conductive charging of electric vehicles  Part 1: General requirements  Part 2: Dimensional compatibility and interchangeability requirements for AC pin and contact-tube accessories  Part 3: Dimensional compatibility and interchangeability requirements for DC and AC/DC pin and contact-tube vehicle couplers 2019 Communication IEC 61850  Part 90-8: Communication networks and systems for power utility automation. Object model for E-mobility. 2019 IEC 61851  Part 24: Digital communication between a DC EV charging station and an EV for control of DC charging 2019 ISO 15118 Vehicle to grid communication interface:  Part 1: General information and use-case definition  Part 2: Network and application protocol requirements  Part 3: Physical and data link layer requirements  Part 4: Network and application protocol conformance test  Part 5: Physical layer and data link layer conformance test  Part 8: Physical layer and data link layer requirements for wireless communication NA Norm Scope Stability date Topology IEC 61439 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies  Part 1: General rules  Part 2: Power switchgear and controlgear assemblies  Part 3: Distribution boards intended to be operated by ordinary persons  Part 4: Particular requirements for assemblies for construction sites  Part 5: Assemblies for power distribution in public networks  Part 1: 2018 (revised 2020)  Part 2: 2018 (revised 2019)  Part 3: 2019  Part 4: 2019  Part 5: 2019 Accessories Communication BATTERY Charging station Source: CREARA Analysis Topology On-board charger
  21. 21. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 18 IEC 61851 Electric vehicle conductive charging system  Part 1: General requirements  Part 21-1: Electric vehicle on-board charger EMC requirements for conductive connection to AC/DC supply  Part 21-2: Electric vehicle requirements for conductive connection to an AC/DC supply - EMC requirements for off board electric vehicle charging systems  Part 23: DC electric vehicle charging station  Part 1: 2021  Part 21-1: 2021  Part 21-2: 2021  Part 23: 2019 IEC 61980 Electric vehicle wireless power transfer (WPT) systems  Part 1: General requirements 2019 Table 5 – International infrastructure requirements. NATIONAL REGULATION In addition to international standards, there are national regulations covering the process of installing EV charging stations which differ from one country to another:.  In Spain, the Instrucción Técnica Complementaria BT-52 was passed by Royal Decree 1053/2014. This standard includes a technical guide to the infrastructure and safety requirements for EV charging stations.  In the Netherlands, EV charging point safety issues are regulated by NEN-EN 1010, a set of safety standards for low-voltage installations. Application of these standards is not mandatory, however it is mandatory to demonstrate that the same level of safety is achieved if other solutions are chosen.
  22. 22. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 19 CASE STUDY: IMPLEMENTATION OF MULTIPLE EV CHARGING STATIONS AT THE OFFICES OF A LARGE FINANCIAL INSTITUTION GENERAL CIRCUMSTANCES In this real case, a large financial institution based in Spain (referred to in this study as the client) hired a fleet of 48 Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) through a specialist rental company to allocate to 48 managers. The charging stations are not for use on a free access or rotational basis, but are to be used on a personalized or one-to-one basis by each PHEV owner. The client requested the installation of 48 charging points at the beginning of April spread over three basement floors (B-1, B-2 and B-3). Parking spaces were to be grouped in eight slots of two – all consecutive – resulting in the installation of eight double-socket wallboxes on each floor – 24 in total. Initially, the client wanted the PHEVs to be charged as fast as possible but, in practice, PHEVs usually have a battery with a limited capacity, making fast loading superfluous. However, the charging installations would most probably have a longer life than the PHEVs and, by installing high-speed Mode 3 chargers, the client would be investing in a long-term solution allowing for any future switch to BEVs. THE PROPOSED SOLUTION At the first site visit, the electric installation to which the client wanted to connect the charging stations was examined. Unfortunately, it had just four automatic switches of 80 A each (320 A in total) and consequently it was not possible to proceed with the installation of 48 charging points each drawing a current of 32 A. This led to three possibilities for the client:  Renew the electrical installation to increase the available power;  Find additional capacity in other available electrical circuits;  Revise the project to reduce either the number of charging points or the loading speed. It was agreed that a reduction in loading speed would be the best solution for two main reasons:  Managers spend a lot of time at the offices and therefore do not need fast charging to completely load their vehicles.  The PHEVs have a battery capacity of 10 kWh and do not allow fast charging. When connected to a fast charging system, their Battery Management System (BMS) would demand less energy than offered by the charger, resulting in energy losses. This means that for the EVs concerned, an installation which met the initial specifications of the client would be oversized. One downside of this choice is that the installation could need an upgrade if the PHEV fleet is later replaced by a BEV fleet. This illustrates one of the potential limitations that could arise during project development. Usually, companies wishing to install multiple EV charging stations would not have the necessary specialist knowledge or expertise concerning the electrical capacity of their facilities. This is the first thing to be checked since it can influence decision-making for the entire project. Other potential constraints (such as the building material used, the location of the parking spaces and the distance between from the electric installation and the charging point) may not emerge until the project is in
  23. 23. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 20 the execution phase. These constraints could lift the investment required for the installation above what was originally planned. PROJECT EXECUTION The project was executed in three distinct phases:  In the first phase, six double-socket and two single-socket wallboxes were installed in B-1;  In the second phase, eight double-socket wallboxes were installed in B-2 and another eight in B-3;  The final phase was not planned in advance; instead, after seeing the advantages and possibilities of the double-socket wallbox, the client institution decided to replace the two single-socket wallboxes installed in the first phase (in B-1) with double wallboxes. To facilitate analysis, the study focuses on the installation of half of the total number of charging points (namely 24 charging points: seven in B-1 in the first phase, eight in B-2 and eight in B-3 in the second phase, and 2 additional ones in B-1 in the third phase) – we call them X1. The other half (also 24 charging points) are installed in exactly the same way – we call them X2. In other words, X1 and X2 are each other’s mirror image. FIRST PHASE In this phase, six double and two single wallboxes were installed in B-1. FIGURE 9 illustrates one half of the installation. Figure 9 – Phase 1 of the project. In this case, the Mode 3 double-socket wallboxes come with an integrated load control function which regulates the energy transfer depending on how many EVs are being charged at one time. If only one EV is connected, the full power (or charging speed) of 7.4 kW will go to that vehicle (as in wallbox 2 in FIGURE 9). If 32 A32 A 32 A 32 A Wallbox2 Wallbox3 CP CP CP CP Wallbox4 CP Wallbox1 CP CP 16 A 3.7 kW 16 A 3.7 kW 32 A 7.4 kW 16 A 3.7 kW 16 A 3.7 kW 32 A 22 kW 32 A Automatic Switch 1 80 A Three-phase voltage One-phase voltage CP Charge point Note: Notice that this figure only shows half of the eight wallboxes; the other half is installed in the same way
  24. 24. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 21 two EVs are connected simultaneously, the wallbox will split the available power between the two charging points and the load will be reduced to 3.7 kW (see wallboxes 1 and 3 in FIGURE 9). Note that such a load control function is not standard in Mode 3 wallboxes. Where this function is not included, an external load control box should be added to comply with standard IEC 60364 722.311. In this case, an alternative and simpler solution to comply with the IEC standard could be to allow both connecting points to draw full power simultaneously and upgrade the cable sizing of the entire feeding circuit accordingly. Using a standard dual socket Mode 3 wallbox without load control and without full power cable sizing is not compliant. 2 Originally, wallbox 4 (and its counterpart in X2) was planned for only a single PHEV to be charged using three- phase power. In phase 3, these wallboxes were substituted by double-socket versions. In this phase, the total current used for four wallboxes is 64 A drawn from Automatic Switch 1 (Automatic Switch 2 in X2). SECOND PHASE In this phase, the remaining eight wallboxes were installed in B-2 and B-3. As in the first phase, the electric circuit in Figure 10 illustrates only one half of the wallbox installation. The eight additional charging infrastructures are installed similarly. 2 IEC 60364 722.311: "Since all the connecting points of the installation can be used simultaneously, the diversity factor of the distribution circuit shall be taken as equal to 1. However, this factor may be reduced where load control is available."
  25. 25. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 22 Figure 10 – Phase 2 of the project. Given that 128 A is used by the wallboxes installed in Phase 1, further calculations were required to determine the power needed by the remaining wallboxes in B-2 and B-3. In this phase, four switches are used: automatic switches 1 and 2 each with a spare capacity of 16 A, and automatic switches 3 and 4 each with 80 A. The current distribution is optimized as illustrated in Figure 10. THIRD PHASE Once all the wallboxes were installed, the client requested two charging points instead of one in wallbox 4 (and its counterpart in X2). There were two options to replace them:  Option 1: two three-phase charging points of 32 A in each wallbox, with the load being balanced between them;  Option 2: two one-phase charging points of 32 A in each wallbox. 32 A 32 A 32 A 32 A Wallbox7 CP CP 16 A 3.7 kW 16 A 3.7 kW Wallbox 6 CP CP 32 A 7.4 kW Wallbox 5 CP CP 16 A 3.7 kW 16 A 3.7 kW 32 A Automatic Switch 1 16 A Automatic Switch 3 80 A Wallbox8 CP CP 16 A 3.7 kW 16 A 3.7 kW Basement -2 Wallbox 11 CP CP 16 A 3.7 kW 16 A 3.7 kW Wallbox 10 CP CP 32 A 7.4 kW 16 A 3.7 kW Wallbox 12 CP CP 16 A 3.7 kW 16 A 3.7 kW Basement -3 32 A Wallbox9 CP 16 A 3.7 kW CP 32 A32 A 16 A16 A Three-phase voltage One-phase voltage CP Occupied charge point CP Idle charge point Note: Notice that this figure only shows half of the 16 wallboxes; the other half is installed in the same way
  26. 26. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 23 Figure 11 – Options for wallbox 4. Even though the load transfer is faster in Option 1, this wallbox is larger than the others, including the one it replaces. Therefore Option 2 was chosen. BUDGET The main direct cost is labour, which is dependent on the location of the installation. In this case, the installation was in Spain and unit labour costs per wallbox were approximately €900. Labour costs will be higher in countries such as the Netherlands, Germany or Belgium, while they would be similar in Italy, and lower in Greece, Portugal or Eastern European countries. Wallbox prices vary according to the technical features of the device. Usually, these cost between €1,500 and €2,000, including special features and accessories. Cabling is normally one of the more significant costs depending on the characteristics of the installation. The longer the distance between the electric installation and the wallbox, the longer the cable needed and the more costly will project execution be. Saving on the sizing of the cable conductor is not recommended, since this increases energy losses and ultimately the lifecycle cost of the project. However, the more EV charging stations installed, the cheaper the unit cost. Some components will cover the whole installation so their unit cost will decrease as the number of charging points rises. 16 A 11 kW CP 32 A Three-phase voltage One-phase voltage CP Charge point CP 32 A 7,4 kW CP CP 32 A 7,4 kW 16 A 11 kW 32 A Option 1 Option 2
  27. 27. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 24 Figure 12 – Breakdown of the installation costs of one wallbox. The final budget for this project – including the 24 double-socket wallboxes – is approximately €80,000, meaning that the total unit cost for each wallbox is €3,300. MAIN RESULTS Within a month of the project starting, the PHEV drivers were able to charge their cars at their workplace. Loading transactions have been monitored since installation, with the first six months illustrated in Figure 13. There were 1,096 transactions totalling 5.77 MWh of energy. The number of loadings increased from September coinciding with the end of the summer break. A higher number of transactions is expected in the future, as drivers begin to perceive the many advantages of using PHEVs and when their use becomes more mainstream. Figure 13 – Monitoring of EV loading. 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 Wallbox & accessories Labor Material Cabling Maintenance Protection and electrical panel 48% 27% 13% 5% 4% 3% 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 May June July August September October Energy(kWh) Numberoftransactions
  28. 28. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 25 The client has a power purchase tariff of 0.080478 EUR/kWh. With the aim of transferring these costs to the EV users and making an additional profit for the services offered, they took the decision to sell the energy at a higher price of 0.095 EUR/kWh. FIGURE 14 shows the evolution of the profit margin over the months since the charging stations were installed, comparing the accumulated energy purchase and energy sale prices. The more the charging points are used, the greater the profit margin becomes. Figure 14 – Profit margin evolution. EUR Profit margin (EUR) 4.0 5.7 15.4 4.2 25.7 28.7 Total profit 83.8 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 May June July August September October Energy sale Energy purchase
  29. 29. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 26 CONCLUSION The installation of multiple EV charging stations is a comprehensive project that affects the entire company. Consequently, the decision to carry out such a project must involve all sections of the company. Depending on the reasons for the installation – which can be diverse – and the value proposition that the company is willing to offer to its EV drivers, the business model is selected from the following scenarios:  No cost to the user, with notification;  No cost to the user, without notification;  Subsidized cost to the user;  Total cost to the user;  Total cost to the user, plus profit margin. Financing and operational management must be taken into account when deciding the most appropriate business model for the company. Both aspects can be managed internally or outsourced to specialists. Once the decision is made to install EV charging infrastructures and the business model is selected, the company must choose between charging Mode 3 and charging Mode 4. Modes 1 and 2 are not an option since they involve the risk of overheating the electrical installation. The electrical installation should also be checked to see if it supports the power required for the charging stations. Where there is insufficient capacity, there are three options:  Renewing and reinforcing the electrical installation;  Seeking additional circuits within the existing installation with the required capacity;  Resizing the project, reducing either the number of charging points or the loading speed. In addition to the possibility that the installation has insufficient capacity to support the power demand, there are other contingencies that could emerge during project execution that could increase the planned investment. In every case, project execution and EV recharging points must comply with a series of safety standards and requirements determined by international organizations and national regulations. General factors, such as the design and functionality of the charging stations and the characteristics of the surrounds must also be taken into consideration.
  30. 30. Publication No Cu0263 Issue Date: July 2019 Page 27 REFERENCES 1 K. Palmer, J. E. Tate, Z. Wadud, J. Nellthorp (2018). Total cost of ownership and market share for hybrid and electric vehicles in the UK, US and Japan. 2 R. Nealer, D. Reichmuth, D. Anair (2015). Cleaner Cars from Cradle to Grave. 3 International Electrotechnical Commission (2018): www.iec.ch 4 J. C. Spoelstra (2014). Charging behavior of Dutch EV drivers

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