Led power-quality-energy-saving-lamps

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PQ Forum 2011 proceedings http://www.leonardo-energy.org/power-quality-forum-2011-tue-eindhoven

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Led power-quality-energy-saving-lamps

  1. 1. Impact of Energy Saving Lamps on the Power Quality of the grid Johan Wijntjens Philips Corporate Technologies / Philips Lighting Leonardo Energy Power Quality Forum -- January, 2011Outline: Facts & trends of electrical energy consumption of Lighting equipment Impact of electronic Lighting equipment on the Power Quality (PQ) of the grid Quantification of the impact of electronic Lighting equipment on PQ Measurement results of the impact of electronic Lighting equipment on PQ Conclusions Philips Corporate Technologies / Philips Lighting, Leonardo Energy Power Quality Forum -- January, 2011 2 1
  2. 2. Facts & trends of the electrical energy consumption of Lighting equipment Primary Energy Electricity Lighting consumes 19% of all electricity in the world (source: www.iea.org) Lighting consumes 10% of all electricity in a common household (source: cityofames.org) Philips Corporate Technologies / Philips Lighting, Leonardo Energy Power Quality Forum -- January, 2011 Facts & trends of the electrical energy consumption of Lighting equipment Banning of Incandescent lamps [Approved CAN] [Approved EU27] 2012-2014 2009-2012[Approved California & [Approved CH]Nevada] 2011-2013 2009-2011 [Announced TUR] [Announced JP] 2012 [Approved USA] 2009-2012 2012-2014 [Announced TW] 2008 - 2012 [Approved CU] 2005 [Announced [Announced Phi] KO] 2013 2010 - 2012 [Approved CO] 2011 [Announced Sri L] 2008 - 2010 [Announced Br] 2013 [Approved AUS] 2008-2010 [Approved NZ] [Approved AR] 2011 2009-2011 Under discussion in RSA, Egypt and many other countries in APR and LATAM. Philips Corporate Technologies / Philips Lighting, Leonardo Energy Power Quality Forum -- January, 2011 4 2
  3. 3. Facts & trendsof the electrical energy consumption of Lighting equipment Banning of Incandescent lamps (EU example) Sep. 2009 Sep. 2010 Sep. 2011 Sep. 2012 Sep. 2013 Sep. 2014 Sep. 2015 Sep. 2016 15W 15W 15W 15W 25W 25W 25W 25W 40W 40W 40W 40W Banning of all Incandescent Lamps 60W 60W 60W 60W 75W 75W 75W 75W Clear 100W 100W 100W 100W Banning of all opal Incandescent Lamps Opal 15W 25W 40W Directives in preparation 60W 75WReflector 100W Special Special Purpose Lamps Philips Corporate Technologies / Philips Lighting, Leonardo Energy Power Quality Forum -- January, 2011 5 Facts & trendsof the electrical energy consumption of Lighting equipment (source cityofames.org & Philips Lighting market research information)2010 Average: 10%2015 Average: 4% Philips Corporate Technologies / Philips Lighting, Leonardo Energy Power Quality Forum -- January, 2011 6 3
  4. 4. Facts & trends of the electrical energy consumption of Lighting equipmentNotes:2010: Present situation:• A common household has 40 lamp sockets:• 1/3 is equipped with energy saving lamps – 2/3 is equipped with incandescent lamps2015: Forecast:• All sockets are equipped with energy saving lamps (same Lumen level as in 2010)2020: Forecast:• See 2015• Includes increase of total electric energy consumption per household (air-conditioners, charging of electrical cars, etc..)• Excludes effects of decentralized energy generation (solar, wind, etc..) Philips Corporate Technologies / Philips Lighting, Leonardo Energy Power Quality Forum -- January, 2011 7 Impact of electronic Lighting equipment on the Power Quality (PQ) of the gridWhat is Power Quality?According EN 50160:Power frequencySupply voltage variations Rapid voltage variations Single rapid voltage variations (load changes, switching, faults) Flicker severity Supply voltage unbalance Harmonic voltage Inter-harmonic voltage Affected Mains signaling voltages by electronic LightingVoltage events Interruption of the supply voltage equipment Supply voltage dips / swells Transient over-voltagesAccording utilities / installation owners / installers:Losses How to Quantify the impact?Overload of the PEN conductor Philips Corporate Technologies / Philips Lighting, Leonardo Energy Power Quality Forum -- January, 2011 8 4
  5. 5. Quantification of the impact of electronic Lighting equipment on PQThe impact of individual products on the PQ of the grid is often quantified by thePower Factor (PF) of that individual product. This is incorrect, because:PF is a quantification of the power PF is NOT a quantification of theflow in our electrical energy system efficiency / quality of an individual product • PF = 1; Optimal power flow • PF = 1; is not High efficiency / high quality • PF = 0; Poor power flow • PF = 0; is not Poor efficiency / low qualityand is determined by: – Grid configuration – All loads Philips Corporate Technologies / Philips Lighting, Leonardo Energy Power Quality Forum -- January, 2011 9 Quantification of the impact of electronic Lighting equipment on PQ Power Factor is a composite metric, it’s better to use the fundamental metrics Displacement (cos 1) Power Factor & Distortion (individual harmonics) Philips Corporate Technologies / Philips Lighting, Leonardo Energy Power Quality Forum -- January, 2011 10 5
  6. 6. Quantification of the impact of electronic Lighting equipment on PQ Relation between the composite Power Factor metric and it’s fundamental metricsThe THD and the displacement -- quantified by thedifference in phase (cos 1) between the first harmonic cos 1of the mains current and the mains voltage -- are thebasis of the Power-factor . The relation between , 1 THD 2cos 1 and THD is given by the following equations:Note: Typical cos 1 of electronic lighting equipment 0.9 - 1 The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is quantified by 2 the injected harmonics. The relation between the in individual harmonics and the THD is given by the THD equation: n 2 i1 Were in is the amplitude of the nth harmonic of the mains current Philips Corporate Technologies / Philips Lighting, Leonardo Energy Power Quality Forum -- January, 2011 11 Quantification of the impact of electronic Lighting equipment on PQ Relation between the potential PQ issues and the fundamental metrics Cause / Fundamental metrics: Potential PQ issue: Displacement (cos 1) Distortion: Additional losses in the grid Yes Minor effect 380V: All harmonics 10kV: only 5th, 7th, 11th, … Overload of the PEN conductor n.a. Yes Only 3rd, 9th, 15th, 21st, … Distortion of the mains-voltage n.a. Yes 380V: All harmonics 10kV: only 5th, 7th, 11th, … Philips Corporate Technologies / Philips Lighting, Leonardo Energy Power Quality Forum -- January, 2011 12 6
  7. 7. Measurement results Laboratory investigations / simulations Field test Egypt, 2004: Sadek, Abbas, El-Sharkawy, and Mashaly, 2004, Impact of Using Sweden, 1997: Gothelf, N., 1997, Power Quality Effects of CFLs – A Compact Fluorescent Lamps on Power Quality, IEEE, 0-7803-8575-6/04 Field Study, Right Light 4 New Zealand, 2006: Parsons Brinckerhoff Associates, 2006, Installation of Poland, 1997: Bredenkamp, B., 1997, Effects of CFLs on Power Compact Fluorescent Lamps Assessment of Benefits, Commissioned by the Quality of Electricity Distribution Networks, Commission by the Efficient Electricity Commission of New Zealand. Lighting Initiative (ELI). Slovania, 2008: Matvoz D. and Maksic M, 2008, Impact of Compact Sweden, 2010: S.K. Rönnberg, M. Wahlberg, M.H.J. Bollen, Harmonic Fluorescent Lamps on the Electrical Power Network, IEEE, 978-1-4244-1770- emission before and after changing to LED and CFL – Part II: Field 4/08. measurements for a hotel, Paper presented at the International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP), Bergamo, Italy, Switzerland, 2009: Durrenberger G. and Klaus G, 2009, Rebounce Effects of September 2010. the Grid of Energy Saving Lamps, Commissioned by the Swiss Federal Energy Agency. California, 2010: The Cadmus Group, 2010, Compact Fluorescent Lamp Market Effects Final Report, Commissioned by the California Public Australia, 2010: Elphick, S. and Smith, V., February/March 2010, Results of Utilities Commission. Laboratory Tests and Analysis to Quantify the Electrical Behaviour of the Modern KEMA, Inc, 2010, Final Evaluation Report: Upstream Lighting Program, CFL, Transmission and Distribution Magazine. Commissioned by the California Public Utilities Commission. Sweden, 2010: S. K Rönnberg, M.H.J. Bollen, M Wahlberg, Harmonic emission before and after changing to LED and CFL – Part I: laboratory measurements for a domestic customer. Paper presented at the International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP), Bergamo, Italy, Conclusion: September 2010. E.O.A. Larsson, M.H.J. Bollen, Measurement result from 1 to 48 fluorescent lamps in the frequency range 2 to 150 kHz, Paper presented at the International Field tests have failed to find Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP), Bergamo, Italy, September 2010. evidence of the types of Colombia, 2010: A. M Blanco, E.E Parra, Effects of High Penetration of CFLs harmonic issues that many of and LEDs on the Distribution Networks, Paper presented at the International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP), Bergamo, Italy, the simulation studies had September 2010. predicted. Iran, 2010: A.H. Jahanikia, M. Abbaspour, Studying the Effects if Using Compact Fluorescent Lamps in Power Systems, Paper presented at the International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP), Bergamo, Source: E. Page, M. Ton, Power Factor: Policy Implications for the Italy, September 2010. scale-up of CFL programs, USAID ASIA, December 2010. Philips Corporate Technologies / Philips Lighting, Leonardo Energy Power Quality Forum -- January, 2011 13 Measurement results of the impact of electronic Lighting equipment on PQ Field tests by Luleå University in Sweden show HOME HOTELMixed load scenario’s: Mixed load scenario’s:(6 appliances + 32 lamps) (76 rooms; multiple appliances + 560 lamps)– Before: incandescent lamps (PF=1) – Before: incandescent lamps (PF=1)– After: energy saving lamps (PF=0.6) – After: energy saving lamps (PF=0.6)Result: Result:– Before: PF total home = 0.92 – Before: PF total hotel = 0.95– After: PF total home = 0.91 – After: PF total hotel = 0.93Source: S.K. Rönnberg, M.H.J. Bollen, M. Wahlberg, Harmonic emission Source: S.K. Rönnberg, M. Wahlberg, M.H.J. Bollen, Harmonicbefore and after changing to LED and CFL - Part I: laboratory emission from a hotel before and after changing to CFL and diodemeasurements for a domestic customer, ICHQP 2010, Bergamo, lamps, ICHQP 2010, Bergamo, September 2010.September 2010.Practical “Small-village” test upcoming in Q1, 2011 a negligible effect of energy saving lamps on the PQ of the grid Philips Corporate Technologies / Philips Lighting, Leonardo Energy Power Quality Forum -- January, 2011 14 7
  8. 8. Measurement results of the impact of electronic Lighting equipment on PQ Field tests by KEMA & Tennet in the Dutch LV, MV and HV grid show: Source: www.netbeheernederland.nl A significant decreasing THDv trend over the period 1998 - 2009 Notes: • Dutch grid has mainly subterranean LV & MV cables (High R/X) • Situation can be different in grids with mainly overhead LV & MV lines (Low R/X) Philips Corporate Technologies / Philips Lighting, Leonardo Energy Power Quality Forum -- January, 2011 15 ConclusionsSignificant reduction of the electrical usage of Lighting equipment during thenext 10 years (10%  4%  2%)Electronic lighting equipment can affect the following PQ related topics  Additional losses in the grid  Potential overload of the PEN conductor  Increase of THDvThe effect of individual products on the PQ of the grid should be quantifiedby:  An adequate impact analysis at the “point of connection”  Primary metrics “displacement” and “distortion”  So, not the Power FactorMass introduction programs of electronic lighting equipment and field studiesdidn’t show significant PQ issues. Philips Corporate Technologies / Philips Lighting, Leonardo Energy Power Quality Forum -- January, 2011 16 8
  9. 9. Philips Corporate Technologies / Philips Lighting, Leonardo Energy Power Quality Forum -- January, 2011 9

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