Introduction to heat pumps


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  • The purpose of this manual is to provide you with the basic information about air source heat pump systems for houses.
  • Introduction to heat pumps

    1. 1. Heat pump W. Hulshorst Nov. 2008 Business Connecting and Development
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>2) Overview of heatpumps (Europe) </li></ul><ul><li>3) Airsource heatpump technology </li></ul><ul><li>4) Coeffcient of performance </li></ul><ul><li>5) installation of heatpumps </li></ul><ul><li>6) case study with RETscreen </li></ul>Business Connecting and Development
    3. 3. What is a heatpump? Business Connecting and Development <ul><li>A device that transfers heat energy </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: air conditioner; refrigerator </li></ul>
    4. 4. Bicycle pump Business Connecting and Development P x V / T = C Heat
    5. 5. Airco heat transfer Business Connecting and Development Hot air Cold air
    6. 6. Heat transfer Business Connecting and Development <ul><li>Condensor </li></ul>2. Expansion 3. Evaporator 4. Compressor
    7. 7. Heating and cooling mode Business Connecting and Development Air heat pumps are ideal for mild climates
    8. 8. Other types of heat pump Business Connecting and Development Ground heat pump In this solution the heat pump uses a pipe-loop buried about a metre below ground.
    9. 9. Other types of heat pump Business Connecting and Development Water heat pumps A water heat pump is a variant of the ground heat pump. The only difference is that it uses a hose on the lake floor (or other water source) instead of a pipe buried below ground.  
    10. 10. Other types of heat pump Business Connecting and Development Rock heat humps A rock heat pump is another variant of ground heat pumps, and a very common one. The system uses the solar energy stored in the rock shelf and the loop is lowered into a 100–150 metres bore hole in the rock .  
    11. 11. Choice of technology Business Connecting and Development Heating 15 – 40 kW Lake water Northern + Central Europe Heating + cooling 5 – 40 kW Ground rock Northern + Central Europe Heating 5 – 25 kW Ground soil Southern Europe Heating + cooling 3 – 5 kW Air- Air Dominant region Application Common capacity range Type of heat pump
    12. 12. Efficiency Coefficient of performance (COP): COP = Output/Input = 3 to 5 Heat pump 3 – 5 kWh of heat 2 – 4 kWh of air heat 1 kWh electricity
    13. 13. COP <ul><li>Larger temperature difference means less COP </li></ul><ul><li>Air type is less efficient at low ambient temperatures. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Design Business Connecting and Development The design and installation of a heat pump system must also address: <ul><li>the duct system must be correctly designed to work with </li></ul><ul><li>the heat pump equipment and to distribute conditioned </li></ul><ul><li>air sufficiently throughout the house; </li></ul><ul><li>the duct system must be properly installed and sealed </li></ul><ul><li>to ensure its performance. </li></ul>
    15. 15. installation Business Connecting and Development In general, correct heat pump installation can be achieved by addressing four critical areas: 1. the indoor air handler, especially the airflow over the fan-coil unit and through the forced air duct system; 2. the refrigerant system, especially the refrigerant charge; 3. the outdoor unit, especially its air supply; and 4. the control system, especially the thermostat that turns the equipment on and off.
    16. 16. Maintenance (1) Business Connecting and Development <ul><li>In general: </li></ul><ul><li>Dirty filters, coils and fans reduce airflow through the system </li></ul><ul><li>The fan should be cleaned </li></ul><ul><li>Ductwork should be inspected and cleaned </li></ul>
    17. 17. Maintenance (2) Business Connecting and Development Heat pump manufacturers recommend that homeowners consider the following operational and maintenance issues: <ul><li>a heat pump works most efficiently when it maintains a </li></ul><ul><li>constant room temperature; avoid large temperature </li></ul><ul><li>changes overnight or during the day; </li></ul><ul><li>the system will periodically go into defrost mode to remove </li></ul><ul><li>any ice build up on the outdoor coil in the winter; </li></ul><ul><li>the outdoor unit should be positioned above the prevailing </li></ul><ul><li>snow-line, with suitable clearance around the unit </li></ul><ul><li>maintained all year round; </li></ul><ul><li>expect the unit to run continuously in periods with low </li></ul><ul><li>outdoor temperatures, or switch over to the supplementary </li></ul><ul><li>heating system. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Thanks for your attention Walter Hulshorst Econ International B.V. PO box 5035 6802 EA Arnhem The Netherlands T: + 31 (0)61 047 45 77 F: + 31 (0)26 381 64 82 E: walter @ W: Business Connecting and Development
    19. 19. Case Study Business Connecting and Development <ul><li>Residential Heat pump </li></ul><ul><ul><li>550 m2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heating load: 18.4 W/m2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooling load: 28.4 W/m2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Base Case </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diesel Boiler: 78% seasonal efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AirCo: CoP 3 </li></ul></ul>