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Integrated Home Systems - Chapter 4 - Technical Examination

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In this chapter of the Integrated Home Systems (IHS) course we focus on the technological aspects of an IHS installation. Among other things, we discuss where the system intelligence is located, the topology and the media of the installation. We also devote attention to the components of an IHS system and touch on various safety issues. In the final section, we discuss several installation techniques and provide some handy tips for installing an IHS system.

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Integrated Home Systems - Chapter 4 - Technical Examination

  1. 1. INTEGRATED HOME SYSTEMS COURSE CHAPTER 4: A TECHNICAL EXAMINATION Guy Kasier December 2015 ECI Publication No Cu0236 Available from www.leonardo-energy.org
  2. 2. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page i Document Issue Control Sheet Document Title: Chapter 4: A technical examination Publication No: Cu0236 Issue: 02 Release: Public Author(s): Guy Kasier Reviewer(s): Carol Godfrey Document History Issue Date Purpose 1 July 2008 Initial public release 2 December 2015 Review 3 Disclaimer While this publication has been prepared with care, European Copper Institute and other contributors provide no warranty with regards to the content and shall not be liable for any direct, incidental or consequential damages that may result from the use of the information or the data contained. Copyright© European Copper Institute. Reproduction is authorised providing the material is unabridged and the source is acknowledged.
  3. 3. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page ii CONTENTS 1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................. 1 2. Centralised, decentralised or semi-centralised intelligence........................................................................................... 2 2.1. Centralised systems ........................................................................................................................................................... 2 2.1.1. Advantages of centralised systems..................................................................................................................2 2.1.2. Disadvantages of centralised systems..............................................................................................................2 2.2. Decentralised systems: ...................................................................................................................................................... 2 2.2.1. Advantages of decentralised systems..............................................................................................................3 2.2.2. Disadvantages of decentralised systems..........................................................................................................3 2.3. Semi-centralised systems:.................................................................................................................................................. 3 3. Topology ...................................................................................................................................................................... 5 3.1. Star topology...................................................................................................................................................................... 5 3.1.1. Advantage:.......................................................................................................................................................5 3.1.2. Disadvantages:.................................................................................................................................................5 3.2. BUS topology ..................................................................................................................................................................... 5 3.2.1. Advantages:......................................................................................................................................................6 3.2.2. Disadvantages:.................................................................................................................................................6 3.3. Tree topology or free topology.......................................................................................................................................... 6 3.3.1. Advantages:......................................................................................................................................................6 3.3.2. Disadvantages:.................................................................................................................................................6 4. Media used................................................................................................................................................................... 7 4.1. Multicable.......................................................................................................................................................................... 7 4.2. Twisted Pair (TP) ................................................................................................................................................................ 7 4.3. Powerline (PL).................................................................................................................................................................... 8 4.4. Coax 8 4.5. Radio frequency (RF).......................................................................................................................................................... 8 4.6. Infrared (IR)........................................................................................................................................................................ 9 4.7. Optical fibre ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9 5. Integrated home system components......................................................................................................................... 10 5.1. The consumers................................................................................................................................................................. 10 5.2. The actuators................................................................................................................................................................... 10 5.3. Input modules.................................................................................................................................................................. 11 5.3.1. Digital input modules.....................................................................................................................................11 5.3.2. Analogue input modules ................................................................................................................................11 5.4. The sensors...................................................................................................................................................................... 11
  4. 4. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page iii 5.4.1. Switches and push buttons ............................................................................................................................12 5.4.2. Operating panels............................................................................................................................................12 5.4.3. Voltage-free contacts.....................................................................................................................................13 5.4.4. Touch screen..................................................................................................................................................13 5.4.5. The touch window..........................................................................................................................................14 5.4.6. RF transmitters...............................................................................................................................................14 5.4.7. IR remote controls .........................................................................................................................................15 5.4.8. Smartphone ...................................................................................................................................................15 5.4.9. Tablet .............................................................................................................................................................15 5.4.10. The computer...............................................................................................................................................15 5.4.11. Motion detectors .........................................................................................................................................16 5.4.12. Presence detectors ......................................................................................................................................16 5.4.13. Smoke detectors ..........................................................................................................................................17 5.4.14. Gas detectors ...............................................................................................................................................17 5.4.15. Magnetic contacts........................................................................................................................................18 5.4.16. Thermostats.................................................................................................................................................18 5.4.17. Analogue temperature sensors....................................................................................................................18 5.4.18. Level sensors................................................................................................................................................18 5.4.19. Water leak detector.....................................................................................................................................19 5.4.20. Humidity detectors ......................................................................................................................................19 5.4.21. Light sensors ................................................................................................................................................19 5.4.22. Wind sensors................................................................................................................................................19 5.4.23. Rain sensors .................................................................................................................................................19 5.4.24. Weather station ...........................................................................................................................................20 5.4.26. Card readers and proximity readers ............................................................................................................20 5.4.27. Code panels..................................................................................................................................................20 5.4.28. Biometric detectors......................................................................................................................................20 5.4.29. Energy meters..............................................................................................................................................21 5.5. Other interfaces............................................................................................................................................................... 21 6. Safety and security in and around the home............................................................................................................... 22 6.1. Positioning of IHS components in wet rooms.................................................................................................................. 22
  5. 5. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page iv 6.2. Manual operation of roll-down shutters and doors ........................................................................................................ 23 6.3. Take care with clocks....................................................................................................................................................... 23 6.4. Switching off outdoor power points ................................................................................................................................ 23 7. Installation techniques and tips.................................................................................................................................. 25 7.1. Protecting relay modules................................................................................................................................................. 25 7.2. Fitting overvoltage protection ......................................................................................................................................... 26 7.3. Avoiding large loops with IHS cables................................................................................................................................ 27 7.4. Manual switching............................................................................................................................................................. 28 7.5. EMC 29 7.6. CE mark............................................................................................................................................................................ 29 7.7. Earthing of modules......................................................................................................................................................... 29 7.8. Use the specified cables................................................................................................................................................... 29 7.9. Respect the maximum distances ..................................................................................................................................... 30 7.10. Use of screening............................................................................................................................................................. 30 7.11. Keep cables with different voltages away from one another ........................................................................................ 30 7.12. Use of multicable ........................................................................................................................................................... 31 7.13. Labelling cables and wires ............................................................................................................................................. 31 7.14. Good connecting techniques ......................................................................................................................................... 32 7.15. Fitting terminating resistors........................................................................................................................................... 33 7.16. Filters in powerline systems........................................................................................................................................... 33 7.17. Note the addresses of BUS participants......................................................................................................................... 33 7.18. Calculation of the power supply .................................................................................................................................... 34 7.19. Select the correct relay contacts.................................................................................................................................... 34 7.19.1. Resistive loads..............................................................................................................................................36 7.19.2. Inductive loads.............................................................................................................................................36 7.19.3. Capacitive loads ...........................................................................................................................................36 7.19.4. Switch-on currents.......................................................................................................................................37 7.20. Connection of tube motors............................................................................................................................................ 37 7.21. Operating components at a usable height..................................................................................................................... 39 7.22. Positioning of thermostats or temperature sensors...................................................................................................... 39 7.23. Maintaining flexibility .................................................................................................................................................... 40 7.23.1. Multicable ....................................................................................................................................................40 7.23.2. Separate cabling for push buttons ...............................................................................................................41
  6. 6. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 1 1. INTRODUCTION In this chapter of the Integrated Home Systems (IHS) course we focus on the technological aspects of an IHS installation. Among other things, we discuss where the system intelligence is located, the topology and the media of the installation. We also devote attention to the components of an IHS system and touch on various safety issues. In the final section, we discuss several installation techniques and provide some handy tips for installing an IHS system.
  7. 7. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 2 2. CENTRALISED, DECENTRALISED OR SEMI-CENTRALISED INTELLIGENCE Integrated Home Systems (IHS) can be subdivided in different ways. This can be done according to whether the intelligence of the system is housed in one component or in all components. They are called centralised or decentralised systems respectively. However, this can cause confusion. This classification says nothing about the location of the IHS components. In a centralised intelligence system, the components may be located decentrally. In a decentralised intelligence system, the components can be located centrally if desired. 2.1. CENTRALISED SYSTEMS In centralised systems there is only one component that manages the intelligence. The signals from the sensors (push buttons, motion detectors, etc.) are sent to the central component. It then decides what actions have to be taken by certain actuators (relays, dimmers, etc.). If the central component or master controller is removed from an installation with a centralised system, then nothing will work. The master is essential for the operation of the installation. Figure 1: An example of a central controller. In a centralised system IHS installation the master controller is essential. Without the master, there can be no functions. (Illustration source: Peha) 2.1.1. ADVANTAGES OF CENTRALISED SYSTEMS Once the master has been installed in the system, all functions and facilities of the system can be used. Expansion costs are lower than with decentralised systems because the input and output modules contain less intelligence and therefore contain fewer components. 2.1.2. DISADVANTAGES OF CENTRALISED SYSTEMS If the master fails, the entire IHS system does not work. The initial costs are higher than with decentralised systems because the master controller is generally the most expensive component of the installation. 2.2. DECENTRALISED SYSTEMS: In decentralised systems every component has intelligence. Sensors put commands directly on the BUS and actuators “listen” for the commands intended for them in order to execute them independently. There is therefore no central intelligent component. A power supply, input components and output components are all that are needed to build this type of IHS system.
  8. 8. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 3 Figure 2: The KNX IHS system is a typical example of a system with decentralised intelligence. Sensors and actuators are connected to one another by the BUS (green lines). There is no master that controls everything. Every component can “listen” and/or “send”. (Illustration source: KNX) Example: Figure 3: In this IHS system all control and sensor components and all actuators are connected to the same BUS. At the left there is a power supply for the BUS, but there is no master controller in the system. Each component has its own intelligence. (Illustration source: Bticino) 2.2.1. ADVANTAGES OF DECENTRALISED SYSTEMS The initial cost for a small installation is low. All that is needed is a power supply, an input module and an output module. No expensive master is required. When a component fails, in principle it will not affect the operation of the other components. 2.2.2. DISADVANTAGES OF DECENTRALISED SYSTEMS Expansions are generally more expensive than with a centralised system, as every component must carry the necessary intelligence. Specific components have to be installed in the system in order to execute certain functions. 2.3. SEMI-CENTRALISED SYSTEMS: Some brands work with what is called “semi-centralised intelligence”. In practice, this means that every output module has intelligence for its own outputs. The sensors are connected to the output modules over a common BUS. When a sensor sends a signal, each module checks whether the signal is intended for it. If it is, the
  9. 9. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 4 module then checks which module outputs the signal is intended for, and which function needs to be performed. Each module works as a stand-alone. An installation with just one module can be treated as a centralised system. If the installation contains several intelligent output modules, it acts like a group of master modules working in parallel. When one of the output modules (small controller) fails, the rest of the installation can still work.
  10. 10. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 5 3. TOPOLOGY Every system has a certain way of installing the cabling to the connection unit. The manufacturer generally stipulates one of the following topologies. In practice, this must be strictly followed so that no faults occur. Manufacturers only guarantee proper operation of their systems if the cabling has been installed according to the stipulated topology. 3.1. STAR TOPOLOGY Figure 4: With star topology, every module is connected separately to a central point. (Illustration source: E&D Systems) Every module is connected by its own cabling to a central point (possibly with multicable). Many integrated home systems use this topology for connecting the consumers (lights, roll-down shutter motors, etc.) to the output modules. There are also many systems that use this topology for connecting voltage-free push buttons to an input module. 3.1.1. ADVANTAGE: When a certain cable is broken the connected module will not work, but the other modules will. The continuity of the installation is therefore guaranteed. 3.1.2. DISADVANTAGES: A lot of cabling is required. There are many connections at the central point. 3.2. BUS TOPOLOGY Figure 5: With BUS topology every module has to be connected directly to the BUS or line. (Illustration source: E&D Systems)
  11. 11. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 6 The bus cable here goes from module to module. A branch connected to a number of modules is not allowed. The bus cable starts from one module, goes to the next module, and then on to the next until it is finally connected to the last module. In practice, a terminating resistor has to be put on the bus at the start and at the end to stop reflections on the bus. 3.2.1. ADVANTAGES: Less cable has to be installed. In most cases, it requires fewer connections. 3.2.2. DISADVANTAGES: A break in the cable will cause a substantial section of the installation not to work. 3.3. TREE TOPOLOGY OR FREE TOPOLOGY Figure 6: In practice, tree topology gives great freedom of installation. (Illustration source: E&D Systems) The tree topology is a combination of the star and bus topologies. It is also called free topology because the installer is free to make any kind of branch for connecting modules to the bus cable. The only restriction is that closed loops cannot be created. 3.3.1. ADVANTAGES: The installer can make branches anywhere. The flexibility of the installation is increased. 3.3.2. DISADVANTAGES: Here too, a break in the cable can paralyse a substantial section of the installation.
  12. 12. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page ii CONTENTS 1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................. 1 2. Centralised, decentralised or semi-centralised intelligence........................................................................................... 2 2.1. Centralised systems ........................................................................................................................................................... 2 2.1.1. Advantages of centralised systems..................................................................................................................2 2.1.2. Disadvantages of centralised systems..............................................................................................................2 2.2. Decentralised systems: ...................................................................................................................................................... 2 2.2.1. Advantages of decentralised systems..............................................................................................................3 2.2.2. Disadvantages of decentralised systems..........................................................................................................3 2.3. Semi-centralised systems:.................................................................................................................................................. 3 3. Topology ...................................................................................................................................................................... 5 3.1. Star topology...................................................................................................................................................................... 5 3.1.1. Advantage:.......................................................................................................................................................5 3.1.2. Disadvantages:.................................................................................................................................................5 3.2. BUS topology ..................................................................................................................................................................... 5 3.2.1. Advantages:......................................................................................................................................................6 3.2.2. Disadvantages:.................................................................................................................................................6 3.3. Tree topology or free topology.......................................................................................................................................... 6 3.3.1. Advantages:......................................................................................................................................................6 3.3.2. Disadvantages:.................................................................................................................................................6 4. Media used................................................................................................................................................................... 7 4.1. Multicable.......................................................................................................................................................................... 7 4.2. Twisted Pair (TP) ................................................................................................................................................................ 7 4.3. Powerline (PL).................................................................................................................................................................... 8 4.4. Coax 8 4.5. Radio frequency (RF).......................................................................................................................................................... 8 4.6. Infrared (IR)........................................................................................................................................................................ 9 4.7. Optical fibre ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9 5. Integrated home system components......................................................................................................................... 10 5.1. The consumers................................................................................................................................................................. 10 5.2. The actuators................................................................................................................................................................... 10 5.3. Input modules.................................................................................................................................................................. 11 5.3.1. Digital input modules.....................................................................................................................................11 5.3.2. Analogue input modules ................................................................................................................................11 5.4. The sensors...................................................................................................................................................................... 11
  13. 13. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page ii CONTENTS 1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................. 1 2. Centralised, decentralised or semi-centralised intelligence........................................................................................... 2 2.1. Centralised systems ........................................................................................................................................................... 2 2.1.1. Advantages of centralised systems..................................................................................................................2 2.1.2. Disadvantages of centralised systems..............................................................................................................2 2.2. Decentralised systems: ...................................................................................................................................................... 2 2.2.1. Advantages of decentralised systems..............................................................................................................3 2.2.2. Disadvantages of decentralised systems..........................................................................................................3 2.3. Semi-centralised systems:.................................................................................................................................................. 3 3. Topology ...................................................................................................................................................................... 5 3.1. Star topology...................................................................................................................................................................... 5 3.1.1. Advantage:.......................................................................................................................................................5 3.1.2. Disadvantages:.................................................................................................................................................5 3.2. BUS topology ..................................................................................................................................................................... 5 3.2.1. Advantages:......................................................................................................................................................6 3.2.2. Disadvantages:.................................................................................................................................................6 3.3. Tree topology or free topology.......................................................................................................................................... 6 3.3.1. Advantages:......................................................................................................................................................6 3.3.2. Disadvantages:.................................................................................................................................................6 4. Media used................................................................................................................................................................... 7 4.1. Multicable.......................................................................................................................................................................... 7 4.2. Twisted Pair (TP) ................................................................................................................................................................ 7 4.3. Powerline (PL).................................................................................................................................................................... 8 4.4. Coax 8 4.5. Radio frequency (RF).......................................................................................................................................................... 8 4.6. Infrared (IR)........................................................................................................................................................................ 9 4.7. Optical fibre ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9 5. Integrated home system components......................................................................................................................... 10 5.1. The consumers................................................................................................................................................................. 10 5.2. The actuators................................................................................................................................................................... 10 5.3. Input modules.................................................................................................................................................................. 11 5.3.1. Digital input modules.....................................................................................................................................11 5.3.2. Analogue input modules ................................................................................................................................11 5.4. The sensors...................................................................................................................................................................... 11
  14. 14. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 9 Figure 10: RF operation is increasingly being used by a number of manufacturers. Transmitters are used in the form of an ordinary wall switch or hand-held remote control. The receivers are available in different forms. (Illustration source: Bticino) 4.6. INFRARED (IR) Infrared is used for sending signals to be used locally. It is a much-used medium in current IHS systems and is generally found in the form of a hand-held remote control used as an interface between man and an IHS system. A multifunctional remote control for the TV, audio, video and IHS functions increases comfort and ease-of-use. Infrared is rather a slow medium and the distance from transmitter to receiver is limited. Some IHS systems also have an IR control module. In that case, signals from the IHS BUS are converted into IR signals. These signals can be used to control all sorts of equipment items that have IR remote control capability (mainly audio and video). 4.7. OPTICAL FIBRE In the future, optical fibre might enter our homes because of its immense bandwidth. However, it is currently difficult and expensive to install. It consists of a glass or plastic core through which light signals are sent.
  15. 15. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 10 5. INTEGRATED HOME SYSTEM COMPONENTS 5.1. THE CONSUMERS The residents of an integrated home want to be able to operate specific equipment items. These items of equipment are called consumers. The same equipment is also used in a traditional electrical installation. The consumers are connected to the IHS via the actuators. Examples of consumers include: Lights and light fittings Electrical domestic appliances (such as washing machine, dishwasher, dryer, coffee maker) Electrical outlets Motors (used for garage doors, gates, roll-down shutters, awnings, curtains, etc.) Ventilators Electric or central heating Air conditioning equipment Electrical valves Boilers for hot water Door locks Audio and video equipment Figure 11: Curtain motors are among the consumers to be controlled. The curtains can be opened or closed easily without having to balance uncomfortably on the sofa. (Illustration source: G-Rail Goelst) 5.2. THE ACTUATORS In order to drive the consumers, every IHS system has actuators. They are called output components. Actuators are the IHS system components that receive data signals and take the relevant action to control one or more connected consumers. As actuators we have: Relay modules Remote controlled switches Motor modules Dimmers IR transmitter stations RF transmitter stations Other output interfaces
  16. 16. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 11 Figure 12: A 10-fold relay output module. (Illustration source: Hager) 5.3. INPUT MODULES The input modules process the signals from the sensors. There are basically two types: digital input modules and analogue input modules. 5.3.1. DIGITAL INPUT MODULES A digital input module converts the signals from voltage-free contacts (push buttons, switches, etc.) to signals that can be used on the BUS or that can be sent to a master module. Sometimes the modules are clipped onto a DIN rail on the distribution board. However, there are also input modules that can, for example, be placed behind a push button in a flush-mounted electrical box. 5.3.2. ANALOGUE INPUT MODULES Sensors that generate analogue output signals are connected to analogue input modules. Some examples are light sensors, humidity detectors, temperature sensors, etc. 5.4. THE SENSORS Sensors are the IHS components that collect information. This information is put directly on the BUS or transferred through an input module. An actuator does not take any action on its own initiative. It has to be given instructions. These instructions come from the information placed on the BUS or are generated by the master controller. Most sensors act as a human interface so that people can operate the IHS system. The first IHS systems on the European market appeared around 1990. At that time only a limited number and variety of sensors were available, such as push buttons, button panels and motion detectors. However, there are now many other sensor types. Technology is constantly evolving, which also means that some sensors are no longer available. One example is the phone interface. Some manufacturers had an interface that allowed the IHS to be controlled by the buttons of a conventional telephone. Now that smartphones are so popular, these phone interfaces have disappeared from the market. We saw the same disappearing act with personal digital assistants, better known as PDAs. They could also be used as control devices, but this function has now moved to smartphones. There have also been some fads that disappeared from the market just as quickly as they entered it. An example of this is the IHS system's voice control. The idea was that the lights could be switched on with a voice command. Some manufacturers had this option in their product range, but the market was not ready for
  17. 17. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 12 everyone to walk around their homes constantly wearing microphones. The technology was also not fully developed with background noise from radios, televisions, conversations and so on hindering its functioning. Below we give an overview of the commonest sensors. 5.4.1. SWITCHES AND PUSH BUTTONS With most IHS systems, standard push buttons (normally open type) of any brand can be used. In certain cases, switches are also allowed. They are connected to a digital input module. Every switch or push button can be freely programmed. Figure 13: A few examples of switches and push buttons. (Illustration source: Berker) 5.4.2. OPERATING PANELS Operating panels are operating elements that have one or more push buttons. They are always a design of the IHS manufacturer and therefore vary with regard to construction and design. Generally they are aesthetic and functional panels with a choice concerning the number of push buttons. There are often LEDs in the push buttons which indicate whether or not the underlying function is active. Figure 14: An example of a button panel with six buttons. Each button is labelled to indicate what it does. (Illustration source: Vantage) In certain cases, the operating panels also have a display and/or a temperature sensor. An IR receiver is sometimes included in the operating panel. Operating panels do not have voltage-free contacts, but are connected directly to the BUS.
  18. 18. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 13 5.4.3. VOLTAGE-FREE CONTACTS In order to achieve integration, certain subsystems can make voltage-free contacts available to the IHS system – for example the contacts of the security system. In this way the IHS system “knows” whether or not the home is in an activated state, and whether or not an alarm is being generated. The IHS system can respond appropriately in such cases. 5.4.4. TOUCH SCREEN Touch screens can be placed on the walls of the home in strategic positions. By touching the icons or text on the screen, the person can go through a menu structure and all types of operations can be carried out on the IHS system. Figure 15: A touch screen can provide an overview of the entire IHS system. (Illustration source: Gira) Certain touch screens are true multimedia units. Not only can they be used to communicate with the door videophone, they can also be used to call up images from other cameras in and around the home, watch television or listen to the radio. Sometimes they are also connected to the computer network so that e-mails can be sent or the internet can be used. Viewing energy consumption charts is also an increasingly popular option. Touch screens are mainly used with relatively large and expensive projects. However, there they are facing more and more competition from much cheaper tablets.
  19. 19. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page iii 5.4.1. Switches and push buttons ............................................................................................................................12 5.4.2. Operating panels............................................................................................................................................12 5.4.3. Voltage-free contacts.....................................................................................................................................13 5.4.4. Touch screen..................................................................................................................................................13 5.4.5. The touch window..........................................................................................................................................14 5.4.6. RF transmitters...............................................................................................................................................14 5.4.7. IR remote controls .........................................................................................................................................15 5.4.8. Smartphone ...................................................................................................................................................15 5.4.9. Tablet .............................................................................................................................................................15 5.4.10. The computer...............................................................................................................................................15 5.4.11. Motion detectors .........................................................................................................................................16 5.4.12. Presence detectors ......................................................................................................................................16 5.4.13. Smoke detectors ..........................................................................................................................................17 5.4.14. Gas detectors ...............................................................................................................................................17 5.4.15. Magnetic contacts........................................................................................................................................18 5.4.16. Thermostats.................................................................................................................................................18 5.4.17. Analogue temperature sensors....................................................................................................................18 5.4.18. Level sensors................................................................................................................................................18 5.4.19. Water leak detector.....................................................................................................................................19 5.4.20. Humidity detectors ......................................................................................................................................19 5.4.21. Light sensors ................................................................................................................................................19 5.4.22. Wind sensors................................................................................................................................................19 5.4.23. Rain sensors .................................................................................................................................................19 5.4.24. Weather station ...........................................................................................................................................20 5.4.26. Card readers and proximity readers ............................................................................................................20 5.4.27. Code panels..................................................................................................................................................20 5.4.28. Biometric detectors......................................................................................................................................20 5.4.29. Energy meters..............................................................................................................................................21 5.5. Other interfaces............................................................................................................................................................... 21 6. Safety and security in and around the home............................................................................................................... 22 6.1. Positioning of IHS components in wet rooms.................................................................................................................. 22
  20. 20. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 15 5.4.7. IR REMOTE CONTROLS Infrared remote controls are generally on the market in the form of a hand-held transmitter. Multifunctional remote controls are the preference here. As a result, we can operate not only the lighting, but also the television, audio system, roll-down shutters, etc., with the same remote control. 5.4.8. SMARTPHONE Smartphones now play a prominent role amongst the sensors. With a suitable app, users can control all the functions of the IHS system. Of course, the IHS system has to be equipped with an interface to the home LAN network. Wi-Fi is used as the two-way communication channel. Figure 19: Users can operate and control the entire IHS system with a menu structure consisting of icons and text. (Illustration source: Niko) 5.4.9. TABLET As a user interface component for the IHS system, a tablet basically functions the same way as a smartphone. However, because the screen is larger, it is sometimes possible to work with photos of various places in the home, in addition to icons and text. For example, you can switch a floor lamp in the living room on or off by clicking on the lamp. 5.4.10. THE COMPUTER The computer is also being increasingly used to perform operations. In certain cases, there is a direct link between the computer and the IHS system. However, in most cases the LAN network is used. The manufacturer then provides a user interface, i.e. the “Graphic User Interface” (GUI). Photos or drawings can also be used here, as with tablets.
  21. 21. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 16 Figure 20: Operations can be carried out with the computer using such screens of the home. Buttons are placed on the diagram for controlling the lighting, roll-down shutters, power points, heating, audio and even for viewing with IP cameras. (Illustration source: E&D Systems) 5.4.11. MOTION DETECTORS Motion detectors were primarily used in the past in outdoor applications. The detector observes someone coming up the driveway and automatically switches the lights on when it is dark. However, motion detectors are increasingly being used inside the home. They are particularly suitable at entrance doors and in spaces where people do not spend a long time, such as cellars, attics, stairwells or the garage. A few IHS systems have motion detectors of their own brand that can be connected directly to their “bus”. Other IHS systems use motion detectors available on the market. Figure 21: An intelligent motion detector for outdoor use with remote control and holiday function. (Illustration source: Busch-Jaeger) 5.4.12. PRESENCE DETECTORS If you want to detect the presence of people in rooms where there is not much movement, you have to use a presence detector. The technique used is similar to a motion detector, but the detection sectors are much
  22. 22. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 17 finer so that somebody working at a desk can be detected. The system then knows that it must keep on the lighting and heating, if necessary. Figure 22: In contrast to motion detectors, presence detectors are often installed on the ceiling. (Illustration source: Merten) 5.4.13. SMOKE DETECTORS An audio alarm is generated when smoke is detected. A contact of the smoke detector is passed on to an input of the IHS system. The IHS system can then respond appropriately. Figure 23: Smoke detectors are supplied by battery or 230V. (Illustration source: Niko) 5.4.14. GAS DETECTORS In the event of a gas leak, however small, the gas detector will send a signal to the master controller or the BUS of the IHS system. It can then close a gas valve. The height at which the gas detector is placed is of great importance. Butane and propane are heavier than air and thus sink to the floor. In such a case the gas detector must be low down. Natural gas on the other hand is lighter than air and rises to the ceiling. The gas detector therefore needs to be placed high up. Figure 24: This gas detector can detect different types of gases. (Illustration source: Joel)
  23. 23. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 18 5.4.15. MAGNETIC CONTACTS Magnetic contacts are mainly used for doors and windows. When the magnet is not in the vicinity of the contact (the window is open) the contact is passed on to the IHS system. When the window is open the heating can be switched off. Or when the person leaves the home a signal can be given to the occupier that a window or door is still open. There are models that can be recessed into the window or door, and models that can be mounted on their surface. Figure 25: Left: structure of a magnetic contact. Right: a version for building into a window or door. (Illustration source: Aliexpress) 5.4.16. THERMOSTATS A thermostat is a unit where the temperature is measured by an electronic sensor or bimetallic strip and compared to the set temperature. The thermostat will open or close an output contact depending on whether the temperature is above or below the set value. On/off thermostats are rarely used in combination with IHS systems. Analogue temperature sensors are used most often. Figure 26: An everyday room thermostat. (Illustration source: GE Grässlin) 5.4.17. ANALOGUE TEMPERATURE SENSORS In contrast to a standard thermostat, an electronic temperature sensor does not compare temperatures. It only measures the room temperature and passes on the measured value to the IHS system. The system then determines what has to be done, taking the programming into account. 5.4.18. LEVEL SENSORS Level sensors measure the level of a liquid in a tank. Example: in a rainwater tank a level sensor can detect when the level is too low and pass it on to the IHS system.
  24. 24. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 5.4.19. WATER LEAK DETECTOR Overflow sensors or water leak detectors are to a washing machine, for example, and the machine starts to leak, the water detector will detect it and issue the instruction for the necessary steps to be taken to avoid further disast Example of a water leak sensor. (Illustration source: Teletask) 5.4.20. HUMIDITY DETECTORS These detectors measure the relative humidity of the air. A ventilation system can be switched on when a certain humidity level is reached. Just as with light sensors, we have to make a distinction between analogue sensors and those that only close a contact when a certain humidity level is exceeded. Analogue sensors are recommended where possible. 5.4.21. LIGHT SENSORS Light sensors for outdoor applications are used deploy the sun blind, or to detect that it is getting dark outside so There are also light sensors for indoor use. As more daylight comes into an office, the lights will be dimmed, which can yield a substantial saving in energy bills. Example of a light sensor for building into the ceiling. (Illustration source: Vantage) 5.4.22. WIND SENSORS This sensor measures wind strength. When the wind is too strong, for example, the sun be retracted in to prevent damage. 5.4.23. RAIN SENSORS These will detect any rainfall and can therefore the sun blind. Overflow sensors or water leak detectors are installed to detect too high a liquid level. If for example, and the machine starts to leak, the water detector will detect it and issue the instruction for the necessary steps to be taken to avoid further disaster (shuts off the water pipe). Figure 27: Example of a water leak sensor. (Illustration source: Teletask) These detectors measure the relative humidity of the air. A ventilation system can be switched on when a y level is reached. Just as with light sensors, we have to make a distinction between analogue sensors and those that only close a contact when a certain humidity level is exceeded. Analogue sensors are ght sensors for outdoor applications are used, for example, to check whether the sunlight is strong enough to blind, or to detect that it is getting dark outside so the outside lighting can be switched door use. As more daylight comes into an office, the lights will be dimmed, which can yield a substantial saving in energy bills. Figure 28: Example of a light sensor for building into the ceiling. (Illustration source: Vantage) is sensor measures wind strength. When the wind is too strong, for example, the sun and can therefore give a signal to automatically close the wi Page 19 installed to detect too high a liquid level. If one is installed next for example, and the machine starts to leak, the water detector will detect it and issue er (shuts off the water pipe). These detectors measure the relative humidity of the air. A ventilation system can be switched on when a y level is reached. Just as with light sensors, we have to make a distinction between analogue sensors and those that only close a contact when a certain humidity level is exceeded. Analogue sensors are to check whether the sunlight is strong enough to the outside lighting can be switched on. door use. As more daylight comes into an office, the lights will be dimmed, Example of a light sensor for building into the ceiling. (Illustration source: Vantage) blinds and screens can give a signal to automatically close the windows and retract
  25. 25. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 20 5.4.24. WEATHER STATION Sun sensors, rain detectors and wind detectors are increasingly being integrated into a single unit for controlling sun blinds and screens. Sometimes they can be connected directly to the IHS BUS. Figure 29: A weather station for measuring wind, sunlight and rain. (Illustration source: Becker) 5.4.26. CARD READERS AND PROXIMITY READERS Card readers or proximity readers can be used to control access to the home in certain cases. With card readers the user actually has to put the card into the unit. With proximity readers it is sufficient just to put the card in the vicinity of the reader. The disadvantage of card readers is that they are sensitive to dust and dirt. In many cases the user can choose a card or tag. The latter can be used as a key fob. Cards and tags can be added to or removed from the system with the software. 5.4.27. CODE PANELS Code panels are also used for access control. The disadvantage of a code panel is that, after long term use, it can be seen which keys are pressed the most. This increases the risk of somebody trying to crack the code. Figure 30: Surface mounted code panel. (Illustration source: Nice) 5.4.28. BIOMETRIC DETECTORS They are not used so much in the home, but finger scanners and iris scanners are also among the sensors that can be used in an IHS system. They will generally be used when enhanced protection of the building is required.
  26. 26. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 21 5.4.29. ENERGY METERS More and more IHS systems are able to measure energy consumption and self-generated energy (from PV panels) to track energy usage and to display it in charts on a smartphone, tablet or PC. These measurements can be made for electricity, gas and water consumption. The sensors send pulses to the IHS system, which processes them and displays them to the user as a chart. 5.5. OTHER INTERFACES As well as the previously mentioned actuators and sensors, there are many other interfaces. The interface between the IHS system and the home LAN network is an example, but there are also many types of audio interfaces. There are also interfaces that can be used to connect an intrusion alarm system to the IHS system.
  27. 27. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page iv 6.2. Manual operation of roll-down shutters and doors ........................................................................................................ 23 6.3. Take care with clocks....................................................................................................................................................... 23 6.4. Switching off outdoor power points ................................................................................................................................ 23 7. Installation techniques and tips.................................................................................................................................. 25 7.1. Protecting relay modules................................................................................................................................................. 25 7.2. Fitting overvoltage protection ......................................................................................................................................... 26 7.3. Avoiding large loops with IHS cables................................................................................................................................ 27 7.4. Manual switching............................................................................................................................................................. 28 7.5. EMC 29 7.6. CE mark............................................................................................................................................................................ 29 7.7. Earthing of modules......................................................................................................................................................... 29 7.8. Use the specified cables................................................................................................................................................... 29 7.9. Respect the maximum distances ..................................................................................................................................... 30 7.10. Use of screening............................................................................................................................................................. 30 7.11. Keep cables with different voltages away from one another ........................................................................................ 30 7.12. Use of multicable ........................................................................................................................................................... 31 7.13. Labelling cables and wires ............................................................................................................................................. 31 7.14. Good connecting techniques ......................................................................................................................................... 32 7.15. Fitting terminating resistors........................................................................................................................................... 33 7.16. Filters in powerline systems........................................................................................................................................... 33 7.17. Note the addresses of BUS participants......................................................................................................................... 33 7.18. Calculation of the power supply .................................................................................................................................... 34 7.19. Select the correct relay contacts.................................................................................................................................... 34 7.19.1. Resistive loads..............................................................................................................................................36 7.19.2. Inductive loads.............................................................................................................................................36 7.19.3. Capacitive loads ...........................................................................................................................................36 7.19.4. Switch-on currents.......................................................................................................................................37 7.20. Connection of tube motors............................................................................................................................................ 37 7.21. Operating components at a usable height..................................................................................................................... 39 7.22. Positioning of thermostats or temperature sensors...................................................................................................... 39 7.23. Maintaining flexibility .................................................................................................................................................... 40 7.23.1. Multicable ....................................................................................................................................................40 7.23.2. Separate cabling for push buttons ...............................................................................................................41
  28. 28. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 23 6.2. MANUAL OPERATION OF ROLL-DOWN SHUTTERS AND DOORS The installer, architect and occupier must be aware that many things can be automated, but that this can sometimes lead to unsafe situations. This is the case for example when all windows and doors have electrically operated roll-down shutters. If there is a fire in the home when all the roll-down shutters are down, and the electricity is off (cable burned through), the occupiers must still be able to escape. It is then sensible to give certain roll-down shutters in strategic places the option of manual operation. Figure 32: A mechanical emergency handle for an automated roll-down shutter might not be pretty, but the safety of the occupiers takes precedence. (Illustration source: E&D Systems) It would not be the first time that a pleasant barbecue has been abruptly stopped because the clocks or light sensor of the IHS system have suddenly closed all roll-down shutters automatically. If the doors are also fitted with roll-down shutters and everybody is outside, then there is a problem. However, this can be solved by fitting motion detectors on the terrace and in the garden. As long as they detect motion, the IHS system cannot automatically close the roll-down shutters. If the home has electrically locked doors, the residents must still be able to get out at all times, even if there is no electricity. There has to be a mechanical means of unlocking them. 6.3. TAKE CARE WITH CLOCKS In certain cases the clocks of the IHS system can also be a danger to a home and its occupants. Let’s take the example of the coffee maker that we left on in the evening. By pressing the “sleep well” button when we went to sleep, we disconnected the socket from the network. We assume that the next day is a normal working day, so the clock of the IHS system reconnects this power point at 07:00 in the morning. This isn’t a problem if we get up at that time and go into the kitchen to have breakfast. However, if we are ill and decide to stay in bed, then there is a dangerous situation. The coffee maker was left on and is now connected to the mains again. It can cause a fire. It might be sensible to only allow such clock-controlled potentially hazardous equipment to be connected to the power for a limited time. 6.4. SWITCHING OFF OUTDOOR POWER POINTS If the outdoor power points are always connected to the power, then a burglar can use a piece of wire to make a link between the power point and earth. The earth leakage breaker will then trip. We can now forget all the actions that the IHD system would normally take in the event of a break in. Nothing will work. Hence it is advisable for outdoor power points to only be under power when we want to use them. They can be switched off with the “all out” command (for example when leaving the home) or with the “sleep well” button next to the bed (when we go to bed).
  29. 29. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 24 Figure 33: By switching off the outdoor power points when we are not at home, our neighbours will not be tempted to use our increasingly expensive electricity to mow their lawns. (Illustration source: Niko)
  30. 30. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 25 7. INSTALLATION TECHNIQUES AND TIPS 7.1. PROTECTING RELAY MODULES When protecting electrical circuits against overloads, it is the weakest link in the circuit that has to be considered for the selection of the fuse or circuit breaker. If it is only a lighting circuit in a standard installation with standard switches, then in practice it will be protected with a 16A breaker. However, many installers also use this rule for an IHS installation, which is often incorrect. Most IHS manufacturers produce relay output modules whose internal relays cannot take high currents. The nominal current the relays can take is often 10A, but there are also examples of 6A, 4A and even 2A contacts. When installers use these relays to control lighting, they protect the circuit (out of force of habit) with a 16A breaker. As a result, the weakest link in the circuit (the relay contact) is not well protected against overload. Figure 34: Peha has an output module in its range that has 4A contacts (left). The other output module contains 4 contacts of 6A and 4 contacts of 10A. (Illustration source: Peha) Below is a schematic diagram of the Peha output module that contains 2 groups of 4 relays of 4A. Each group of 4 relays is connected together internally in the module. The same protection is therefore used for each group. Each relay can take a maximum of 4A but, as they are connected together internally, the entire group must be protected according to its weakest element, and that is 4A. Figure 35: In such an installation more circuit breakers will have to be used to protect the electrical circuits correctly. (Illustration source: E&D Systems) 1,5mm 4A 1,5mm 4A 4A 4A 4A 4A 4A 4A 4A 4A
  31. 31. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 26 Figure 36: Here the relays are protected for their nominal value. (Illustration source: E&D Systems) Above is a schematic diagram of the Peha output module with 6A and 10A contacts. In this module all contacts go to the outside. When the connected load is not too high, we can protect all 6A contacts together with a 6A breaker, and all 10A contacts with a 10A breaker. However, if heavier consumers have to be connected to certain relays, then in certain cases separate relays will have to be protected separately. In the example below, the load of relay 4 is 5A, and the loads of relays 1, 2 and 3 are 1.5A. The first three relays can then be connected together on a 6A breaker, for example, while relay 4 has to be protected with a separate 6A breaker. In the drawing we see that relays 5 and 6 with 10A contacts are each protected separately because heavy consumers are connected to them. Figure 37: Separately protected relays on account of a high individual load. (Illustration source: E&D Systems) The master controller or supply of the IHS system must be suitably protected. We can assume that these components are not heavy consumers. In most cases a 2A or 4A breaker will suffice. However, if we use a 10A or 16A breaker here, then these components will not be well protected against overload, resulting in possible damage when an anomaly occurs. 7.2. FITTING OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION In installations without an IHS installation, it is a good idea to fit overvoltage protection to protect sensitive equipment in the home (computers, flat-screen TV, audio system, telephone exchange, etc.) against indirect lightning strikes. The electronic components in IHS systems are also sensitive to overvoltages. Certain overvoltages will cause them to fail immediately. On the other hand, certain overvoltages can substantially 6A 6A 6A 6A 10A 10A 10A 10A 1,5mm 6A 1,5mm 10A 6A 6A 6A 6A 10A 10A 10A 10A 1,5mm 6A 1,5mm 10A 1,5mm 6A 1,5mm 10A 1,5mm 10A
  32. 32. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 27 reduce the lifetime of electronic components so that the equipment will only function properly for a shorter period of time. Homes that have external lightning protection must also have internal protection against direct lightning strikes. However, most homes will only have medium protection against indirect lightning strikes and possibly additional protection for individual items of equipment. It is necessary to efficiently protect all electrical cables coming into the home. If we only protect 230V cables, there can still effectively be discharges into telephone cables and coax cables. Cables leaving the home also need to be protected, for example when a supply cable from the home goes underground into a garden shed. If the integrated home system bus goes outside the home, appropriate measures need to be taken. Figure 38: This overvoltage protection limits the peak voltage to 275V. (Illustration source: Dehn) Figure 39: When choosing appropriate overvoltage protection, account has to be taken of the nominal voltage, the current and frequency of the cables to be protected. (Illustration source: Dehn) Very sensitive equipment can be individually fitted with fine protection. This reduces further the voltage spike that remains after the medium protection. Such equipment is generally constructed as a plug strip. In certain cases, not only is fine protection applied to the 230V circuit, but also to telephone and coax cables. 7.3. AVOIDING LARGE LOOPS WITH IHS CABLES If large loops are unintentionally created when installing IHS system cabling, they can create problems with indirect lightning strikes. High overvoltages can be generated in the loops through induction. The peak voltages are in proportion to the size of the loop. During installation the loop surface must therefore be kept as small as possible.
  33. 33. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 28 In the example below a master controller and an output module of an IHS system are supplied at 230V. There is, however, BUS cabling between the master and the output module. When the cables are installed far apart (left-hand drawing) the voltage difference induced by an indirect lightning strike can be too great. There can also be a discharge between the BUS cable and the 230V part. Best practice would consist of installing the cables concerned closer together. In the case of an indirect lightning strike, the potential difference generated between the two cables would be smaller. Figure 40: In practice loops cannot always be avoided, but try to keep them as small as possible by installing the cables as close together as possible. (Illustration source: E&D Systems) Loops can also occur between earth cables (or the BUS screening) and bare earthed metal parts of the home. Therefore, as an example, cables and electrical equipment should always be installed at a safe distance from metal water pipes. 7.4. MANUAL SWITCHING If for some reason the IHS system does not work, it is important that the user can still manually control some functions such as lighting and heating. This allows the user to perform some basic tasks manually if there is a system outage in the weekend or during a holiday period, until an installer can come. For this purpose, some IHS systems have output modules with a button for each output. If this option is not available, specific outputs can be rerouted through an external contactor that can be switched manually. Figure 41: This output module has a toggle switch for automatic or manual operation. In the manual state, the individual outputs can be switched with push buttons. (Illustration source: Hager)
  34. 34. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 7.5. EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) must be guaranteed by IHS systems. In essence, the IHS system cause any interference in other electrical equipment (TV, audio, data network, etc.). Externally generated signals must not affect the good operation of the IHS system. In certain cases a Faraday cage can be put around certain components. Some master controllers for IHS systems are supplied in a metal box. Other manufacturers of IHS systems recommend installing the IHS components in a m of a PVC distribution board. This distribution board must 7.6. CE MARK If the CE mark is placed on an item the person importing it into Europe declares that the equipment concerned satisfies all European Directives applicable to it. For most electrical applications there are three of them: The Machines Directive The Low-Voltage Directive The EMC Directive (Electromagnetic Compatibility) The CE mark indicates that a product satisfies the minimum safety requirements with quality tests or standards inspections. Without the CE mark, products for which the mark is required (almost all electrical products), cannot be sold or traded in the European Union. Save for exceptions for specific applications, a manufacturer affixing the CE mark, a person who is associated with t technical manager, etc.) is jointly and severally liable for having done so correctly, in order to avoid the CE mark being affixed all too easily and sometimes without knowledge of the facts. risk, most manufacturers have tests products. In this way they have independent test results as a basis for affixing the CE mark. Installers using products without a CE mark 7.7. EARTHING OF MODULES This aspect differs from producer to producer. With some systems, all modules are supplied in a class II housing. These modules do not have to be earthe On the other hand there are manufacturers or whose components can be touched on an open printed circuit board. In such case connection must be used. 7.8. USE THE SPECIFIED CABLES Every IHS producer specifies the use of certain cables for connecting the modules. Sometimes it is a twisted pair cable, in other cases such a cable is not required. Sometimes it is a screened cable, sometimes not. Certain manufacturers have their own branded cables in their range, designed for use with their own products. The Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) must be guaranteed by IHS systems. In essence, the IHS system cause any interference in other electrical equipment (TV, audio, data network, etc.). Externally generated e good operation of the IHS system. In certain cases a Faraday cage can be put around certain components. Some master controllers for IHS systems are supplied in a metal box. Other manufacturers of IHS systems recommend installing the IHS components in a metal distribution board instead of a PVC distribution board. This distribution board must, of course, be earthed. Figure 42: CE mark. n item of equipment/product, it only means that the equipment the person importing it into Europe declares that the equipment concerned satisfies all European Directives applicable to it. For most electrical applications there are three of them: lectromagnetic Compatibility) The CE mark indicates that a product satisfies the minimum safety requirements but t with quality tests or standards inspections. Without the CE mark, products for which the mark is required lectrical products), cannot be sold or traded in the European Union. Save for exceptions for manufacturer must put the CE mark on his products himself (printed or sticker). By affixing the CE mark, a person who is associated with the manufacturer (owner, chief executive, director, technical manager, etc.) is jointly and severally liable for having done so correctly, in order to avoid the CE mark being affixed all too easily and sometimes without knowledge of the facts. To limit this have tests carried out by an independent laboratory during the development of new products. In this way they have independent test results as a basis for affixing the CE mark. a CE mark can be held liable in the event of any problems (for example, fire). This aspect differs from producer to producer. With some systems, all modules are supplied in a class II housing. These modules do not have to be earthed. manufacturers who bring out class I modules in metal housings (entire or partial) or whose components can be touched on an open printed circuit board. In such cases, the provided earthing HE SPECIFIED CABLES Every IHS producer specifies the use of certain cables for connecting the modules. Sometimes it is a twisted pair cable, in other cases such a cable is not required. Sometimes it is a screened cable, sometimes not. Certain have their own branded cables in their range, designed for use with their own products. The Page 29 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) must be guaranteed by IHS systems. In essence, the IHS system must not cause any interference in other electrical equipment (TV, audio, data network, etc.). Externally generated e good operation of the IHS system. In certain cases a Faraday cage can be put around certain components. Some master controllers for IHS systems are supplied in a metal box. Other etal distribution board instead of equipment/product, it only means that the equipment manufacturer or the person importing it into Europe declares that the equipment concerned satisfies all European Directives but this has nothing to do with quality tests or standards inspections. Without the CE mark, products for which the mark is required lectrical products), cannot be sold or traded in the European Union. Save for exceptions for must put the CE mark on his products himself (printed or sticker). By (owner, chief executive, director, technical manager, etc.) is jointly and severally liable for having done so correctly, in order to avoid the CE o limit this joint and several by an independent laboratory during the development of new products. In this way they have independent test results as a basis for affixing the CE mark. can be held liable in the event of any problems (for example, fire). This aspect differs from producer to producer. With some systems, all modules are supplied in a class II who bring out class I modules in metal housings (entire or partial) , the provided earthing Every IHS producer specifies the use of certain cables for connecting the modules. Sometimes it is a twisted pair cable, in other cases such a cable is not required. Sometimes it is a screened cable, sometimes not. Certain have their own branded cables in their range, designed for use with their own products. The
  35. 35. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 30 use of the specified cable is highly advisable as the manufacturer only guarantees correct operation of his system when the correct cables are used in the installation. 7.9. RESPECT THE MAXIMUM DISTANCES Every IHS system also specifies the maximum distances for the cables used. This too comes back to the guarantee of good operation. Sometimes, only a maximum length is specified for the BUS cabling. In other cases, maximum mutual distances are specified between different BUS participants. In many cases there are also distance restrictions for connecting sensors and push buttons to input modules. The non-observance of these maximum distances could lead to poor data communications. In order to bridge greater distances, BUS amplifiers or repeaters can sometimes be used. 7.10. USE OF SCREENING If a screened cable is used, the manufacturer also specifies what has to be done with the screening. In most cases, it is generally specified that the screening of the BUS cable must be connected to earth at a certain place. At every module the screening is connected through to the last module on the bus. The screening is not connected to earth at any other place, so that no undesired loop currents can occur. For KNX installations, the BUS cable consists of an external sheath covering a metal screen and a continuity wire. It is specified however that this screen must not be connected to earth, or come into contact with it. As a result, in practice shrink sleeving is always put over the ends of the cable. Figure 43: Schematic presentation of the EIB/KNX cable with screening. (Illustration source: KNX) Figure 44: The ends of the KNX cable have shrink sleeving. (Illustration source: KNX) 7.11. KEEP CABLES WITH DIFFERENT VOLTAGES AWAY FROM ONE ANOTHER All kinds of components are brought together in the distribution board. The supplies, controllers and output modules are connected with 230V cabling. On the other hand, there are input modules where only very low safety voltage is used. The cables used for the two networks are very different. The discharge voltage of 230V cables and wires is much higher than for the cables and wires used for the BUS or for connecting the push buttons. In practice, we must keep these cables and wires separated and as far away from one another as
  36. 36. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 1 1. INTRODUCTION In this chapter of the Integrated Home Systems (IHS) course we focus on the technological aspects of an IHS installation. Among other things, we discuss where the system intelligence is located, the topology and the media of the installation. We also devote attention to the components of an IHS system and touch on various safety issues. In the final section, we discuss several installation techniques and provide some handy tips for installing an IHS system.
  37. 37. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 1 1. INTRODUCTION In this chapter of the Integrated Home Systems (IHS) course we focus on the technological aspects of an IHS installation. Among other things, we discuss where the system intelligence is located, the topology and the media of the installation. We also devote attention to the components of an IHS system and touch on various safety issues. In the final section, we discuss several installation techniques and provide some handy tips for installing an IHS system.
  38. 38. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 1 1. INTRODUCTION In this chapter of the Integrated Home Systems (IHS) course we focus on the technological aspects of an IHS installation. Among other things, we discuss where the system intelligence is located, the topology and the media of the installation. We also devote attention to the components of an IHS system and touch on various safety issues. In the final section, we discuss several installation techniques and provide some handy tips for installing an IHS system.
  39. 39. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 1 1. INTRODUCTION In this chapter of the Integrated Home Systems (IHS) course we focus on the technological aspects of an IHS installation. Among other things, we discuss where the system intelligence is located, the topology and the media of the installation. We also devote attention to the components of an IHS system and touch on various safety issues. In the final section, we discuss several installation techniques and provide some handy tips for installing an IHS system.
  40. 40. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 1 1. INTRODUCTION In this chapter of the Integrated Home Systems (IHS) course we focus on the technological aspects of an IHS installation. Among other things, we discuss where the system intelligence is located, the topology and the media of the installation. We also devote attention to the components of an IHS system and touch on various safety issues. In the final section, we discuss several installation techniques and provide some handy tips for installing an IHS system.
  41. 41. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 In theory we can divide the various loads into resistive, inductive or capacitive. In practice, however, consumers are often a mixture of these types of loads, but they have a stronger component that predominates, which puts them in a certain group. Let’s look at the characteristics of each group. 7.19.1. RESISTIVE LOADS With resistive loads the switch-on current is in principle equal to the nominal current. In principle Ohm’s law can thus be used to calculate the current halogen lamps belong to this group, but have a switch current. The reason for this switch- the lamp is cold than when the lamp is at its service temperature. 7.19.2. INDUCTIVE LOADS Inductive loads are formed by windings and coils. The standard wound transformer used for low voltage halogen lamps is an example of this. Furthermore, to calculate the nominal current we have to take account of the Cos φ of the load. We use the following formula for this: I = P/(U x Cos φ). The smaller the Cos φ, the greater the nominal current. A purely resistive load of 1150W at 230V yields a current of 5A. However, with an appliance with a Cos φ of 0.75 the current increases to 6.666A. If we had chosen 6A relay contacts for this load, they would not last very long. A standard wound transformer is a typical example of an inductive load. (Illustration source: Erea) 7.19.3. CAPACITIVE LOADS In practice we find capacitive loads in the form of electronic transformers or converters. as with the inductive loads with regard to the nominal current. However, the switch higher than with inductive loads. The chosen relay contacts must be able to withstand this. Electronic converters often present a capac In theory we can divide the various loads into resistive, inductive or capacitive. In practice, however, consumers are often a mixture of these types of loads, but they have a stronger component that s them in a certain group. Let’s look at the characteristics of each group. on current is in principle equal to the nominal current. In principle Ohm’s law can thus be used to calculate the current, but nevertheless we have to take care. 230V incandescent lamps and halogen lamps belong to this group, but have a switch-on current that can be up to 20 times the nominal -on current is mainly due to the fact that the resistance is much less when the lamp is cold than when the lamp is at its service temperature. Inductive loads are formed by windings and coils. The standard wound transformer used for low voltage halogen lamps is an example of this. Inductive loads have a switch-on current that can be significantly higher. Furthermore, to calculate the nominal current we have to take account of the Cos φ of the load. We use the following formula for this: I = P/(U x Cos φ). greater the nominal current. A purely resistive load of 1150W at 230V yields a current of 5A. However, with an appliance with a Cos φ of 0.75 the current increases to 6.666A. If we had chosen 6A relay contacts for this load, they would not last very long. Figure 54: A standard wound transformer is a typical example of an inductive load. (Illustration source: Erea) In practice we find capacitive loads in the form of electronic transformers or converters. with the inductive loads with regard to the nominal current. However, the switch-on current can be a lot higher than with inductive loads. The chosen relay contacts must be able to withstand this. Figure 55: Electronic converters often present a capacitive load. (Illustration source: Erea) Page 36 In theory we can divide the various loads into resistive, inductive or capacitive. In practice, however, consumers are often a mixture of these types of loads, but they have a stronger component that s them in a certain group. Let’s look at the characteristics of each group. on current is in principle equal to the nominal current. In principle Ohm’s law . 230V incandescent lamps and on current that can be up to 20 times the nominal istance is much less when Inductive loads are formed by windings and coils. The standard wound transformer used for low voltage on current that can be significantly higher. Furthermore, to calculate the nominal current we have to take account of the Cos φ of the load. We use the greater the nominal current. A purely resistive load of 1150W at 230V yields a current of 5A. However, with an appliance with a Cos φ of 0.75 the current increases to 6.666A. If we had A standard wound transformer is a typical example of an inductive load. (Illustration source: Erea) In practice we find capacitive loads in the form of electronic transformers or converters. The same applies here on current can be a lot higher than with inductive loads. The chosen relay contacts must be able to withstand this. itive load. (Illustration source: Erea)
  42. 42. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 37 7.19.4. SWITCH-ON CURRENTS Figure 56: Switch-on currents and their duration. (Illustration source: Zettler Electronics) In the above table in the left-hand column we see various types of loads. The last two columns are particularly important here. There we can see the ratio between the switch-on current with respect to the nominal current and the duration of this switch-on current to its 50% level. We see, for example, the remarkably high switch-on current for a low energy lamp. The duration is short, however. Not included in this table, but worth mentioning, is that the switch-on current of gas discharge lamps is 5 to 10 times the nominal current, but lasts around 10 seconds. With mercury or sodium vapour lamps the ratio with respect to the nominal current is less (up to 3 times), but the duration is as much as 2 minutes. The chosen relay contacts must be able to withstand this. 7.20. CONNECTION OF TUBE MOTORS Tube motors with two mechanical end-stop switches are normally used for electrically operated roll-down shutters or sun blinds. They are adjusted during installation so that the motor stops when the roll-down shutter is fully up, and the other when the roll-down shutter is fully closed. Sometimes we want to drive a number of roll-down shutters up and down together – for example two windows in the same wall of a room, each of which has a roll-down shutter. To save outputs in the IHS system, the installer can connect these two roll-down shutter motors in parallel to one roll-down shutter output of the IHS system. With lighting, switching a number of lights in parallel is not a problem. With roll-down shutter motors with mechanical end-stop switches it is indeed a problem. We will explain why. We drive two parallel connected roll-down shutters down (see diagram below). Roll-down shutter 1 (motor 1) comes down a fraction of a second earlier than roll-down shutter 2. That can happen because of the setting of the end-stop switches. At that moment end-stop switch ES1 interrupts the operation of motor 1. Because motor 2 is still running, an undesired current flows (dotted line). The opposite winding (opposite direction) of motor 1 is supplied via ES3, capacitor C2, ES4 and ES2. As a result, motor 1 starts to turn in the opposite direction (roll-down shutter back up). This happens until roll-down shutter 2 is fully down and end-stop switch ES3 has opened. We therefore never get both roll-down shutters nicely up or down together.
  43. 43. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 38 Figure 57: When one of the motors stops earlier, that motor starts to turn the other way through the action of the other motor. (Illustration source: E&D Systems) We have to separate these motors from one another in order to drive them together so we use an isolating relay (WS2 in the diagram below). In this way undesired currents (dotted line) are avoided. Figure 58: By using an isolating relay, the shutters will always perform the same movement and will not hinder one another. (Illustration source: E&D Systems) In practice, it makes sense to give every roll-down shutter its own cabling to the distribution board, and to install the isolating relay there. In this way it can be decided at a later stage to drive the roll-down shutters separately by connecting each of them to a roll-down shutter output of the IHS system. N L C1 C2ES1 ES2 ES3 ES4 Motor 1 Motor 2 N ES1 ES2C1 ES3 ES4C2 WS1 WS2 Motor 1 Motor 2 L
  44. 44. Publication No. Cu0236 Issue Date: December 2015 Page 39 There are also tube motors on the market that have electronic end-stop switches. They do not impede one another when connected in parallel. 7.21. OPERATING COMPONENTS AT A USABLE HEIGHT Operating components such as keypads with an LCD display, touch screens or other controls on which text or other information is displayed, must be fitted at a usable height. Ordinary switches and push buttons are generally fitted at a height of 110cm from the finished floor. For operating components on which something needs to be read, this is far too low but we are not able to dictate a specific height for this. Firstly, the height depends on the operating component itself. A touch screen can be somewhat higher than a keypad with LCD readout. Secondly, the height will also depend on the average height of the occupiers. The average Dutch person is a fair bit taller than the average Japanese person. In such cases the height at which a keypad with display is fitted will differ by tens of centimetres. But there are, of course, also short Dutchmen and tall Japanese. There is therefore no fixed rule for the height of such operating components. Figure 59: Both the information of the LCD window and the description of the buttons must be readable without the person having to stand on his toes or bend his knees. (Illustration source: Jung) 7.22. POSITIONING OF THERMOSTATS OR TEMPERATURE SENSORS When we want to measure the room temperature we will (depending on the IHS system) use thermostats or electronic temperature sensors. To obtain a good measurement, the positioning of these components is very important. The greatest heat loss in a room occurs on the outside walls and at the window. That is therefore also the place to compensate for the heat losses so the heating element is installed here, creating an airflow in the room. Normally the room temperature is measured at the wall opposite the heating element. Generally the room sensor is placed at a height of 1.5 to 1.6 metres. In any case they are not put on outside walls or next to a door, which could lead to inaccurate measurements.

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