Mini-Course on Future Electric Grids
                                                          Part 1 of 2


             ...
1     Introduction
                Course overview


       2     Variable flows in the system
               Before libera...
Introduction




      1     Introduction
               Course overview


      2     Variable flows in the system
       ...
Introduction     Course overview




Who am I?




                Master in engineering from KHK Geel, Belgium
          ...
Introduction     Course overview




Course overview and objectives




       Overview Part 1
       New situation in the...
Introduction     Course overview




Course overview and objectives




       Overview Part 2
                Internation...
Introduction     Course overview




What it is about and what not




                Not the grid of 2050
              ...
Variable flows in the system




      1     Introduction
               Course overview


      2     Variable flows in the...
Variable flows in the system     Before liberalization and the rise of renewables




The old system


                Befo...
Variable flows in the system     International market environment




Energy is traded


                Electric energy is...
Variable flows in the system     More renewable energy generation




Increased penetration of smaller, variable energy sou...
Variable flows in the system     More renewable energy generation




A strong increase in power from renewable energy




...
Variable flows in the system     More renewable energy generation




A strong increase in power from renewable energy
    ...
Variable flows in the system     More renewable energy generation




A strong increase in power from renewable energy
    ...
Variable flows in the system     More renewable energy generation




A strong increase in power from renewable energy
    ...
Variable flows in the system      Effects on the system




            Unannounced wind power in the north D
Effects on th...
Variable flows in the system        Effects on the system




            Unannounced wind power in the north D
Effects on ...
Variable flows in the system       Effects on the system




            Unannounced wind power in the north D
Effects on t...
Variable flows in the system     Effects on the system




Effects on the system

       Frequency deviations due to hourly...
Variable flows in the system     Effects on the system




Effects on the system
       Frequency deviations in Nordel incr...
Variable flows in the system     Effects on the system




Unpredictability of wind power: international context
          ...
Variable flows in the system     Effects on the system




Unpredictability of wind power: international context
          ...
Variable flows in the system     Effects on the system




Unpredictability of wind power: international context
          ...
Variable flows in the system     Effects on the system




Unpredictability of wind power: international context




      ...
Variable flows in the system     Effects on the system




Unpredictability of wind power: international context

       Un...
Variable flows in the system     International setting




Difficult international setting
                Every TSO, genera...
Variable flows in the system     International setting




Difficult international setting
                Every TSO, genera...
Variable flows in the system     International setting




Difficult international setting
                Every TSO, genera...
Variable flows in the system     International setting




Difficult international setting
                Every TSO, genera...
Variable flows in the system     Common misunderstandings about wind power




Common misunderstandings about wind power


...
Variable flows in the system     Common misunderstandings about wind power




Common misunderstandings about wind power

 ...
Variable flows in the system     Common misunderstandings about wind power




Common misunderstandings about wind power


...
Variable flows in the system     Common misunderstandings about wind power




Common misunderstandings about wind power

 ...
Variable flows in the system     Common misunderstandings about wind power




Common misunderstandings about wind power
  ...
Variable flows in the system     Common misunderstandings about wind power




Common misunderstandings about wind power


...
Investments in the power system




      1     Introduction
               Course overview


      2     Variable flows in...
Investments in the power system     Need for investments




Lacking investments in the power system
                In th...
Investments in the power system     Need for investments




Lacking investments in the power system
                In th...
Investments in the power system     Need for investments




Investments over the last decades
DSO data

                 ...
Investments in the power system     Need for investments




Cross border investments



      Why cross-border investment...
Investments in the power system     Need for investments




Paradox of investing in cross-border lines



       Paradox ...
Investments in the power system     Need for investments




Paradox of investing in cross-border lines


       Paradox o...
Investments in the power system     Need for investments




Paradox of investing in cross-border lines


       Paradox o...
Investments in the power system     Need for investments




Paradox of investing in cross-border lines


       Paradox o...
Investments in the power system     Need for investments




Result: Bottlenecks in the system




       Figure: Electric...
Investments in the power system     Need for investments




Obstables for PIP projects according to TEN-E
PIP= Priority I...
Investments in the power system     Investments to integrate renewables




Investing to accommodate renewables

         ...
Investments in the power system     Investments to integrate renewables




Power from the sea: Belgian example




Conces...
Future Electricity Grids 1/2
Future Electricity Grids 1/2
Future Electricity Grids 1/2
Future Electricity Grids 1/2
Future Electricity Grids 1/2
Future Electricity Grids 1/2
Future Electricity Grids 1/2
Future Electricity Grids 1/2
Future Electricity Grids 1/2
Future Electricity Grids 1/2
Future Electricity Grids 1/2
Future Electricity Grids 1/2
Future Electricity Grids 1/2
Future Electricity Grids 1/2
Future Electricity Grids 1/2
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Future Electricity Grids 1/2

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The European power system has changed considerably in the last 15 years. The liberalisation and unbundling of the electricity market has led to increased international power flows and reduced influence of the system operators. Meanwhile, renewable and other small-scale uncontrolled and variable energy sources are being installed in the system.

In today’s session the effects of these changes on the power system will be discussed. They will be analysed along with how investments in the transmission system can help, and the different options available. Special attention will be given to power flow controlling devices and HVDC as they are getting much attention in the power industry at the moment.

* Effects of wind energy in the international power system
* Investments in the transmission system, why are they lacking, what the options are (overhead, cable, etc.)

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Future Electricity Grids 1/2

  1. 1. Mini-Course on Future Electric Grids Part 1 of 2 Dirk Van Hertem — Dirk.VanHertem@ieee.org Electric power systems Electrical engineering department Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden February 22, 2010 K.U.Leuven (Belgium) KTH, Stockholm (Sweden) Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 1 / 29
  2. 2. 1 Introduction Course overview 2 Variable flows in the system Before liberalization and the rise of renewables International market environment More renewable energy generation Effects on the system International setting Common misunderstandings about wind power 3 Investments in the power system Need for investments Investments to integrate renewables Investment technologies to increase transmission capacity Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 2 / 29
  3. 3. Introduction 1 Introduction Course overview 2 Variable flows in the system Before liberalization and the rise of renewables International market environment More renewable energy generation Effects on the system International setting Common misunderstandings about wind power 3 Investments in the power system Need for investments Investments to integrate renewables Investment technologies to increase transmission capacity Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 3 / 29
  4. 4. Introduction Course overview Who am I? Master in engineering from KHK Geel, Belgium Master of science in engineering from K.U.Leuven, Belgium PhD in engineering from K.U.Leuven, Belgium Currently Post-Doc researcher at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden Active member of both IEEE and Cigré Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 4 / 29
  5. 5. Introduction Course overview Course overview and objectives Overview Part 1 New situation in the power system 1 Liberalization of the market 2 Increased penetration of smaller, variable energy sources 3 No single authority in Europe 4 Lacking investments in the transmission system Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 5 / 29
  6. 6. Introduction Course overview Course overview and objectives Overview Part 2 International coordination in the power system How this cooperation can benefit and obstruct Power flow controllers Coordination and power flow controllers The future “supergrid”. . . . . . and the road towards it Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 5 / 29
  7. 7. Introduction Course overview What it is about and what not Not the grid of 2050 Main focus is Europe Not about smart grids (or not specifically) About transmission and not distribution Mainly from a grid operator point of view Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 6 / 29
  8. 8. Variable flows in the system 1 Introduction Course overview 2 Variable flows in the system Before liberalization and the rise of renewables International market environment More renewable energy generation Effects on the system International setting Common misunderstandings about wind power 3 Investments in the power system Need for investments Investments to integrate renewables Investment technologies to increase transmission capacity Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 7 / 29
  9. 9. Variable flows in the system Before liberalization and the rise of renewables The old system Before liberalization: Mostly vertically integrated companies All operational issues were within one company Both generation and transmission investments were done in one company and coordinated Synchronous system to increase security Limited international trade, and mostly long-term contracts Before massive introduction of renewable energy sources and distributed generation: Centrally planned generation Centrally controlled Focus on high availability Bigger is better (economy of scale) Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 8 / 29
  10. 10. Variable flows in the system International market environment Energy is traded Electric energy is traded on the market in blocks of 1 or more hours Where different bids can come from different generators These bids are also from neighboring systems When a single company offers a block, this is not necessarily from the same generator This causes variable flows throughout the grid Including transnational flows Physical flows are not equal to contracted flows A higher reserve margin is needed The ramping of generators is not immediate Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 9 / 29
  11. 11. Variable flows in the system More renewable energy generation Increased penetration of smaller, variable energy sources Traditional power plants Bigger is better, more economic Size is limited by technology (GW power plants) Generally investments and operation by centrally controlled, big companies Renewables, CHP and new generator types emerged Generation units as small as 1 kW Not centrally planned or controlled Further increase to be expected in the future (Electrical cars?) Uncertain generation pattern. . . 3 Pwind = f (vwind ), no light during the night and clouds,. . . CHP output is usually dependent on heat process . . . and consequently uncertain flows Balancing of wind is a problem for some countries Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 10 / 29
  12. 12. Variable flows in the system More renewable energy generation A strong increase in power from renewable energy Figure: Share of electricity from renewable energy Figure: The development of wind energy in to gross electricity consumption. (source: Europe shows an almost exponential increase Eurostat) (logarithmic scale). (source: Eurostat) Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 11 / 29
  13. 13. Variable flows in the system More renewable energy generation A strong increase in power from renewable energy Increased installed wind power in Europe Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 11 / 29
  14. 14. Variable flows in the system More renewable energy generation A strong increase in power from renewable energy Installed capacity of wind in Europe (source EWEA) Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 11 / 29
  15. 15. Variable flows in the system More renewable energy generation A strong increase in power from renewable energy Larger part of new generation is from variable sources (source EWEA) Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 11 / 29
  16. 16. Variable flows in the system Effects on the system Unannounced wind power in the north D Effects on the system scheduled power exchanges Contracted/scheduled flows - 980 - 3068 B 798 NL 2169 CENTREL - 1017 - 2967 PSE ELIA TENNET D 2150 PSE CEPS North PL CZ RWE 1815 SEPS MVM South +3903 SK H +3126 4669 F +3846 667 RTE - 504 GB 1525 A APG - 426 118 DC link 752 575 120 +677 CH 646 E +2614 ETRANS REE +2560 53 3022 3 401 2 17 I ELES SLO ELES P 1704 - 5380 481 - 452 HEP REN TERNA HR BiH © K.U.Leuven - ESAT/Electa Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 12 / 29
  17. 17. Variable flows in the system Effects on the system Unannounced wind power in the north D Effects on the system scheduled power exchanges vs physical power flows Physical flows - 980 - 3068 B 798 NL 2169 CENTREL - 1017 - 2967 PSE ELIA D 1485 TENNET 4553 2150 PSE CEPS North PL CZ RWE 505 1815 1421 SEPS MVM South +3903 SK H +3126 4669 F +3846 667 RTE - 504 GB 1525 342 817 A APG 1189 - 426 118 DC link 752 575 120 +677 CH 646 E +2614 ETRANS 28 REE 846 +2560 53 3022 3 2875 401 2 17 I ELES SLO ELES P 1704 - 5380 481 - 452 HEP REN TERNA HR BiH 1267 © K.U.Leuven - ESAT/Electa Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 12 / 29
  18. 18. Variable flows in the system Effects on the system Unannounced wind power in the north D Effects on the system difference between physical and programmed flows Resulting flows B NL CENTREL 2283 2384 ELIA TENNET PSE CEPS 729 2320 North PL CZ D SEPS MVM South SK H RWE PSE F 4327 150 1307 RTE A APG CH ETRANS E 1492 92 REE 147 I ELES SLO ELES P 437 HEP TERNA REN HR BiH © K.U.Leuven - ESAT/Electa Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 12 / 29
  19. 19. Variable flows in the system Effects on the system Effects on the system Frequency deviations due to hourly changes in generation and limited ramp rates (source UCTE) Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 12 / 29
  20. 20. Variable flows in the system Effects on the system Effects on the system Frequency deviations in Nordel increase in general Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 12 / 29
  21. 21. Variable flows in the system Effects on the system Unpredictability of wind power: international context 8000 Actual 6000 Wind generation (MW) 4000 2000 0 −2000 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Day of the month Real, estimated and mismatch wind generation in November 2007 in the E.On-Netz grid (Now transpower, part of TenneT), Day-ahead data for every 15 min Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 13 / 29
  22. 22. Variable flows in the system Effects on the system Unpredictability of wind power: international context 8000 Actual Expected 6000 Wind generation (MW) 4000 2000 0 −2000 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Day of the month Real, estimated and mismatch wind generation in November 2007 in the E.On-Netz grid (Now transpower, part of TenneT), Day-ahead data for every 15 min Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 13 / 29
  23. 23. Variable flows in the system Effects on the system Unpredictability of wind power: international context 8000 Actual Expected Difference 6000 Wind generation (MW) 4000 2000 0 −2000 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Day of the month Real, estimated and mismatch wind generation in November 2007 in the E.On-Netz grid (Now transpower, part of TenneT), Day-ahead data for every 15 min Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 13 / 29
  24. 24. Variable flows in the system Effects on the system Unpredictability of wind power: international context +100 MW 2,9 % 16,3 % - 3,5 % ? -100 MW 3,9 % 14,2 % 6 6 12,8 % Wind is predominantly located in the north. . . and is balanced in the south National problem can have international consequences Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 13 / 29
  25. 25. Variable flows in the system Effects on the system Unpredictability of wind power: international context Unpredictability of hydro Runoff variations in the power-generating rivers (source: Swedenergy) Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 13 / 29
  26. 26. Variable flows in the system International setting Difficult international setting Every TSO, generator, regulator,. . . on his own There is no single European authority: an international patchwork Each has his own responsibilities and tasks No common authority and no common goal European Union Synchronous zones Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 14 / 29
  27. 27. Variable flows in the system International setting Difficult international setting Every TSO, generator, regulator,. . . on his own There is no single European authority: an international patchwork Each has his own responsibilities and tasks No common authority and no common goal ETSO TSOs Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 14 / 29
  28. 28. Variable flows in the system International setting Difficult international setting Every TSO, generator, regulator,. . . on his own There is no single European authority: an international patchwork Each has his own responsibilities and tasks No common authority and no common goal Third package 3rd package proposes some changes Full (further) unbundling Establishment of ENTSO-E (European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity) ETSO + synchronous zones (UCTE, Nordel, Baltso, UKTSOA, ATSOI) Establishment of an ACER (Agency of energy regulators) to get ONE regulatory body with binding decision powers to complement national regulators Not a direct successor of ERGEG/CEER Cross-border cooperation and investments should be promoted More transparency and solidarity Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 14 / 29
  29. 29. Variable flows in the system International setting Difficult international setting Every TSO, generator, regulator,. . . on his own There is no single European authority: an international patchwork Each has his own responsibilities and tasks No common authority and no common goal Steps towards a IEM are being taken: ERI + Third package Regional coordinated grids ENTSO-E: synchronous zones + ETSO Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 14 / 29
  30. 30. Variable flows in the system Common misunderstandings about wind power Common misunderstandings about wind power Wind integration is a hot issue, and much debated There are both people in favor and against wind A lot of misconceptions exists (source: Wind Power Myths Debunked; M. Milligan, K. Porter, E. DeMeo, P. Denholm, H. Holttinen, B. Kirby, N. Miller, A. Mills, M. O’Malley, M.Schuerger, L. Söder; Power and Energy Magazine; Nov/Dec 2009) Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 15 / 29
  31. 31. Variable flows in the system Common misunderstandings about wind power Common misunderstandings about wind power Power system operation with variable wind? Variability is something operators can work with, as loads also vary Variability is lower when more wind generators are grouped, especially when spread geographically Forecasting is possible and techniques get better Answer: yes possible, but higher reserves are needed on the generators (at a cost + international influence) Capacity credit? Capacity credit: sufficient installed capacity to cover load Planning takes normally a reserve margin for generation (outages etc) But can we count on wind? Answer: yes, but not at full capacity. Capacity margin should be calculated through LOLE (loss of load expectancy) Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 15 / 29
  32. 32. Variable flows in the system Common misunderstandings about wind power Common misunderstandings about wind power What are the chances on no wind at all? . . . or simultaneous shut down at too high wind speeds Aggregation again lessens the problems Current forecasts are good enough to start up alternative energy generation in due time Difficult to predict wind? Amplitude and shift Long time horizons are more difficult to predict than short Updating of forecasts and scheduling is needed Forecast errors need to be integrated in predictions Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 15 / 29
  33. 33. Variable flows in the system Common misunderstandings about wind power Common misunderstandings about wind power Expensive to integrate wind? Integration costs money But these costs can be integrated Also here balancing over large areas helps New transmission needed? Any generation needs transmission Distributed wind might initially reduce the need for grids Remote locations need to be connected (e.g. new offshore always needs new lines) Similar as connection of hydro in 60’s and 70’s Balancing/variability requires more grid than traditional generation for the same amount of energy delivered Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 15 / 29
  34. 34. Variable flows in the system Common misunderstandings about wind power Common misunderstandings about wind power Wind power and backup generation: burning fossil fuels? Backup (reserves) are needed In practice this is done through existing generation not working at 100 % capacity or controllable generation (mostly hydro) → No dedicated backup System-wide, CO2 is saved and fossil fuel consumption decreased (although single machine efficiency might be lower) Storage is needed? The grid itself works as a storage device by balancing different variable energy sources Storage might be interesting from an economical point of view, especially at very high levels of penetration Storage must compete with wind curtailment, new transmission lines and generation dispatch Limited availability of useful storage technologies Hydro (pumped or controlled flow) best storage Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 15 / 29
  35. 35. Variable flows in the system Common misunderstandings about wind power Common misunderstandings about wind power Does wind generation measure up taking capacity factor into account? This is a purely economic consideration: e/kWh Is there a limit to the accommodation of wind? There is an economic limit (linked to willingness to pay for a “greener”, CO2 -free society or a more reliable energy supply) Dependent on the grid Technically there is no clear limit as both active (through curtailment) and reactive power can be controlled Control of the wind generators and the system as a whole needs to be adapted in order to accommodate a high penetration of wind Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 15 / 29
  36. 36. Investments in the power system 1 Introduction Course overview 2 Variable flows in the system Before liberalization and the rise of renewables International market environment More renewable energy generation Effects on the system International setting Common misunderstandings about wind power 3 Investments in the power system Need for investments Investments to integrate renewables Investment technologies to increase transmission capacity Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 16 / 29
  37. 37. Investments in the power system Need for investments Lacking investments in the power system In the vertically integrated system, investments were “easy” Centrally controlled with government support Security above everything else: overinvesting is ok Generation investments and transmission investments were planned within one organization Now investments in transmission lines are subject to regulatory approval Regulator is usually focussed on reducing transmission tariffs Regulators consider mainly issues within their member state Policy and regulations (environmental, building permits,. . . ) have become more stringent, complex and especially time consuming Difficult investment climate due to uncertain investments in generation and uncertain politics/regulations Heavy public opposition against any new investment (environmental, public, political, health,. . . ) NIMBY, NIMTO, BANANA, CAVE,. . . According to ETSO: . . . in some countries, not a single overhead power line exceeding five kilometres has been built in the last 10 years” Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 17 / 29
  38. 38. Investments in the power system Need for investments Lacking investments in the power system In the vertically integrated system, investments were “easy” Centrally controlled with government support Security above everything else: overinvesting is ok Generation investments and transmission investments were planned within one organization Now investments in transmission lines are subject to regulatory approval Regulator is usually focussed on reducing transmission tariffs Regulators consider mainly issues within their member state Policy and regulations (environmental, building permits,. . . ) have become more stringent, complex and especially time consuming Difficult investment climate due to uncertain investments in generation and uncertain politics/regulations Heavy public opposition against any new investment (environmental, public, political, health,. . . ) NIMBY (not in my backyard), NIMTO (not in my term of office), BANANA (Built absolutely nothing anywhere near anything), CAVE (citizens against virtually everything),. . . According to ETSO: . . . in some countries, not a single overhead power line exceeding five kilometres has been built in the last 10 years” Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 17 / 29
  39. 39. Investments in the power system Need for investments Investments over the last decades DSO data The grid was built about 40 years ago sources: resp. RWE, PBPower/IBM and KEMA Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 18 / 29
  40. 40. Investments in the power system Need for investments Cross border investments Why cross-border investments are especially problematic Cross-border connections are traditionally weak: previously only needed for synchronization and in emergencies Price differences between zones specifically show themselves as congestion on borders Uncertainty about what is happening abroad (limited knowledge of the outside grid development) Different policies and requirements across borders Paradox of investing in transmission lines for other beneficiaries Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 19 / 29
  41. 41. Investments in the power system Need for investments Paradox of investing in cross-border lines Paradox of investing to relieve congestion A B A is congested because of north-south flow in B Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 20 / 29
  42. 42. Investments in the power system Need for investments Paradox of investing in cross-border lines Paradox of investing to relieve congestion A B A B Investing in A is ‘bad’ solution for A is congested because of A: local investment for foreign north-south flow in B problem Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 20 / 29
  43. 43. Investments in the power system Need for investments Paradox of investing in cross-border lines Paradox of investing to relieve congestion A B Investing in B would be best, but no reason for B (or the regulator of B) because no local problem Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 20 / 29
  44. 44. Investments in the power system Need for investments Paradox of investing in cross-border lines Paradox of investing to relieve congestion A B A B Investing in B would be best, but no reason for B (or the regulator PFC can help of B) because no local problem Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 20 / 29
  45. 45. Investments in the power system Need for investments Result: Bottlenecks in the system Figure: Electricity Projects of European Interest (source: PIP: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM: 2006:0846:REV1:EN:PDF) Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 21 / 29
  46. 46. Investments in the power system Need for investments Obstables for PIP projects according to TEN-E PIP= Priority Interconnection Plan Obstacle # Projects 1 Electromagnetic fields (EMF) 11 2 Environmental issues 9 3 Visual impact 7 4 Densely populated/Urban/Rural areas 7 5 Grid issues 9 6 Dependency on other project(s) 2 7 Authorization procedure and legal framework 12 8 Identification of cross-border points 3 9 Commercial Problem 3 10 Difficult terrain and weather 4 11 No perception of supra-national or European perspective 2 Table: Obstacles according to the priority interconnection plan of TEN-E Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 22 / 29
  47. 47. Investments in the power system Investments to integrate renewables Investing to accommodate renewables Any generation needs transmission Renewables often located at remote locations This is certainly the case for wind (NIMBY) . . . and evident for offshore Variability of wind makes that on average more grid is needed for the same load Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 23 / 29
  48. 48. Investments in the power system Investments to integrate renewables Power from the sea: Belgian example Concessions: C-power: 216-300 MW, 27 km Belwind: 330 MW, 42 km Eldepasco: 180-252 MW, 38 KM More coming/being processed Dirk Van Hertem (Electric Power Systems, KTH) Mini-course on Future Electric Grids (1/2) 22/02/2010 24 / 29

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