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- 1. EnergyEfficiency – A future Market for Electrical Engineers and Contractors Requirements, Chances and Know-how PK ENERGY ®
- 2. Introduction Peter Kadel (Dipl.-Ing.) Electrical Engineering PK ENERGY Energy Consultancy Engineering Services Education The Book: (Gebäude-Energieberatung) „Building-EnergyConsultancy“ Idea Intention Prospective Buyers Incorporated Rules and Regulations PK ENERGY ®
- 3. Topics Introduction Present Market Situation Energy Situation Worldwide Basic Calculation Rules Calculation Symbols for Energy Flows Requriements of Energy Consultancy Examples of Energy Effiency System Solutions Energy Consultancy Concepts (ARC) Summary PK ENERGY ®
- 4. PRESENT MARKET SITUATION
- 5. Present Market Situation I/III Enevironmental desasters More information about environmental disasters in multimedia. Energyprices Prices for oil and gas raised up by 2100 % within the last 48 years, i.e. 6,5 % p.a. The rate since 2000 is 20 % p.a.!!! PK ENERGY ®
- 6. Present Market Situation II/III Environ- Energy- mental Costs Situation End-user Governmental Regualtions: Law‘s and regulation and incentive programs PK ENERGY ®
- 7. Present Market Situation III/III The end-user is concerned about Environmental situation, Steadyly rising energy prices, governmental law’s and regulations . But on the other hand he gets governmental support by incentive programs for green investments. Impact on EnergyConsultancies Energy efficient system solutions becoming more sophisticated and complex. Therefore end-users need support in finding out the best solution for their own building. Specialists are needed which concentrate not only on efficient products or subsystems but consider the complete energy (building) system. PK ENERGY ®
- 8. ENERGY SITUATION WORLDWIDE
- 9. Energy Situaition Worldwide I/II Non-Renewable Energies Worldwide 46,256 Notes: Year 2004 Peta = 1015 Exa = 1018 10,414 All values in EWh 0,108 0,107 If we compare the reserves with the consumption we will see that the non-renewable energies will Consumption Extraction Reserves Ressources cover the consumption at about 100 years. Pic. 3.3 Worldwide Consumption, extraction, reserves and resources of non-renewable energies PK ENERGY ®
- 10. Energy Situaition Worldwide II/II Reserves Non-Renewable Energies 2004 Consumption 32,2 % 27,1 30,0 22,8 22,8 19,2 20,7 18,4 20,0 9,6 6,4 4,9 5,2 3,7 10,0 3,6 3,4 Europe CIS Africa Middle Austral- North- Latin- East Asia America Amerika Fig. 3.4 Energyconsumption and –reserves, divided by regions PK ENERGY ®
- 11. BASIC CALCULATION RULES
- 12. Basic Calculation Rules I/V Calculation in values with quatities and units. System is characterized by the interior and the exterior conditions and the system boundary. If the interior and exterior conditions are different energy will flow through the system boundary. Each energy (E) form can be defined as product of power (P) and time (t). E=P⋅t (2.1) PK ENERGY ®
- 13. Basic Calculation Rules II/V We have different energy forms like: 2.3.1.1 Heat (Q) 2.3.1.2 Mechanical energy (W) 2.3.1.3 Electrical energy (Wel) 2.3.1.4 Radiant energy (WS) Q=m⋅c⋅ ϑ (2.2) Wmech = F ⋅ s (2.3) Wel = Uel ⋅ Iel ⋅ t (2.14) WS = σ ⋅ T4 ⋅ A ⋅ t (2.16) PK ENERGY ®
- 14. Basic Calculation Rules III/V P = E / t = E‘ (2.18) Depending on the different energies the power can be defined: 2.3.2.1 Heatpower (Q‘) 2.3.2.2 Mechanical power (Pmech) 2.3.2.3 Electrical power (Pel) 2.3.2.4 Radiant power (PS) Depending on the start of the calculation either the energy flow or the power is available. The energy value you can get by integration of the Power or you transfer the Energy to Power by differentiation. PK ENERGY ®
- 15. Basic Calculation Rules IV/V Table 2.2 Energy (Work) and Power of different energy forms Designation Energy Power Heat Q=m⋅c⋅ ϑ Q‘ = m ⋅ c ⋅ ϑ/t Mechanical Wmech = F ⋅ s Pmech = F ⋅ v Energy Electrical Energy Wel = Uel ⋅ Iel ⋅ t Pel = Uel ⋅ Iel Radiant Energy WS = σ ⋅ T 4 ⋅ A ⋅ t PS = σ ⋅ T4 ⋅ A How to calculate the energy flow of a system? Define the object you want to calculate the energy flow. Define the interior conditions. Define the exterior conditions. Transfer to physical values calcualte by introduced equations. PK ENERGY ®
- 16. Basic Calculation Rules V/V Example Fig. 2.1 Example of a system – Interior Conditions electric kettle Water: m = 1 kg, ϑ = 20 °C, Boundary c = 1,163 ⋅ 10-3 kWh/(kg ⋅ K) Exterior Conditions Electric kettle: P = 2 kW, η = 0,95 Boundary conditions ϑ = 80 K Question 1: Q ? Q = 1 kg ⋅ 1,163 ⋅ 10-3 kWh/(kg ⋅ K) ⋅ 80 K Q = 0,093 kWh Question 2: t ? t = 0,093 kWh/(2 kW ⋅ 0,95) = 0,05 h = 3 min PK ENERGY ®
- 17. CALCULATION SYMBOLS FOR ENERGY FLOWS
- 18. Calculation Symbols I/V Based on (2.1) we are able to describe each system with the values Energy, Power and time. Idea: Visualize the energy system Introduction of three symbols: Energytransformer Energysource Timedifference E t P E E t Sink Source PK ENERGY ®
- 19. Calculation Symbols II/V Combination of symbols E t0 t1 P t1 t0 E0 E t2 P E1 E2 E3 t0 = t1 + t2 E0 = E1 - E2 - E3 PK ENERGY ®
- 20. Calculation Symbols III/V Example Boundary t0 = 0,05 h E t0 t1 P With these symbols we are able to design Equivalent Circuit Diagrams (ECD). The process in the example is isochronous. PK ENERGY ®
- 21. Calculation Symbols IV/V Example Boundary t0 = 1 h t1 t0 E The process in the example is t2 P non-isochronous. E.g. t1 = non-productive time t2 = productive time PK ENERGY ®
- 22. Calculation Symbols V/V Energy flow of a building EtH ERO EEW EC PW t0 t1 PRO PEW PC PW P = U⋅ A ⋅ ϑ ϑ = 20 K PK ENERGY ®
- 23. REQUIREMENTS ON ENERGY CONSULTANCY
- 24. Requirements in Energy Consultancy I/III Discipline 3 (e.g. architectural design) Discipline 2 Discipline 4 (e.g. skeleton (e.g. Window and insulation) and glacing) ... Energy- Discipline 1 System e.g. Discipline n (e.g. Heating) building (e.g. Carpentry)
- 25. Requirements in Energy Consultancy II/III PK ENERGY ®
- 26. Requirements in Energy Consultancy III/III Task of Energy Consultancy: Investigate existing and new energy systems and find out economical solutions for the end-user in saving energy costs. Furthermore the solution has to be climate protective. Requirements Mathematical and natural scientific based knowledge. Process and material know-how. Knowledge about international and national laws and regulations. Knowledge in capital budgeting and economic calculations. Knowledge about pollutant emissions and environment compatibility . Interdisciplinary Thinking . PK ENERGY ®
- 27. EXAMPLES OF ENERGY EFFICIENT SYSTEM SOLUTIONS
- 28. Examples of energy efficient system solutions I/V After Revision in Energy Actual in kWh Savings in kWh Savings in % kWh Qh in kWh 31.704 18.940 12.764 40% QE in kWh 39.117 24.500 14.617 37% QP in kWh 120.951 8.500 112.451 93%
- 29. Examples of energy efficient system solutions II/V After Revision in Energy Actual in kWh Savings in kWh Savings in % kWh Qh in kWh 44.558 22.784 21.774 49% QE in kWh 77.896 39.104 38.792 50% QP in kWh 89.286 46.614 42.672 48%
- 30. Examples of energy efficient system solutions III/V After Revision in Energy Actual in kWh Savings in kWh Savings in % kWh Qh in kWh 99.360 29.863 69.497 70% QE in kWh 182.869 41.776 141.093 77% QP in kWh 257.680 48.029 209.651 81%
- 31. Examples of energy efficient system solutions IV/V Useage of a local energy controller in complete consumers installations 28000 EE = 300 000 kWh/a EE = 270 000 kWh/a 27000 Reduction: 26000 E = 30 000 kWh/a mCO2 = 20 000 kg/a Energy-consumption in kWh 25000 24000 23000 22000 21000 20000 19000 Jan Feb Mrz Apr Mai Jun Jul Aug Sep Okt Nov Dez 2004 2005 PK ENERGY ®
- 32. Examples of energy efficient system solutions V/V With energy efficient building retrofits energy savings can be reached up to 90 %. You can use renewable energies. CO2-Emissions can be reduced. Furthermore In a lot of retrofit projects not only the thermal protection and the HVACR is relevant but also the electrical installation system. Customers want comfortable solutions! With the energy efficient retrofit of buildings we have furthermore the chance to introduce new an modern technical solutions. PK ENERGY ®
- 33. ENERGY CONSULTANCY CONCEPTS (ARC)
- 34. Energy Consultancy Concepts (ARC) I/V The energy consultancy is a new discipline which has to be systemized to raise up the efficiency. Each energy system is a prototype but the approach in each system is the same. Conception I – Approach of energyflow calculation Conception II– Solutions and alternatives to existing system PK ENERGY ®
- 35. Energy Consultancy Concepts (ARC) II/V Conception I Calculation scheme for each energy system in 6 steps. t1 t0 E t2 P t0 = t1 + t2 PK ENERGY ®
- 36. Energy Consultancy Concepts (ARC) III/V Conception II Scheme to find out economical energy saving solutions. If all questens were anwered with YES you could think about a redesign or use of efficient products. PK ENERGY ®
- 37. Energy Consultancy Concepts (ARC) IV/V EF NO In existing buildings or basically AVOID processes some sub- needed? processes can very often be completley YES avoided. EF totally NO Reduction of energy REDUCE needed? consumption can be realized easily and via different solutions. YES EF needed NO The losses of one incl. COMBINE system can often be Losses Higher investment: used as the energy Redesign of compl. YES source of a process or use of succeeding process. efficient equipment. Redesign PK ENERGY ®
- 38. Energy Consultancy Concepts (ARC) V/V All energy systems are prototypes. The approach can be systemized Calculation of energy flow ARC-Concept. Most efficient solutions can be find by calculate the complete energy balance. By using ARC concept more economical solutions can be identified. The result of the energy consultancy is the schedule for future retrofits. Try to find always open solutions so that future solutions can be integrated in the system. PK ENERGY ®
- 39. Summary Energy calculation must consider the complete energy flow of a system. Interdisciplinary know-how is needed. With systemizations interdisciplinary know-how can easily be used. Electrical energy: 8 % End energy but 20 % Primary energy Raise up the energy efficiency means: understand the customers needs. In most retrofit projects the complete electrical system is to be redesigned. If we as el. Engineers and Contractors do not have the entrance to this market other designers will tell us what to do. PK ENERGY ®
- 40. More Information More Information you‘ll find: http://www.amazon.de/gp/reader/3810102784/ref=sib_dp _pt#reader-link www.PK-ENERGY.com Out of the content • Calculation Basics • Energy systems (buildings, technical systems) • Thermal Protection, systems engineering • Requirements • Methods and Tools • Economical calculations • Law‘s and Regulations • CD included ilable. German language ava Presently only in PK ENERGY ®
- 41. EnergyEfficiency – A future Market for Electrical Engineers and Contractors Many Thanks For Your Attention And Have A Nice Time With EnergyEfficiency! Peter Kadel www.PK-ENERGY.com PK ENERGY ®

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