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Managing Human Wastes in Alpine Zones
in Japan
A Former Special Researcher of
Nagano Environmental Conservation Research I...
2
Ⅱ. Human waste treatment technologies in alpine zones
1.The SAT method
2.A Johkasou method (A secondary effluent circula...
3
Human waste treating methods applied at most of areas in Japan
Sewerage
Johkasou
(Cleaning tank)
Transportation by
vacuu...
4
1. Emission of bad smelling subjects
2. Damages to the beauty of alpine environment
3. Growth of harmful insects
4. Poll...
Detection of coli forming bacteria exceeding the standards has
caused the necessity for human waste treatment
Cooperation ...
What is the SAT method?
The abbreviated name for the Seeding-Aeration-Trench method
6
Ⅱ. Human waste treatment technologi...
Secondary effluent
(Brown colored)
A Diffuser
Air
Human waste
A seeding material
(Bacillus)
Ground surface
A trench
An aer...
The exterior of Yoko-o lodge
An aeration tank A blower
An aeration tank and blowers
An inner view of a trench A view of a ...
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
RHW 2WS 4WS
BOD(mg/L)
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
RHW 2WS 4WS
COD(mg/L)
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
RHW 2WS 4WS
...
SE : Secondary effluent, SPW2 : Soil permeating water (after 2 weeks), SPW4:Soil permeating water (after 4 weeks)
10
Obser...
Secondary Effluent
Soil
Soil
permeating
water
Rainwater
1m
11
Amount of pollutants
(Both Inflow and Outflow)
=Water qualit...
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
Inflow(g) Outlfow(g)
BOD(g)
0
20
40
60
80
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22...
13
Changes of the amounts of pollutants accompanied with two treatment
steps of the SAT method
The amounts of pollutants w...
14
Notes on natural purifying ability of soil
The ability is used in the second step of the SAT method
1. Soil has three n...
Human waste
An anaerobic
filter tank
A kind of a Johkasou, an anaerobic filter & contact aeration type
Other kinds of Johk...
Toilets
A Johkasou
A reserve tank
A reserve tank
Discharge
16
A Johkasou (A secondary effluent circulation type)
A bath
A ...
17
Human wastes are separated by feces-urine separate toilet stools
Only feces are transported by helicopters
Feces are...
Publication has been permitted by Daio Densetsu Industrial Co. Ltd & Shimagare lodge
18
An inside appearance of a
composti...
19
Ⅱ. Human waste treatment technologies in alpine zones
5. Other methods
An anaerobic digestion ・soil permeating water ci...
10
18
40
52
57
67
75
81
87
94
102
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Cumulativen...
Managing human waste on Mt. Fuji
• All 42 lodges lying on Mt. Fuji have installed human waste treatment facilities
prior t...
22
Ⅲ. Administrative supports
2. Environmental technology verification program,
A program of Ministry of the Environment (...
23
 Objective research result such as the water pollution caused by coli forming bacteria has
made most of people recogni...
24
References
Slide 9, 10, 12, 13
鈴木富雄(2008)山岳地域におけるし尿処理問題と対策の経過, 長野県環境保全研究所
研究報告, 4. (Tomio Suzuki (2008) A progress and...
25
Appendix
26
Effect of seeding material addition on removal efficiency of BOD
accompanied with aeration of human waste
0
2000
4000
6...
Beginning
of aeration
After
1 week
After
2 weeks
After
3 weeks
After
4 weeks
NH3(ppm)
Aeration
tank(A)
50 1000 400 15 1
Ve...
28
The improvements of the SAT method
0
20
40
60
80
100
SS BOD COD TOC TN
Suspended subjects mixture clear layer at the to...
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Tomio Suzuki - Managing Human Wastes in Alpine Zones in Japan

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A Former Special Researcher of Nagano Environmental Conservation Research Institute
Tomio Suzuki

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Tomio Suzuki - Managing Human Wastes in Alpine Zones in Japan

  1. 1. Managing Human Wastes in Alpine Zones in Japan A Former Special Researcher of Nagano Environmental Conservation Research Institute Tomio Suzuki 1
  2. 2. 2 Ⅱ. Human waste treatment technologies in alpine zones 1.The SAT method 2.A Johkasou method (A secondary effluent circulation type) 3.A transportation method (A feces transportation type) 4.A composting method (A moisture and temperature controlled type) 5.Other methods Ⅲ. Administrative supports 1.A financial support program 2.An environmental technology verification program The outline of the presentation Ⅰ. Background 1.The reason why human waste has been dumped 2.Worries derived from human waste dumping 3.Voluntary and pioneering actions 4.An impact of objective research results 5.Cooperation and networks
  3. 3. 3 Human waste treating methods applied at most of areas in Japan Sewerage Johkasou (Cleaning tank) Transportation by vacuum cars These methods could be scarcely applied in alpine zones except some lodges Exclusive treating methods for alpine zones have been scarcely developed Besides Consequently Period of the dumping exceeded 100 years at the most oldest lodge. Ⅰ. Background 1.The reason why human waste has been dumped in alpine zones Human wastes have been dumped in many lodges without treatment. Because of the severe natural conditions of alpine zones
  4. 4. 4 1. Emission of bad smelling subjects 2. Damages to the beauty of alpine environment 3. Growth of harmful insects 4. Pollution of spring water for drinking by bacteria 6. Eutrofication of rivers and ponds 7. Damages to alpine plants These worries had been free from a social problem before the first half of 1900’s Ⅰ. Background 2.Worries derived from human waste dumping 5. Excess of bacteria over the standards in river water
  5. 5. Detection of coli forming bacteria exceeding the standards has caused the necessity for human waste treatment Cooperation to prevent human waste dumping has led to the creation of networks Development of human waste treatment technologies has been conducted including the SAT method Voluntary and pioneering researches on rivers and springs in alpine zones had been conducted in 1970’s Ⅰ. Background 3.Voluntary and pioneering actions 4.An impact of objective research results 5.Cooperation and networks
  6. 6. What is the SAT method? The abbreviated name for the Seeding-Aeration-Trench method 6 Ⅱ. Human waste treatment technologies in alpine zones 1. The SAT method Removal efficiency of pollutants in the SAT method Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD):99% Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD):80% Total Nitrogen (TN):80% Total Phosphorus (TP):99% Where is the SAT method applied? Applicable at lodges where a sewerage, a Johkasou or a transportation method would be scarcely applied
  7. 7. Secondary effluent (Brown colored) A Diffuser Air Human waste A seeding material (Bacillus) Ground surface A trench An aeration tank The strength of aeration :8m3≦/(m3・h) The period of aeration :One month Removal : H.W vs. S.E. A soil permeating water sampling device A vent The schema of the SAT method Soil permeating water Removal : S.E. vs. S.P.W. A water impermeable film Rainwater 7 The first treatment step (Aeration of raw human waste)  Aerate raw human waste with a seeding material mainly composed of a kind of bacteria, Bacillus .  A part of secondary effluent is available as a seeding material on and after second aeration treatment. The second treatment step (Soil permeation of secondary effluent)  Permeate secondary effluent into the ground using trenches and decompose pollutants utilizing natural purifying ability of soil.  The load of secondary effluent against a trench , 50L/(m・month), is desirable. Two treatment steps of the SAT method Sampling A V A blower
  8. 8. The exterior of Yoko-o lodge An aeration tank A blower An aeration tank and blowers An inner view of a trench A view of a trench buried area A watering pipe 8 The application of the SAT method A soil permeating water sampling device A vent A contact media An aeration tank Aeration tanks of Johnen lodge
  9. 9. 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 RHW 2WS 4WS BOD(mg/L) 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 RHW 2WS 4WS COD(mg/L) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 RHW 2WS 4WS TotalNitrogen(mg/L) 0 100 200 300 400 RHW 2WS 4WS TotalPhosphorus(mg/L) 0 1000 2000 3000 RHW 2WS 4WS Chlorideion(mg/L) 0.E+00 1.E+05 2.E+05 3.E+05 4.E+05 RHW 2WS 4WS Coliformingbacteria(cfu/mL) RHW : Raw human waste, 2WS: Aerated for 2 weeks, 4WS: Aerated for 4 weeks 95% 59% 53% 99%< 17% 29% 9 Removal efficiency of pollutants accompanied with aeration of human waste in the SAT method Removal efficiency
  10. 10. SE : Secondary effluent, SPW2 : Soil permeating water (after 2 weeks), SPW4:Soil permeating water (after 4 weeks) 10 Observed removal efficiency of pollutants accompanied with soil permeation of secondary effluent in the SAT method 0 100 200 300 400 SE SPW2 SPW4 BOD(mg/L) 0 1000 2000 3000 SE SPW2 SPW4 COD(mg/L) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 SE SPW2 SPW4 TotalNitrogen(mg/L) 0 100 200 300 SE SPW2 SPW4 TotalPhosphorus(mg/L) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 SE SPW2 SPW4 Chlorideion(mg/L) 0 20 40 60 80 100 SE SPW2 SPW4 Coliformingbacteria(cfu/mL) 99%< 99%< 99%< 93%99%<99%< Observed removal efficiency
  11. 11. Secondary Effluent Soil Soil permeating water Rainwater 1m 11 Amount of pollutants (Both Inflow and Outflow) =Water quality ×Water quantity Soil permeating water Outline of the soil column device for the examination of actual removal efficiency of pollutants accompanied with soil permeation of secondary effluent
  12. 12. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Inflow(g) Outlfow(g) BOD(g) 0 20 40 60 80 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Inflow(g) Outlfow(g) COD(g) 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Inflow(g) Outlfow(g) TotalNitrogen(g) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Inflow(g) Outlfow(g) TotalPhosphorus(g) WeeksWeeks WeeksWeeks 12 93% 64% 58% 98% Cumulative amounts of pollutants of inflow and outflow accompanied with soil permeation of secondary effluent Removal efficiency
  13. 13. 13 Changes of the amounts of pollutants accompanied with two treatment steps of the SAT method The amounts of pollutants were calculated about 12 m3 of human waste. 0 20 40 60 80 100 Raw human waste After aeration After soil permeation 99%< 0 10 20 30 40 50 Raw human waste After aeration After soil permeation 0 1 2 3 4 5 Raw human waste After aeration After soil permeation 0 20 40 60 80 100 Raw human waste After aeration After soil permeation COD(kg) 85% TP(kg) 99% 80% TN(kg)BOD(kg) Removal efficiency
  14. 14. 14 Notes on natural purifying ability of soil The ability is used in the second step of the SAT method 1. Soil has three natural purifying abilities 1) Physical ability such as filtration of suspended subjects through soil particles 2) Chemical ability such as adsorption of phosphorus to Al, Fe and Ca in soil 3) Biological ability such as decomposition of pollutants by microbes living in soil 2. Use soil for wastewater treatment within the purifying capacity of soil 3. Purifying ability may be decreased in phosphorus according to the saturation of adsorption capacity of soil accompanied with the increase of cumulative wastewater loading 4. Some kinds of components such as chloride ion would be scarcely removed 5. Nitrate nitrogen may increase in soil permeating water by the oxidation of ammonia and nitrite nitrogen
  15. 15. Human waste An anaerobic filter tank A kind of a Johkasou, an anaerobic filter & contact aeration type Other kinds of Johkasou have been also prevailing A contact aeration tank A disinfection tank A settling tank  Separation of suspended subjects by contact media would be expected  Decomposition of pollutants by anaerobic microbes would be expected  Decomposition of pollutants by aerobic microbes attached to contact media under an aerobic condition would be expected  Separation of suspended subjects in secondary effluent by sedimentation would be expected Secondary effluent 15 Ⅱ. Human waste treatment technologies in alpine zones 2. A Johkasou (A cleaning tank) method The picture was quoted from the home page of Johkasou System Association, Japan
  16. 16. Toilets A Johkasou A reserve tank A reserve tank Discharge 16 A Johkasou (A secondary effluent circulation type) A bath A kitchen Tap water Secondary effluent A part of secondary effluents from a Johkasou is reused as flush water of toilets by circulation. They may be colored accompanied with circulation. A lodge Effluents only from toilets are circulated at some public toilets Flash water Secondaryeffluent
  17. 17. 17 Human wastes are separated by feces-urine separate toilet stools Only feces are transported by helicopters Feces are treated at human waste treating facilities in cities Urine is treated by a Johkasou set near the lodge Secondary effluents from the Johkasou are discharged near the lodge Pictures were offered by Ministry of the Environment, the Government of Japan Feces storage tanks in hangars A feces-urine separate toilet stool A Johkasou Ⅱ. Human waste treatment technologies in alpine zones 3. A transportation method by helicopters
  18. 18. Publication has been permitted by Daio Densetsu Industrial Co. Ltd & Shimagare lodge 18 An inside appearance of a composting vessel An outward appearance of composting vessels A weight sensor for the moisture controlling of the compost A urine reserve tank Ⅱ. Human waste treatment technologies in alpine zones 4. A composting method A moisture and temperature controlled type A feces –urine separate toilet stool
  19. 19. 19 Ⅱ. Human waste treatment technologies in alpine zones 5. Other methods An anaerobic digestion ・soil permeating water circulation method An incineration method • One method cannot be applied to a variety of locations or lodges in alpine zones. • Application of various methods works best for various conditions of lodges. • The development of various methods has accelerated the installation of treatment facilities in alpine zones. The reason why various methods are prevailing in alpine zones
  20. 20. 10 18 40 52 57 67 75 81 87 94 102 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Cumulativenumberofinstalledequipments 20 Change of cumulative number of human waste treatment facilities installed in alpine zones after the establishment of the financial support program. Ⅲ. Administrative supports 1. A financial support program, A program of Ministry of the Environment (1999~)  A half cost for the installation of human waste treating facilities has been subsidized.  The installation of human waste treating facilities has rapidly increased after the establishment of the financial support program.
  21. 21. Managing human waste on Mt. Fuji • All 42 lodges lying on Mt. Fuji have installed human waste treatment facilities prior to 2007 using the financial support program. • 22 facilities installed on Mt. Fuji in Shizuoka Prefecture are classified into 4 groups as follows. 1) A composting method (A bio-toilet) 2) A contact aeration method (A recycled water toilet) 3) An incineration method (An incinerator toilet) 4) An anaerobic digestion・soil permeating water circulation method 21 The data were quoted from “The research report of toilets on Mt. Fuji”, Shizuoka prefectural government (2007)
  22. 22. 22 Ⅲ. Administrative supports 2. Environmental technology verification program, A program of Ministry of the Environment (2003~) Purpose  Verifying the performance of these on site technologies installed in the alpine zones  Offering the results for users Achievements  Seventeen facilities installed in alpine zones have been verified prior to 2010. Results are appearing in the home page of Ministry of the Environment shown below. http://www.env.go.jp
  23. 23. 23  Objective research result such as the water pollution caused by coli forming bacteria has made most of people recognize the necessity of human waste treatment in alpine zones  Many organizations involved with conserving the alpine environment, have developed a common goal in addressing this issue by forming networks  New methods for human waste treatment applicable in alpine zones have been developed ---For example, the removal efficiency of BOD would be expected 99% in the SAT method---  The financial support program has accelerated the installation of treatment facilities Managing human waste in alpine zones has been progressing without break especially during the last 40 years though it continues to develop. Main driving force of the progress is summarized as follows; Summary  Voluntary and pioneering actions such as researches on water pollution have been proceeded by concerned individuals for the conservation of the alpine environment
  24. 24. 24 References Slide 9, 10, 12, 13 鈴木富雄(2008)山岳地域におけるし尿処理問題と対策の経過, 長野県環境保全研究所 研究報告, 4. (Tomio Suzuki (2008) A progress and the countermeasures on human waste treatment in alpine zones, Bulletin of Nagano Environmental Conservation Research Institute , No. 4. ) Slide 21  静岡県環境森林部自然保護室(2007)富士山トイレ調査業務. (Shizuoka prefectural government (2007) The research report of toilets on Mt. Fuji.) Slide 26 長野県(1999)山岳地域におけるし尿等の適正処理に関する調査研究報告書. (Nagano prefectural government (1999) The research report on proper treatment of human waste in alpine zones. ) Slide 27, 28 長野県(2005)環境技術実証モデル事業(山岳トイレし尿処理技術分野)委託業務完了報 告書. (Nagano prefectural government (2005) The report on consigned research of environmental technology verification, the field of human waste treatment technologies for toilets in alpine zones. ) Slide 28 鈴木富雄(2003)SAT法による山岳地域のし尿処理と土壌を用いた脱窒素処理, 信州大学 山岳科学総合研究所年報, 第1号. (Tomio Suzuki (2003) Treatment of human waste in alpine zones by SAT method and denitrification using soil, The annual report of Institute of Mountain Science, Vol 1, Shinshu University. )
  25. 25. 25 Appendix
  26. 26. 26 Effect of seeding material addition on removal efficiency of BOD accompanied with aeration of human waste 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 RHW 2WS 4WS Without seeding Addition of a seeding material RHW: Raw Human Waste, 2WS: Aerated for 2 weeks, 4WS: Aerated for 4 weeks BOD(mg/L)
  27. 27. Beginning of aeration After 1 week After 2 weeks After 3 weeks After 4 weeks NH3(ppm) Aeration tank(A) 50 1000 400 15 1 Vent(V) <1 1 <1 <1 <1 H2S(ppm) Aeration tank(A) 3500 <0.2 <0.2 <0.2 <0.2 Vent(V) <0.2 <0.2 <0.2 <0.2 <0.2 A V 27 Comparison of the concentration of NH3 and H2S in the air at the head space of aeration tank (A) with those at the vent (V) Air An aeration tank A ventA blower
  28. 28. 28 The improvements of the SAT method 0 20 40 60 80 100 SS BOD COD TOC TN Suspended subjects mixture clear layer at the top 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 2 4 7 Days after mixing with organic substances NO3-N(mg/L) Nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) will be removed as N2 mixing with proper organic substances in soil under an anaerobic condition 1.Denitrification of soil permeating water using soil 2.Elimination of suspended subjects (SS) in secondary effluent Removal efficiency of pollutants will be increased by the elimination of suspended subjects in secondary effluent Treatment effect would be increased with such improvements shown below Removalefficiency(%)

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