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Sustainable Development in
Global Mountain Regions
Introduction, Overview and
Next-Steps from a Society-
Centered Perspect...
Why Mountains?
• People and
Mountains
▫ Mountains ARE
different
▫ Mountains shape
people (as much
as we impact
them)
What is development?
• Sustainable development
• Human development (Sen 1990)
▫ Emphasis on real opportunity (capability)
...
How are Mountains Different in 2014?
• Poverty
• Food Security
• Human (in)Security (Conflict)
• Environmental Change
• De...
Poverty
Mountain poverty is:
•Higher
•Different
Poverty (2/2)
Hunger
• 90 percent of the world’s mountain people
(nearly 325 million) living in developing
countries or countries in tra...
Hunger (2/2)
• Chronic hunger and malnutrition matters
▫ Directly contributes to infant mortality rates
▫ Negatively influ...
Other Important Attributes that make
Mountain Populations Vulnerable
• Socio-cultural identities
▫ Frequently minority pop...
Other Important Attributes that make
Mountain Populations Vulnerable (2/2)
• Constraints on economic development
▫ Resort-...
Positive Mountain Attributes (or, How can
we pursue development from a people-centered
perspective?)
• Governance
▫ Who/wh...
Examples
• Nepal Maternal Health (Malla, Giri, Karki, Chaudhary 2011)
▫ Antenatal care (72% ave vs. 25% in Far Western)
▫ ...
Conclusions
• In an international context, mountain regions =
vulnerable populations
• Human development in mountain commu...
Thank You!
Matthew Klick, Executive Director
(720)347-8341
www.amrdi.org
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Matthew Klick - Sustainable Development in Global Mountain Regions

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Presented to Sustainable Summits 2014.

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Matthew Klick - Sustainable Development in Global Mountain Regions

  1. 1. Sustainable Development in Global Mountain Regions Introduction, Overview and Next-Steps from a Society- Centered Perspective Matthew Klick University of Denver Arctic and Mountain Regions Development Institute
  2. 2. Why Mountains? • People and Mountains ▫ Mountains ARE different ▫ Mountains shape people (as much as we impact them)
  3. 3. What is development? • Sustainable development • Human development (Sen 1990) ▫ Emphasis on real opportunity (capability)  Versus income…
  4. 4. How are Mountains Different in 2014? • Poverty • Food Security • Human (in)Security (Conflict) • Environmental Change • Demographic Pressure and State-Society breakdown… ▫ Each are happening at higher, more persistent rates in global mountain regions
  5. 5. Poverty Mountain poverty is: •Higher •Different
  6. 6. Poverty (2/2)
  7. 7. Hunger • 90 percent of the world’s mountain people (nearly 325 million) living in developing countries or countries in transition. ▫ 245 million of these people (more than 75 percent) were experiencing or were at risk of hunger. • Nutrition studies (FAO 2002) indicate that mountain populations suffer from higher rates of micronutrient deficiencies.
  8. 8. Hunger (2/2) • Chronic hunger and malnutrition matters ▫ Directly contributes to infant mortality rates ▫ Negatively influence the capabilities (read: opportunities) of youth going forward  In school or in work ▫ Answer is less in food aid, more in understanding why access to food has changed ▫ Guatemala Ex.  Seasonal (Acute) hunger  Highlands and chronic hunger
  9. 9. Other Important Attributes that make Mountain Populations Vulnerable • Socio-cultural identities ▫ Frequently minority populations and marginalized  Politically, economically, socially • The State ▫ The provider of basic resources, or ▫ A force for homogenization and usurpation (Scott 2009) • Conflict ▫ “rough terrain” and conflict (Starr 2004, Fearon and Laitin 1999)
  10. 10. Other Important Attributes that make Mountain Populations Vulnerable (2/2) • Constraints on economic development ▫ Resort-based tourism ▫ Resource extraction – mines, dams • Securitization of borders ▫ International efforts to stem drug/human trafficking, and local populations • Climate change ▫ Herding, growing conditions ▫ Natural Disasters ▫ Forest health ▫ Water
  11. 11. Positive Mountain Attributes (or, How can we pursue development from a people-centered perspective?) • Governance ▫ Who/what has greatest authority/influence, regardless of identity? (Rise 2011) ▫ State-local complimentarity (Klick 2013) • Local resilience and capacity ▫ Not romanticizing the local, but re-questioning what constitutes “strengths” and “weaknesses” • Moving away from measuring income (and “inputs”) for development
  12. 12. Examples • Nepal Maternal Health (Malla, Giri, Karki, Chaudhary 2011) ▫ Antenatal care (72% ave vs. 25% in Far Western) ▫ Intrapartum care (urban/rural clinic visits) ▫ Eclampsia (and social dimension of…) ▫ Female Community Health Volunteers • Guatemala ▫ State-Local Complementarity in La Reforma
  13. 13. Conclusions • In an international context, mountain regions = vulnerable populations • Human development in mountain communities require we rethink what “success” entails, and what development means. • Mountains can empower, but also constrain choices • Under intense pressure, mountain communities need our listening and support
  14. 14. Thank You! Matthew Klick, Executive Director (720)347-8341 www.amrdi.org

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