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Sanisphere’s drytoilets developed for
mountain areas
14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski
 1991: Creation of Sanisphere by Pierre Colombot
 1991-2002 Difficult years
-Technical problem
1995 Conveyor Belt
2001 V...
14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski
Design of Sanisphere’s building
Technical area Cabin
Leaned
conveyor...
 Leaned conveyor belt
Gravitary separation of
urine from liquid-solid
mix
Moved by simple
mechanical activation
14-07-2...
14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski
Biological brick
 Vermicomposting Process: 10 to 15 years of resear...
14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski
Biological brick
 Vermicomposting Process: 10 to 15 years of resear...
14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski
Objectives – Determining vermicomposting limit in altitude
Impleme...
14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski
Objectives – Determining vermicomposting limit in altitude
Impleme...
14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski
Biological brick
 Urine treatment: struvite recovery
Flies trap T...
14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski
Natural airflow brick
 Before: Photovoltaic panels for electricity ...
14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski
Natural airflow brick
 Building modifications:
- Polycarbonate pane...
14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski
A wide range of products
 Since 2010
 Different products depending...
14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski
SaniMax – 15000 <utilizations/year < 40 000
 Developed in 2013 for ...
14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski
Saniverte – 8000 < Utilizations/year < 15 000
 Historic model
 Pri...
14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski
Saniter – 6 000 <utilizations/year < 12 000
 Since 2011
 Price: ar...
14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski
Sanilight – 3 000 <utilizations/year < 8 000
 1st version 2010; 2nd...
14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski
Sanitrek – 2 000 <utilizations/year < 20 000
 Since 2010
 Price: a...
14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski
Examples of installations in Mountain areas
14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski
1. Vallot hut
 Installation in 2007
 Altitude: 4400 m
(14 440’)
 ...
14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski
2. Tracuit hut
Specificities
 Installation in 2013
 Altitude: 3 2...
14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski
3. La Chal
Specificities
 Installation in 2013
 Altitude: 2 100 m...
14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski
4. Val d’Isère
Specificities
 Installation in 2014
 Altitude: 2 0...
14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski
Thanks !
www.sanisphere-fr.com
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Isabelle Czekajewski - Sanisphere's Dry Toilets Developed for Mountain Areas

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Isabelle Czekajewski's presentation to Sustainable Summits 2014.

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Isabelle Czekajewski - Sanisphere's Dry Toilets Developed for Mountain Areas

  1. 1. Sanisphere’s drytoilets developed for mountain areas 14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski
  2. 2.  1991: Creation of Sanisphere by Pierre Colombot  1991-2002 Difficult years -Technical problem 1995 Conveyor Belt 2001 Vermicomposting process (US Patent N°10/109.839) -Selling problem  Financial difficulties  2002 Drastic price raise  2005-2014 Wealthier years  Making up in 2014: 12 employees, M€ 1.5 (M$ 2) turnover in 2013, 550 installations in France, few in Europe, 1 in North America 14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski History of Sanisphere
  3. 3. 14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski Design of Sanisphere’s building Technical area Cabin Leaned conveyor belt Natural airflow Vermicomposting process Flies trap
  4. 4.  Leaned conveyor belt Gravitary separation of urine from liquid-solid mix Moved by simple mechanical activation 14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski Mechanical brick  Slow scraper chain Avoid the accumulation of solid wastes just under the conveyor belt Facilitate vermicomposting process  Self cleaning urine tray Remove eventual solid waste fallen into the urine tray Avoid pipe clogging
  5. 5. 14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski Biological brick  Vermicomposting Process: 10 to 15 years of research 1st long-term experimental study of vermicomposting of human feces  Objectives - - Stabilization of the compost - Efficiency of hygienization  Implementation – 5 sets of tests - 3 crates divided in 3 with different tests: feces + worms, feces alone, nothing, feces+worms +straw , feces +straw  Results- Qualitative Quantitative Highly reduced volume Black and odorless compost Lot of living worms Straw useful to keep wetness Lower BOD5 (divided by 12 to 64) Higher Rate of ashes Enteroccocus: 10^6  100 CFU/g Coliforms: 10^7  < 50 CFU/g 2000-2004 Pyrenees National Park, France, 2000 m (6500’)
  6. 6. 14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski Biological brick  Vermicomposting Process: 10 to 15 years of research 1st long-term experimental study of vermicomposting of human feces  Objectives - - Stabilization of the compost - Efficiency of hygienization  Implementation – 5 sets of tests - 3 crates divided in 3 with different tests: feces + worms, feces alone, nothing, feces+worms +straw , feces +straw  Results- Qualitative Quantitative Highly reduced volume Black and odorless compost Lot of living worms Straw useful to keep wetness Lower BOD5 (divided by 12 to 64) Higher Rate of ashes Enteroccocus: 10^6  100 CFU/g Coliforms: 10^7  < 50 CFU/g 2000-2004 Pyrenees National Park, France, 2000 m (6500’)
  7. 7. 14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski Objectives – Determining vermicomposting limit in altitude Implementation – - 6 altitudes: 1600  2600 m (5250’ to 8500’), 2 worms origins (from plains and mountain areas) - 4 Huts tests (altitudes: 1800, 2431, 2537, 2626 m)  Results- - Vermicomposting works till 2600 m high but with different speed reaction (4 to 8 times longer at 2500 m high compare to plains area) - Altitude 2500 to 3000 m: to be tested - Suggested improvement: Insulation Heat supply Biological brick 2008-2011 High altitude vermicomposting process, French Alps
  8. 8. 14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski Objectives – Determining vermicomposting limit in altitude Implementation – - 6 altitudes: 1600  2600 m (5250’ to 8500’), 2 worms origins (from plains and mountain areas) - 4 Huts tests (altitudes: 1800, 2431, 2537, 2626 m)  Results- - Vermicomposting works till 2600 m high but with different speed reaction (4 to 8 times longer at 2500 m high compare to plains area) - Altitude 2500 to 3000 m: to be tested - Suggested improvement: Insulation Heat supply Biological brick 2008-2011 High altitude vermicomposting process, French Alps
  9. 9. 14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski Biological brick  Urine treatment: struvite recovery Flies trap Testing other organisms for composting purpose Zonites algirus Woodlouse -Struvite is a naturally occurring crystal of magnesium, ammonium and phosphate NH4MgPO4·6(H2O), 3 elements contained in urine. - R&D: very simple system for struvite precipitation Goals: Avoid pipes clogging Possibility of agricultural utilizations (fertilizer)
  10. 10. 14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski Natural airflow brick  Before: Photovoltaic panels for electricity supply (fans) Several problems : - Theft even in remote sites - Vandalism - No substitution of old batteries  To Natural airflow : air movement from the cabin to the technical area only  Principle: the air must be warmed to go up and to get out of the building through the chimney creating higher pressure into the cabin than in the technical area
  11. 11. 14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski Natural airflow brick  Building modifications: - Polycarbonate panels on the roof for greenhouse effect - Airproofness of the technical area - Chimney 'size and form modifications - Ventilation valves  2 prototypes scale ½: - Several sensors (difference of pressure, temperature, amount of sunshine, wind) - Multiple building modification tests
  12. 12. 14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski A wide range of products  Since 2010  Different products depending on: - the rate of frequentation: 3 000 to 40 000 utilizations/year - the localization (mountain or plain area) - Client’s wish  Price ranging from 24 700 $ to 88 000 $
  13. 13. 14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski SaniMax – 15000 <utilizations/year < 40 000  Developed in 2013 for highway’s rest areas  Price: up to 70 000 $  Specificities - Large building 4m X 5m - Scraper chain - Possibility of using a biofilter (UGN Cie) for bad odor removing - Fitted equipment in the cabin This model was developed as part of a collaborative European project called Drycloset
  14. 14. 14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski Saniverte – 8000 < Utilizations/year < 15 000  Historic model  Price: around 50 000 $  Specificities - Different kind of roofs: flat, two sides - Cladding (wood core treatment) - Ventilation valves - Cabin entirely covered with white laminated wood
  15. 15. 14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski Saniter – 6 000 <utilizations/year < 12 000  Since 2011  Price: around 39 000 $  Specificities - Bicolor building - Walls built in plywood - Ventilation valves (option) - Cabin partially or entirely covered with white laminated wood  Available in kit for Export This model was developed as part of a collaborative European project called Drycloset
  16. 16. 14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski Sanilight – 3 000 <utilizations/year < 8 000  1st version 2010; 2nd version 2014  Price: around 25 000 $  Specificities - Very simple and innovative design - Smaller conveyor belt fitted in the toilet bowl  Soon in kit
  17. 17. 14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski Sanitrek – 2 000 <utilizations/year < 20 000  Since 2010  Price: around 30 000 $  Specificities - Transported by helicopter - No access for people with reduced mobility
  18. 18. 14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski Examples of installations in Mountain areas
  19. 19. 14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski 1. Vallot hut  Installation in 2007  Altitude: 4400 m (14 440’)  Drying system  Estimated frequentation : 4 000 pers/year  Customer: Municipality of Saint Gervais les Bains Specificities
  20. 20. 14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski 2. Tracuit hut Specificities  Installation in 2013  Altitude: 3 256 m (10680’)  Drying system  Customer : Swiss Alpine Club Fabioz Fabrizzi Architects
  21. 21. 14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski 3. La Chal Specificities  Installation in 2013  Altitude: 2 100 m (6890’)  Saniverte model  Vermicomposting System  Customer: Municipality of Saint Jean D’Arves
  22. 22. 14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski 4. Val d’Isère Specificities  Installation in 2014  Altitude: 2 000 m (6560’)  Sanilight model  Vermicomposting system  Customer: Municipality of Val d’Isère
  23. 23. 14-07-23 Sustainable Summits Conference I.Czekajewski Thanks ! www.sanisphere-fr.com

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