Eco4Biz: Ecosystem services and biodiversity tools to support business decision-making
Eco4BizEcosystem services and biodiversity toolsto support business decision-makingVersion 1April 2013
WBCSD would like to thank BSR for its contributions on the framework for categorizingtoday’s ecosystem services tools, based on its tracking of ecosystem services toolssince 2007.
Eco4BizEcosystem services and biodiversity toolsto support business decision-makingVersion 1April 2013
ContentsPART 1: Introducing Eco4Biz 2PART 2: Selecting andpresenting the main tools 5Which tool could I use? 5ARtifical Intelligencefor Ecosystem Services (ARIES) 8Biodiversity in the Global Water Tool 9Biodiversity Accountability Framework& Biodiversity InterdependenceIndicator (BBII) 10Business and Biodiversity Checklist 11Biodiversity Risk & OpportunityAssessment (BROA) 12Co$ting Nature 13Corporate Biodiversity ManagementHandbook (& Checklists) 14Corporate Ecosystem ServicesReview (ESR) 15Data Basin 16Ecologically Based Life-CycleAssessment (Eco LCA) 17Ecosystem Services Review in ImpactAssessment (ESR for IA) 18Guide to Corporate EcosystemValuation (CEV) 19Integrated Biodiversity AssessmentTool (IBAT) 20Integral Biodiversity Impact AssessmentSystem (IBIS) 21 Global Landscape ProductPrimary focus on: Ecosystem services (e.g. provisioning, regulating and cultural services) Biodiversity (e.g. species, protected areas)
1Integrated Valuation of EnvironmentalServices and Tradeoffs (InVEST) 22LIFE Methodology 23Local Ecological Footprinting Tool (LEFT) 24Measuring and monitoringecosystem services at the site scale 25Multi-scale Integrated Modelsof Ecosystem Services (MIMES) 26NatureServe Vista 27Normative Biodiversity Metric (NBM) 28Simple Effective Resource for ValuingEcosystem Services (SERVES) 29PART 3: Tools for specific uses 30SECTOR-SPECIFIC TOOLS 30Agriculture 30Cement 30Energy sources 31Finance 32Forest products 33Mining 33Tourism 34ISSUE-SPECIFIC TOOLS 34Biodiversity offsets 34Emissions 34Water 35Regional tools 35PART 4: Data, glossaryand references 37“Companies have well-developed toolkits for many tasksthey face. Yet some challenges – like how to measure andvalue ecosystem services and biodiversity – are still quitenovel. Tools to tackle these are often unfamiliar and stillbeing developed. So we’ve put together this guide to helpcompanies sift through an emerging family of tools to helpthem assess and ultimately manage their impacts and dependencies on natural capital.I strongly encourage all companies to use, or at least try out, some of these tools. It willhelp them be better-informed during tough conversations around how to practicallyaccount for – and report on – natural capital in a consistent way.”Peter Bakker, President, WBCSD
2What gets measuredgets managedWe have heard this adage over and over, yet itstill remains relevant to business today. There isone realm, however, where measurement isn’tkeeping up with management’s needs: Nature.All businesses impact and depend on nature.Nature provides goods and services that are oftenreferred to as ecosystem services. Measuring andassessing these services in order to understand,and uncover some potentially unseen, businessrisks and opportunities is critical. It can improvedecision-making, stabilize supply chains, savecosts, capture new revenue streams and informstrategy. It can help prepare for increasinglystringent public policies and regulation, whichare starting to include the value of nature. Toolsand approaches are emerging, both withincompanies’ existing processes (such as using LifeCycle Assessment and Impact Assessment), aswell as through external initiatives.As we increasingly understand and accountfor natural capital, so should this informationbe reflected in corporate measurement,management, and ultimately, reporting. Butknowing what to measure, manage and reportis far from straight-forward. Without commonlyaccepted standards and frameworks in place,some companies are reluctant to take action.Others are committed to finding a commontoolkit and are welcoming a new era of corporatemeasurement, management and disclosure, ashas been highlighted by BSR.Building on its 15+ years of experience workingwith leading companies and key stakeholders,WBCSD is actively working to change the“rules of the game” of corporate measurement,management and reporting on sustainability.Keys to success will ultimately include a robustbody of private experience, on which bestpractice can be based, as well as future workon a standardized approach for natural capitalassessment, valuation and accounting. Neitherexists yet, but Eco4Biz shows that some pieces ofthe puzzle are already emerging.Eco4Biz should be seen as a complementarypiece to other initiatives that exist, such as BSR’songoing tracking and comparative review ofecosystem services tools, the TEEB for BusinessCoalition and the Environmental Profit andLoss (E P&L) Consortium (known as The BTeam), to name but a few.PurposeEco4Biz provides a structured overview ofexisting tools and approaches that are publiclyavailable. The aim is to help companies makebetter-informed decisions about which tool theycould apply when assessing and managing theirecosystem impacts and dependencies, in order toultimately lower risk, and enable companies to bemore competitive over time.Eco4Biz clusters tools around two questionscorporate managers might ask themselves:• At what scale would you like to carry out anassessment, i.e. global, landscape (includingindividual site and portfolio of sites), orproduct level?• What outputs would best support yourdecision-making, e.g. a map (includingsupporting reports), a quantitative value, or ascore showing priority areas?We have also indicated whether each tool is morefocused on biodiversity or ecosystem servicesassessment.In addition, Eco4Biz could ultimately help tooldevelopers understand how to increase theirreach and impact, by better understanding howtheir tool relates to others, and could be adaptedor linked to each other. Such tool developercoordination could significantly encourage andaccelerate the development of a common toolkit.Finally, we hope that Eco4Biz will encouragecompanies to broaden their assessment beyondtraditional environmental management to includeecosystem services and biodiversity. We urgecompanies to road-test, or simply try out, someof these tools, to start to build a stronger set ofpractical examples of where using such tools canhelp business decision-making.PART 1: Introducing Eco4Biz
3ScopeThe tools featured in the main section of Eco4Bizare:a. Practical tools, including checklists, guidelinesand assessments.b. Tools that refer broadly to ecosystems andbiodiversity.c. Tools that can be used by any companyirrespective of industrial sector, geographiclocation or size.d. Publicly available tools, whether there is anassociated fee to use them or not.e. Currently available tools.Please note that:• Eco4Biz is an information-source, and WBCSDhas not “approved” these tools by includingthem.• In order to keep the scope manageable,standards and certifications schemes havenot been included. The only ones that havebeen, provided are technical guides ormethodologies that are readily available, andcould be helpful for company self-assessment,regardless of whether or not the companygoes through the actual certification process.• Also, tools that are currently being developedor finalized are not included. However, thereare many in the pipeline, and these couldpotentially be very valuable in the near future.Short descriptions of these are included inBSR’s “Measuring and Managing CorporatePerformance in an Era of ExpandedDisclosure: A Review of the EmergingDomain of Ecosystem Services Tools”(January 2013).• Some other valuable tools are only applicableto a certain industrial sector or geographicarea, or cover a specific ecosystem service.These are described more succinctly at theend of the document.• Finally, proprietary tools that are part ofa consultancy package and customizedor commercialized for each client are notincluded. However, these can be extremelyeffective and have been tested by companies,such as EcoMetrix and the BiodiversityCheck.How Eco4Biz was developedEco4Biz was developed through an open andtransparent process that involved WBCSDmember and non-member companies, NGOs,academic institutes, tools developers and otherbusiness organizations. A company Task Forceand a stakeholder Advisory Committee wereestablished to agree on the purpose, scopeand list of tools to be included. Participants inthe process – either as contributors from thebeginning, or reviewers of this document – arelisted in the “Acknowledgements” box.The first exercise was to ensure that therewas a need for this Eco4Biz, and we reviewedexisting efforts to list and categorize tools andapproaches. These have been extremely helpful,and include extremely valuable efforts by, inparticular:• BSR’s ongoing work to track and assessemerging ecosystem services tools, specificallyincluding the 2013 “Measuring andManaging Corporate Performance in an Eraof Expanded Disclosure: A Review of theEmerging Domain of Ecosystem ServicesTools”• IFC’s 2012 Annotated Bibliography in theGuidance Note 6 “Biodiversity Conservationand Sustainable Management of LivingNatural Resources”Do you know of other tools that shouldbe included in Eco4Biz?Do you have any suggestions, commentsor corrections to this version?If so, please write to firstname.lastname@example.org sothat we can include these in the next version.Many thanks!
4• TEEB 2010 report for business (annex 7.1)• CBD’s online Tools and Mechanismswebpage• ERM’s 2011 “Putting a Price on Nature”• EBM online Tools database• IAIA’s list of relevant reports• Alexandra Aubertin’s master’s thesis for IUCNNL Committee• Conservation International• Corporate Eco Forum• IUCN National Committee of TheNetherlands, that is developing a reportentitled “Biodiversity & Ecosystem tools forthe private sector” (to be released in 2013)WBCSD members wanted to take a step further andexplore whether it would be possible to developa decision-tree to help navigate through existingtools, that they could “pick up and try out, or use”.Eco4Biz went out for review to a wide audiencefrom the end of December 2012 to early February2013. BSR’s 2013 report was published in January2013, and provides helpful categories of tools.In order to provide a common decision-tree andLinking to social capitalThe scope of Eco4Biz is limited to naturalcapital, but social capital (including issuesaround livelihoods, poverty alleviation, health,etc.) must be considered alongside anyassessment of ecosystems and/or biodiversity.We suggest using the following WBCSD tools:• Measuring Impact Framework (2008),which helps companies understand thebusiness contribution to society.• Measuring socio-economic impact:A guide for business (2013), which looksat why, and how, a company can measureits socio-economic impact. It also providesan overview of the resources and toolsavailable to business.Water, water everywhereCompanies are increasingly recognizingthat water is critical for their business. Justas Eco4Biz reviews ecosystem-related tools,“Water4Biz” provides an overview of watertools and initiatives. Regularly updated since2009, this online guide has been specificallydesigned to help businesses manage watermore sustainably.Beware of the dreaded acronym!There are lots of acronyms in Eco4Biz, and wereally are very sorry about it. But do not fear,there is a section at the end with all of them(for organizations and tools)attempt to reduce potential confusion, WBCSDand BSR worked together to integrate BSR’scategories into the Eco4Biz decision-tree, duringEco4Biz’ review process. This collaboration iswhat is presented in this document.Eco4Biz is a living document that will be updatedregularly to include new tools and updates.Each tool is presented in a one-page fact sheetwhich has been reviewed by the tool developer.Tool developers have been asked to verify thecategorization of the tools. If any inaccuraciesremain, please contact Eva Zabey for input oncorrections in future versions at:email@example.comTools that work well together are highlightedusing this symbol:
5Which tool could I use?The following decision-tree aims to provideguidance on which tool might best suit yourneeds. It does not reflect every element of eachtool, but is supposed to help the reader siftthrough the tools more effectively.We invite you to first think about the scale ofassessment you would need, and then what sortof outputs you would prefer. Also, tools havebeen identified as primarily focusing on eitherecosystem services (e.g. provisioning, regulatingand cultural services), or biodiversity (e.g.species, protected areas), although some toolsaddress elements of both.1. ScaleAt what scale would you like to carry out anassessment?• Global: These tools provide informationon where priority areas (e.g. biodiversityhotspots) are, in relation to operations aroundthe world, as well as tools that are designedfor a company-wide, high-level assessmentthat can also include the supply chain.• Landscape (including individual site andportfolio of sites): These tools provide area-specific information on the supply or value ofecosystem services, as well as tools that aredesigned for a local assessment (e.g. a site andits surrounding area).• Product: These tools provide guidance using aproduct or service as the starting point.2. OutputsWhat outputs would best support your decision-making?• Map (including supporting reports): Toolsthat generate a geographic map, e.g. basedon a modeling program including backgrounddatasets.• Quantify/value: Tools that quantify and/orvalue a company’s impact and/or dependenceon nature, and include tools that focus onmonetary valuation.• Check/score: Tools that provide guidance inthe form of checklists, or internal ranking orscoring, to allow companies to prioritize areasof activity.PART 2: Selecting and presenting the main toolsIf you just don’t know where to start,we suggest you use the:Corporate Ecosystem Services Review(ESR)as a starting point to begin explorationof what ecosystem services are, and whatimpacts, as well as dependencies, yourcompany has on them.
6Biodiversity in GWTAt what scale wouldyou like to carry outan assessment1 What outputs would best2BROAIBISCheck/scoreAT A GLOBAL SCALE?AT A LANDSCAPE SCALE?AT A PRODUCT LEVEL?Ecosystem services (e.g. provisioning,regulating and cultural services)Primary focus on:Biodiversity (e.g. species,protected areas)Corporate Biodiversity Mgmt HandbookBiodiv., Accountability FrameworkLIFE MethodologyESR for IAMeasuring and monitoring at siteESRBusiness & Biodiversity Checklist
7LEFTNatureServe Vistasupport your decision-making?Quantify/value MapARIESCo$ting NatureMeasuring and monitoring at siteInVESTMIMESSERVES NBMData BasinEco-LCABiodiversity in GWTCEV IBAT
8ARtifical Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES)2007, functional public portal mid-2012ScopeType Map & Quantify/valueUsed/road-tested by company Yes (no summaries publicly available)Cost FreeMain question this tool answersWhat is the supply, demand, delivery and value of ecosystemservices in the landscape?Ideal 2ndstepaf te r SERV E SPurpose and objectives• Allows users to model, map and quantifyecosystem service delivery between sourceand use locations.• Focuses on servicedelivery: Who are thebeneficiaries? Where arethey located?• Distinguishes betweenpossible and actual ecosystem service delivery,highlighting efficiency of use and solutions formediating supply – demand imbalances.• Well-suited for baseline studies and scenarioassessment for different future climate, landuse and land cover conditions.Tool type and results• A modeling platform that is fully customizableto address a broad range of physical, socialand economic contexts.• An open source, web-accessible technologycapable of selecting, assembling and runningmodels to quantify, and map flows ofecosystem services.• A dynamic, multi-paradigm, integratedmodeling approach which provides a powerfulnew way to visualize, value, and managethe ecosystems on which biodiversity, theeconomy, and human well-being depend.• Considers ecosystem services from theviewpoint of beneficiaries, while distinguishingamong accrued, potential and theoreticalecosystem service values.• Accounts for data-related uncertaintiesthrough probabilistic modeling of ecosystemservice supply and demand. Uncertainty iscomputed throughout the process to enableaccuracy assessment of final results.• Explicitly accounts for the spatial and temporaldynamics of ecosystem service transport.• Supports dynamic trade-off analysis.• Model output includes a set of mapsdescribing ecosystem service supply, demandand delivery. Aggregate indicators extendbeyond the state of the art to address value,efficiency and equity, in both ecosystemservice provision and distribution.• Global models will likely be available laterin 2013.Target usersPolicy-makers, NGOs, companies and consultantsRequirements and other tips (expertise,software, data, etc.)• User data not required, but may be necessaryto achieve desired accuracy standards beyondpublically available global, coarse resolutiondatasets available in the online version.• Online graphic user interface (GUI) designedto be accessible to users without extensivetime or training.• Additional training or collaboration withdevelopers may be required for customizedapplications (e.g., when designing context-specific models, adding user data, developingnew ecosystem service models).• The GUI available through the Internet, worksbest with Firefox, Chrome, or Safari, but notMicrosoft Internet Explorer.• Familiarity with geographic informationsystems (GIS) allows user to extend dataanalysis and produce custom-designed mapsbased on model results.Examples of company usersARIES has primarily been used by non-businessentities (see http://www.ariesonline.org/case_studies.html). There have been corporateapplications, none of which are publicly available.Sponsoring organization and developersUNEP-WCMC, United States National ScienceFoundation, Basque Centre for Climate Change(BC3), University of Vermont, ConservationInternational, Earth Economics, Instituto diEcologia INECOLWebsite and contact: www.ariesonline.org/;firstname.lastname@example.org
9ScopeType Map & Check/scoreUsed/road-tested by company Yes (no summaries publicly available)Cost FreeMain question this tool answersHow many, and which, of my sites are located in a biodiversityhotspot?Biodiversity in the Global Water Tool2011Ideal 1s tstepb e f o r e I B ATPurpose and objectives• This Excel-based tool helps carry out a quick,first macro-level assessment of company sitesto know how many, and which ones, are in abiodiversity hotspot.• As a special layer of the WBCSD’s GlobalWater Tool (GWT), the purpose is to helpcompanies manage biodiversity-related risksby understanding the local context.Tool type and resultsThe tool is a freely downloadable Excel file thatis stored on the user’s computer. The user enterscoordinates of its sites (or the addresses of itssites that the tool automatically converts intocoordinates using Google Earth). Hundreds ofsites can be entered, and then the tool providesanswers to:• How many of your sites are in a biodiversityhotspot (in a chart),• Which sites are in a biodiversity hotspot (in theExcel sheet),• Where are all your sites on a biodiversityhotspot map (using the mapping function).Target usersBusiness managers from any industrial sector thatoperates in at least 10 countriesRequirements and other tips (expertise,software, data, etc.)• No expertise or data is required to usethe tool. The GWT Excel file is freelydownloadable. The Biodiversity layer iscontained within the GWT itself, and a 2-pageexplanatory note is available too.• The biodiversity hotspot additional data layeraims to prioritize sites that have a higherchance of being within ecosystems of interestand should be looked at in more detail bysubsequent assessment. The developerswarn to not consider the results as final orcomprehensive local biodiversity managementguidance. They suggest using finer scaleinformation relevant to specific locations for amore detailed assessment and planning.Examples of company users• eni tested the biodiversity hotspot layerof the GWT to understand the interactionbetween its activities and biodiversityhotspots worldwide, and combined it witha more detailed tool (such as IBAT) for siteassessments.Sponsoring organization and developersWBCSD and IPIECA with insights fromConservation International, UNEP-WCMC, IUCNand IBAT. The development of the original GWT(2007 and updated since) was led by CH2M HILLand over 20 WBCSD members. The addition ofthe Biodiversity layer was initiated and supportedby IPIECA.Website and contact: www.wbcsd.org/web/watertool.htm; Eva Zabey: email@example.com
10Biodiversity Accountability Framework & BiodiversityInterdependence Indicator (BBII)2008, reprint 2010ScopeType Check/scoreUsed/road-tested by company YesCost Free (analysis grid for members only)Main question this tool answersWhat is my company’s overall interdependencewith biodiversity?Purpose and objectives• The BiodiversityAccountabilityFramework is aself-assessmentframework to presentand understand theperception whicheach business,business associationand local governmenthas of its owninterdependence withbiodiversity.• The accompanyingBusiness andBiodiversityInterdependenceIndicator (BBII) is a multi-criteriaanalytical tool.Tool type and results• The 380-page manual is available in PDF,and provides a structured approach toweighing priority areas of interdependence onecosystems, as well as about 15 case studies ofcompanies testing the BBII.• The BBII consists of 23 criteria that createa composite indicator which characterizesthe interactions between biodiversity andbusinesses. The BBII accompanying analysisgrid produces a spider diagram summary. Foreach criterion the analysis offers four options.The business has to select one of these optionsby checking a box, and must also explain theresponse.• The criteria include those that are 1) directlyrelated to living systems, 2) related to currentmarkets, 3) related to impacts on biodiversity,4) related to compensatory measures (offsetmeasures) and 5) related to business strategies(the company’s strategic positioning).Target usersBusiness managers from any sectorRequirements and other tips (expertise,software, data, etc.)• The PDF is freely downloadable, and dataneeds to be included by the user.• The analysis grid that facilitates theconsolidation of input to produce the charts isonly accessible to Orée members.Examples of company users• EDF – Électricité de France (energy): TheBBII road-testing re-confirmed that EDF reliesheavily on water for thermal, nuclear powerand for hydropower, and highlighted elementsof industrial ecology.• Veolia Environnement (water, environment,energy, transport): Having worked onbiodiversity since 2004, Veolia considered theBBII as a way to raise awareness on the waterservices and biodiversity interdependence andprovide a more structured approach throughall of its organizational level.Sponsoring organization and developersOréeWebsite and contact: www.oree.org/en/presentation-of-the-guide-biodiversity.html,Information: firstname.lastname@example.org
11ScopeType Check/scoreUsed/road-tested by company Yes (no summaries publicly available)Cost FreeMain question this tool answersWhat are my company’s main strengths and weaknesses relatedto biodiversity?Business and Biodiversity Checklist2012, available in Japanese and EnglishPurpose and objectives• To evaluate strengths and weaknesses relatedto biodiversity conservation for products andservices, business activities, factories, or awhole company, and to push for continuousimprovement through a PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) cycle.• The checklist was developed by companies ofvarious sectors to evaluate activities accordingto nine stages: Six of them relate to productor service lifecycle (design, procurement,manufacturing, transportation, use/operation,and disposal/reuse); the remaining threestages consist of land use, conservation, andbusiness opportunities. Each stage has severalitems to be considered, with ratings from 1to 5, depending on the level of biodiversityconsciousness, 5 being the highest score.• The overall purpose of the checklist is toreduce risks and improve competitiveness.Tool type and resultsThe tool is an Excel file with a checklist withratings that provides a report of areas ofstrengths and weaknesses regarding corporatebiodiversity consciousness (product, company,factory, etc.). The checklist allows for flexibility interms of possible customization for a company orbusiness sectors.Target usersCompanies of various sectorsRequirements and other tips (expertise,software, data, etc.)• The tool is freely available.• No data input is required.• No specific expertise or software is required.• The report is Microsoft Word and the checklistis Microsoft Excel file.Examples of company users• The checklist has been tested by23 companies of various sectors:electricity/electronic, chemical/pharmaceutical, other manufacturers,construction, service.• Hitachi: After road-testing the tool, anin-depth use of the tool helped identify whatwas working today, as well as areas to improvein the future. This prompted a group-wideeducation initiative, and the results of thechecklist will be integrated into the company’sfuture action plan and self-evaluation.Sponsoring organization and developers• Council on Competitiveness-Nippon (COCN).Website and contact: http://cocn.jp/en/index.html, Secretariat: email@example.com.Note: Please search for “7. Task Force Project &Study Team 10) Business and Biodiversity StudyGroup” on the above website.
12Biodiversity Risk & Opportunity Assessment (BROA)2007, publicly available 2012ScopeType Check/scoreUsed/road-tested by company YesCost FreeMain question this tool answersWhat are my impacts and dependencies on biodiversity – andrelated risks and opportunities – in the landscape where I operate?Purpose and objectives• Identify the impacts and dependencies ofbusiness operations on biodiversity, using alandscape approach.• Assess and prioritize the risks andopportunities arising from those impacts anddependencies.• Produce action and monitoring plans toaddress the identified risks and opportunities.Tool type and resultsThe tool is a freely downloadable Excel file thatis stored on the user’s computer. A detailedguidance document takes the user through thetool step by step. Checklists are provided at eachstage. The information includes:• Handbook and Excel spreadsheets thatguide stakeholder engagement, field-basedassessments, and prioritization of risks andopportunities.• Action and monitoring plans for prioritizedrisks and opportunities.Target usersBusiness managers and companies that haveoperations and supply chains in importantlandscapes, e.g. agricultural landscapes.Requirements and other tips (expertise,software, data etc.)• Tool and support material freely available.• Training available, but no in-house specialistskills required.• User required to compile existing informationabout biodiversity, land-use, otherstakeholders, map area of operation etc. intarget landscape.• Collaboration with a ‘Conservation Partner’(environmental NGO, university department,consultancy) is recommended, to bringconservation expertise and to facilitatecompany engagement with broader range ofstakeholders.Examples of company usersBritish American Tobacco implemented BROAin 20 countries between 2007 and 2010 andwill repeat the process with the updated tool inthe same countries by 2015. Other companiesusing the tool include ITC India. The toolhas been tested and used by companies withagricultural supply chains; however, it is relevantto any landscape and can be used as a site levelassessment tool.Sponsoring organization and developersThe British American Tobacco BiodiversityPartnership: British American Tobacco,Earthwatch Institute, Fauna & Flora International,Tropical Biology Association.Website and contact: www.batbiodiversity.org,firstname.lastname@example.org
13ScopeType Map & Quantify/valueUsed/road-tested by company NoCostFree for commercial use, but users (who access the system usinga different URL) have to provide some of their own datasets.In the non-commercial use version, all of the required data isprovided for free.Main question this tool answersHow will ecosystem service provision change under differentland management scenarios?Co$ting NatureVersion 1 2009, Version 2 2011. Updated frequently.Purpose and objectivesCo$ting Nature is a web-based tool for analyzingthe ecosystem services provided by naturalenvironments, identifying the beneficiaries ofthese services and assessing the impacts ofhuman interventions such as land use changeupon them.It calculates a baseline for current ecosystemservice provision and allows a series ofinterventions (policy options) or scenarios ofchange to be used to understand their impactson ecosystem service delivery.The system processes and manages data,analyzes & helps visualize the results of models.It supports decision-making, in particular forconservation and restoration planning, hazardassessment and resilience planning, as well ascoastal and watershed land use planning.Tool type and resultsThe software calculates the spatial distributionof ecosystem services for water, carbon, hazardmitigation and tourism services and combinesthese with maps of conservation priority,threatened biodiversity and endemism, tounderstand the spatial distribution of criticalecosystems. These data are combined withanalysis of current human pressures and futurethreats on ecosystems and their services, in orderto visually assess conservation priority and thusenvironmental risks of development.Target usersConservation and development NGOs,policy analysts, agriculture and industry (e.g.extractives), education and academic research.Requirements and other tips (expertise,software, data, etc.)• Available for free on-line. User manual andtraining slides available on-line.• All data supplied globally at 1km and 1hectarespatial resolution for national and site scalework respectively. Users can upload their owndata if they have better.• Basic understanding of ecosystem servicesnecessary.• GIS analysis, if downloading data for furtheranalysis.Examples of company usersThe tool has been used experimentally by anumber of companies, but no public summariesare available. Public version restricted to non-commercial use because of licenses associatedwith some of input datasets. Commercial-useversion available, in which these datasets areomitted or supplied by the user.Sponsoring organization and developersKing’s College London (models), AmbioTEK(software), UNEP-WCMC (applications)Website and contact: www.policysupport.org/costingnature, Mark Mulligan: email@example.com
14Corporate Biodiversity Management Handbook (& Checklists)2010, available in English and GermanScopeType Check/scoreUsed/road-tested by company NoCost FreeMain question this tool answersWhat should I include in a corporate biodiversitymanagement plan?Purpose and objectivesThe handbook introduces the subject, definesspecific “Fields of Action”, examines the “ImpactFactors” businesses should be aware of, and helpsto create a business case for biodiversity, whileoffering specific tips on how to operationalizecorporate biodiversity management. Supportedwith tips, facts and information and backed upwith best-practice examples from companiesacross the globe.It aims to offer businesses a practical tool tocomprehensively and directly implement abiodiversity management plan by dealing withthe topic of business and biodiversity from acorporate perspective.Tool type and resultsHandbook (60-page PDF) including checkliststhat can be completed with multiple-choicequestions on-line and then printed, or sent to theBusiness & Biodiversity team directly.The results depend on the key issues identifiedusing the handbook and checklists.Target usersBusiness managersRequirements and other tips (expertise,software, data, etc.)• Available for free on-line.• An understanding of business process andfunction.Examples of company usersA wide range of case studies about companiesincluding biodiversity in their strategy are listed:http://www.business-and-biodiversity.de/en/handbook/best-practice-examples.html#c4795,but no use of the tool by a company has beendocumented to date.Sponsoring organization and developersCollaborating organizations: Secretariat ofthe Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD),GIZ – Deutsche Gesellschaft für InternationaleZusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, CNI –Confederação Nacional da Indústria, GermanGlobal Compact Network, European Business andBiodiversity Campaign and Nippon KeidanrenDeveloped by: Centre for SustainableManagement at Leuphana University,B.A.U.M. (Bundesdeutsche Arbeitskreis fürUmweltbewusstes Management)Website and contact: www.business-and-biodiversity.de/en/handbook/, CarolinBossmeyer: firstname.lastname@example.org
15ScopeType Check/scoreUsed/road-tested by company YesCost FreeMain question this tool answersWhat ecosystem services do I depend and impact on,and how can related risks and opportunities be incorporatedin my strategy?Corporate Ecosystem Services Review (ESR)2008 (version 2.0 released in 2012), available in English, Chinese, Spanish, French,Japanese, PortuguesePurpose and objectivesTo help managers develop strategies to addressrisks and opportunities arising from a company’simpact and dependence on ecosystem services.Tool type and resultsThe ESR is presented in a PDF handbook, with a5-step process, including a structured sequenceof questions and an Excel spreadsheet. It alsoprovides a framework for strategy development,case studies, further information, PowerPointpresentations and references.The detail of an ESR depends on the purposeof the exercise, and the user will typically runthrough the list of priority ecosystem services,identify possible business risks and opportunities,and prioritize a set of strategies.Target usersBusiness managers from any business sector.Requirements and other tips (expertise,software, data, etc.)• The ESR (35-page PDF and the Excelspreadsheet) is freely available on-line.• Data needs to be inputted by the userbased on, for example, internal knowledge,NGO input, published research, expert input,external reports, resources and tools.Examples of company users• The ESR has been used by over 300companies, including Lafarge, Cemex, Mondi,Syngenta and Yves Rocher.• Syngenta (agri-business): used ESR in agrowing market for the company: smallfarms in south India. The ESR helped thecompany identify risks its customers facedue to ecosystem degradation; for example,lower yields due to a decline in the ability ofnatural predators to contain pest outbreaks,and reduced soil fertility, due to poor farmmanagement practices. In turn, the ESRhelped Syngenta find opportunities to offernew products and services that mitigatethese risks.• Mondi (pulp and paper): conducted ESRon three of their tree plantations in SouthAfrica. The ESR highlighted methods thecompany could use to increase its supply offreshwater, while improving the surroundingenvironment, strengthening its relationshipwith local communities, and reducingoperational costs. Mondi used the ESRfindings to help develop a 3-year strategicwork plan.Sponsoring organization and developersWorld Resources Institute (WRI), WBCSD,Meridian InstituteWebsite and contact: www.wri.org/publication/corporate-ecosystem-services-review, SuzanneOzment: email@example.com and Eva Zabey:firstname.lastname@example.orgIdeal 1s tstepb e f o r e C E V
16Data Basin2010ScopeType MapUsed/road-tested by company Yes (no summaries publicly available)Cost FreeMain question this tool answersWhat is the biological, physical and socioeconomic situationwhere we operate?Purpose and objectivesData Basin is an on-line information platform thatempowers users to apply spatial datasets andanalytical tools to address conservation challenges.Individuals and organizations can explore anddownload a vast library of datasets, upload theirown data, create complete conservation analysesand publish maps – either as individuals orthrough dedicated working groups.Tool type and resultsThis analytical tool is constructed to help naturalresource planners and conservation practitionersapply spatial information to address conservationquestions and challenges.• Data Basin contains over 7000 publicbiological, physical and socioeconomic datasetsfor use in conservation and developmentplanning. Another 3000+ datasets are beingused in the systems by private working groups.• Specific datasets can be brought together tocreate customized maps that can be visualized,formatted, saved, and shared using existingData Basin tools. Datasets and maps can beuploaded, and maps made from any datasetwithin the system can be easily customized byusers. These datasets and maps can be keptprivate, shared with groups, or published foreveryone for use and download. Groups oftenwork together to develop these spatial productswith provided drawing and commenting tools.• Specialized analytical and reporting tools areavailable, or can be developed, to supportspecific work processes. Many tools have beencreated to support regional and site level riskand impact assessment.• Data Basin also provides social networkingsupport. Users can search profiles to find dataproviders, potential collaborators or interestedaudiences.Target usersData Basin is designed for people who need touse up-to-date spatial datasets with conservationanalysis methods and reporting tools to advancetheir daily work. Specific applications havebeen developed to support environmentalrisk assessments of regional and site leveldevelopment initiatives in the infrastructure,energy, extraction and agricultural sectors.Requirements and other tips (expertise,software, data, etc.)• The use of the basic functions of the systemhas no cost to the user.• No technical skills are required to use thistool. Data Basin was built to provide powerfulspatial visualization, analysis and reportingcapability for non-GIS professionals.• Users can use the 7,000+ datasets currentlyavailable in Data Basin, or can upload theirown files. All spatial files are ESRI Shapefile,ArcGrid, ESRI File Geodatabase, and NetCDF.Spreadsheet data with locations will besupported in the very near future.• A modern web-browser, such as Chrome,Firefox, Safari, or Internet Explorer 9+.Examples of company usersThere are currently over 5,000 registered DataBasin users, including corporations. To date,Data Basin has been brought into servicefor the environmental and social impactassessment by the Multi-National DevelopmentBank community, with the strongest useby the InterAmerican Development Bank(IDB). Numerous infrastructure and energydevelopment corporations have also used thistool for project planning activities in North andLatin America.Sponsoring organization and developerConservation Biology InstituteWebsite and contact: www.databasin.org,Dennis Grossman: email@example.com
17ScopeType Quantify/valueUsed/road-tested by company YesCost FreeMain question this tool answersHow can I quantify the role of natural resources in Life CycleAssessment?Ecologically Based Life-Cycle Assessment (Eco LCA)2009Purpose and objectivesEco LCA is an on-line tool that providesaccounting system software that quantifies therole of natural resources in Life Cycle Assessment(LCA). It complements other LCA tools by takinginto account a broad range of ecosystem services.Tool type and resultsWeb-based software packageTarget usersNot specifically for business, but can help anyoneseeking to understand environmental impacts ofproducts.Requirements and other tips (expertise,software, data, etc.)• Free on-line tool.• Knowledge of company products or services.• Knowledge of traditional LCA is an advantage.Examples of company users• Cook Composites and Polymers (CCP)(composites): To road-test the WBCSD’sGuide to Corporate Ecosystem Valuation(CEV), CCP worked with the US BusinessCouncil for Sustainable Development (USBCSD) and the Center for Resilience (CfR) tounderstand and quantify the financial andecosystem benefits associated with ecologicalstorm water management. Options consideredincluded designing and implementinga constructed wetland for storm watermanagement.• Houston By-Products Synergy (process):The US Business Council for SustainableDevelopment (US BCSD), the WBCSD’sUS regional partner, has designed andimplemented a process called By-ProductSynergy. As part of its CEV road test, the studyused Eco-LCA to quantify physical ecosystembenefits, realized through the process ofmatching undervalued or waste materials fromone company with the needs of another.Sponsoring organization and developersOhio State University’s Center for ResilienceWebsite and contact: www.resilience.osu.edu,Eco LCA Team: firstname.lastname@example.org
18Ecosystem Services Review in Impact Assessment (ESR for IA)2013ScopeType Check/scoreUsed/road-tested by company Yes (no summaries publicly available)Cost FreeMain question this tool answersWhat are the impacts and dependencies of a project onecosystem services, and how can I align these with my impactassessment?Purpose and objectivesThe ESR for IA has two purposes:• To identify measures to mitigate projectimpact on ecosystems that affect thelivelihoods, health, safety or culturalheritage of the people benefiting from theseecosystems.• To provide measures to manage projectoperations dependence on ecosystem servicesto achieve planned performance.Tool type and resultsThe ESR for IA includes six steps to incorporateecosystem services during the Environmental andSocial Impact Assessment (ESIA) scoping, baselineand impact analysis, and mitigation stages.The results of the ESR for IA include:• Identification of priority ecosystem services forconsideration in further stages of ESIA.• Identification of stakeholders to engagearound priority ecosystem services.• Assessment of project impact and dependenceon priority ecosystem services.• Measures to mitigate project impact andmanage project dependence on priorityecosystem services.Target usersEnvironmental and social practitioners assessingthe impacts of a projectRequirements and other tips (expertise,software, data, etc.)• The overall framework is available online. In2013, a series of spreadsheets and a technicalguidance document will also be available.• The users need to be experts in impactassessment and have access to expertise instakeholder engagement.Examples of company usersThe ESR for IA was road-tested by social andenvironmental practitioners on completedproject environmental and social impactassessments (ESIAs). Implementation on ongoingESIAs is currently taking place. Background onwhich companies have road-tested it, and detailsof their experience using the tool, will be madeavailable in 2013.Sponsoring organization and developersWorld Resources Institute (WRI)Website and contact: http://www.wri.org/publication/ecosystem-services-review-for-impact-assessment, Florence Landsberg: Florence.email@example.com
19ScopeType Quantify/valueUsed/road-tested by company YesCost FreeMain question this tool answersHow can I carry out ecosystem valuation in a business context,using a step-by-step process?Guide to Corporate Ecosystem Valuation (CEV)2011, available in English, Japanese, Spanish, French and GermanPurpose and objectivesCEV aims to provide a framework for businessto incorporate ecosystem values in decision-making. The two parts of the guide consist of(i) screening to help companies establish if aCEV is necessary (ii) a process to illustrate howto undertake a CEV. CEV also helps navigatethrough the jargon around ecosystem valuation.Tool type and results• The PDF guide is accompanied by twotechnical papers called “ A: SelectedEcosystem Valuation Concepts andIssues” and “B: Selection & Application ofEcosystem Valuation Techniques for CEV”• Results depend on the purpose of theecosystem valuation exercise and can includequalitative, quantitative and monetaryassessments. These can be used to informa decision on which scenario to choose, orto quantify the total benefits and costs ofecosystem services.• CEV will be complemented in September2013 by a more specific guidance on watervaluation: “Business guide to water valuation:An introduction to concepts and techniques”.Target usersBusiness managers from any business sectorRequirements and other tips (expertise,software, data, etc.)• Freely available 70-page PDF on-line(no software required).• Knowledge of company process, products/services impacts on biodiversity.• Environmental economist is needed to carry outthe valuation itself (to crunch the numbers).Examples of company users• 14 companies road tested the CEVfeatures from a wide range of companies fromdifferent sectors and geographies. See: http://www.wbcsd.org/work-program/ecosystems/cev/roadtesters.aspx• Holcim (cement/aggregates): CEV was usedto better inform the rehabilitation plan fora proposed extension to a sand and gravelmine, as part of the UK permitting process.The study examined the value of ecosystemservices including wildlife habitat, floodcontrol, recreation and carbon sequestration,generated for local communities and thewider region under several alternativerestoration scenarios, including restoringagricultural land and establishing a mix ofwetlands and an artificial lake.• AkzoNobel – Eka Chemicals (chemicalsfor pulp and paper industry): The studycompared the societal costs of atmosphericemissions for three alternative chemicals usedin paper production. Benefits transfer wasused to assess the value of externalities causedby greenhouse gases, SO2, NOx, VOC, dustand ammonia released in the life cycle fromcradle to delivery at paper mill.Sponsoring organization and developersWBCSD, with ERM, IUCN, PwC and WRIWebsite and contact: www.wbcsd.org/web/cev.htm, Eva Zabey: firstname.lastname@example.orgIdeal 2ndstepa f t e r E S R
20Integrated Biodiversity Assessment Tool (IBAT)2005ScopeType MapUsed/road-tested by company YesCost US$500 p.a. to US$25,000Main question this tool answersHow can I screen for biodiversity risks and opportunities ata site or across a portfolio of sites, and better plan for andmanage my project to take into account these biodiversityrelated risks and opportunities?Purpose and objectivesIBAT provides a basic risk screening onbiodiversity. It draws together information onglobally recognized biodiversity informationincluding threatened species, Key BiodiversityAreas (priority sites for conservation) and LegallyProtected Areas. Through an interactive mappingtool, decision-makers are able to easily accessand use this up-to-date information to identifybiodiversity risks and opportunities within aproject boundary.IBAT helps businesses incorporate biodiversityconsiderations into key project planning andmanagement decisions, e.g. screening potentialinvestments, siting an operation in a givenregion, developing action plans to manage forbiodiversity impact, assessing risks associatedwith potential sourcing regions and reporting oncorporate biodiversity performance.Tool type and resultsData are presented in spatial and tabular formats,and with simple mapping functionality. IBATlinks to more detailed information and includeson-the-fly reports, option to manage your owncatalogue of sites and outputs to support specificuser needs.Target usersDecision-makers in businesses, especially thoseinvolved with risk management, identification ofcritical habitat and decision-makers in businesses,especially those involved with risk management,identification of critical habitat and safeguards,ISO 14000 certification and ongoing audit,GRI reporting and CSR teams interested inunderstanding the biodiversity values at, or near to,their areas of operation. This can include managerswho use the data at all planning stages of the site.Requirements and other tips (expertise,software, data, etc.)• Data on biodiversity issues already includedin tool, and drawn from a number of keyinformation sources, including IUCN Red Listof threatened species and the World Databaseon Protected Areas.• This initial assessment is a desktop exerciseand should be supplemented by furtherliterature review, spatial analyses, local expertadvice and stakeholder consultation duringeach stage of the project life cycle.• Companies following the mitigation hierarchywill benefit from access to informationapplicable to “avoidance” and identification ofpotential offsetting opportunities.• Subscription fee varies depending on theannual revenue of a company, with a tieredpayment system ranging from US$500 p.a.to US$25,000. Subscription ensures access toup-to-date conservation datasets, with fundsbeyond operational costs being invested inimproving the underlying datasets.Examples of company usersMore than 35 companies are subscribing toIBAT, drawn from a diversity of sectors, includingmining, oil & gas, finance, agri-businessand manufacturing. The WBCSD’s CementSustainability Initiative (CSI) biodiversityteam tried out IBAT in 2012: Holcim, Lafarge,Heidelberg, Titan, and also Votorantim, anddeveloped a guidance note for future cementcompanies looking to use the tool.• eni uses IBAT as a first level of screening inthe systematic integration of biodiversityconsiderations into its oil and gas operationsworldwide.• Vedanta found the IBAT really useful, as itprovides a first macro-level assessment ofbiodiversity risks associated with the site.Sponsoring organization and developers:BirdLife International, Conservation International,IUCN, UNEP-WCMCWebsite and contact: www.ibatforbusiness.org,Martin Sneary: email@example.comIdeal 2ndstep Biodiversityi n G l o b a l W a t e r T o o l
21ScopeType Check/scoreUsed/road-tested by company Yes (no summaries publicly available)Cost FreeMain question this tool answers What might be the impact of my products on biodiversity?Integral Biodiversity Impact Assessment System (IBIS)2000Purpose and objectivesIBIS is a basic risk-screening biodiversity-focusedmethod that tries to predict the impact ofproducts on biodiversity. IBIS:• Compares the biodiversity impact of differentproducts.• Indicates whether the biodiversity impact of acertain product is acceptable.• Assesses the main issues causing biodiversityimpact, and thus improves productioncircumstances or compensating measureselsewhere.Tool type and resultsAn assessment of impacts of products onbiodiversity, derived from decision-trees andscoring systems.Target usersProcurement officers, marketers and decision-makers involved in production processesRequirements and other tips (expertise,software, data, etc.)• Freely available 110-page PDF on-line.• Data will help inform responses to assessment,but are not mandatory input.• Knowledge of company process, products/services impacts on biodiversity.• No software required. The method is availableas PDF, but CREM suggests IBIS must be‘custom-made’ for specific products andservices.Examples of company usersCREM customized IBIS for salmon and salmonproduction, tourist activities, outdoor sports, andcocoa, but no use of the tool by a company hasbeen documented to date.Sponsoring organization and developersCREM (consultancy, research and trainingorganization)Website and contacthttp://www.crem.nl/files/upload/documents/downloads/file/IBIS_Methodology_report_98_309.pdf; Information: firstname.lastname@example.org
22Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs(InVEST)2006, Version 2.4.4 was released in October 2012ScopeType Map and Quantify/valueUsed/road-tested by company Yes (no summaries publicly available)Cost FreeMain question this tool answersWhat, and where, is the value of ecosystem services supply,use and value on a site?Purpose and objectives• InVEST quantifies nature’s benefits in bothbiophysical terms, such as water flows, andeconomic terms, such as avoided cost or netpresent value.• InVEST models are process-based, andtherefore can capture change in ecosystemservices value. These models produce mapsthat depict the ecosystem service returnsof alternative business decisions and helpcompanies manage trade-offs in operations,investments and management. InVEST can beused for basic risk screening, or for scenarioplanning and sensitivity analysis.Tool type and resultsInVEST creates maps of ecosystem servicessupply, use and value and associated tablesreporting outputs in biophysical and economicunits.Target usersGovernment agencies, non-profit organizationsand corporationsRequirements and other tips (expertise,software, data, etc.)• Free, open-access tool that is downloadedfrom the website (need 3 GB of availablespace).• Tier 1 models are designed to run on globallyavailable data.• InVEST is most effectively used within adecision-making process that starts withstakeholder consultations.• InVEST does not require knowledge of Pythonprogramming, but it does require basic tointermediate skills in working with GIS data ina GIS tool such as ArcGIS, QGIS, gvSIG, etc.• Recent enhancements to the software in the2.4.0 release allowed users to run many of theInVEST models in a standalone environmentthat can interact with any GIS tool. InVESTmodels not ported to this new platform stillexist in the ArcGIS ArcToolBox environment.The ArcGIS requirement will be removed withthe InVEST 3.0.0 release scheduled for summer2013. Note that the InVEST models remainingin ArcGIS require ESRI’s ArcGIS software withan ArcInfo level license to run the hydrologymodules.Examples of company users• Lafarge (cement): As part of their CEV road-test, Lafarge North America teamed up withWWF and the WRI to understand their risksand opportunities related to ecosystem servicesat one of their active quarry sites, PresqueIsle Quarry in Michigan. InVEST was used tomap and value two ecosystem services thatwere salient to Lafarge’s operations: erosioncontrol and water purification. InVEST showedareas where the natural land cover plays aninstrumental role in retaining sediment andthe monetary value this service provides byavoiding dredging costs. It also identified areaswhere vegetation could be grown, to reducepotential erosion into the lake.Sponsoring organization and developersThe Natural Capital Project (NatCap) -StanfordWoods Institute for the Environment, WorldWildlife Fund, The Nature Conservancy,Institute on the Environment at the University ofMinnesotaWebsite and contact:http://naturalcapitalproject.org/pubs/Web_BusinessBrochure.pdf, Emily McKenzie:Emily.McKenzie@WWFUS.ORGIdeal 2ndstepaf te r SERV E S
23ScopeType Check/scoreUsed/road-tested by company Yes (no summaries publicly available)Cost FreeMain question this tool answersWhat are my company’s direct and indirect impacts onbiodiversity, and what should my associated priority biodiversityconservation actions be?LIFE Methodology2011, Version 1.0 was released in August 2011, available in English and PortuguesePurpose and objectives• The LIFE Methodology helps companiesdevelop effective and voluntary biodiversityconservation actions.• The freely-available self-assessmentmethodology proposes an evaluation ofa company’s impacts on biodiversity andsubsequent mitigation and/or compensationmeasures through an array of concretebiodiversity conservation actions.• The methodology is the backbone of LIFECertification, but can be used for self-assessment purposes, without going throughthe certification process.Tool type and resultsThe organization’s impact on biodiversity isevaluated based on direct and indirect aspectsrelated to biodiversity and ecosystem services(water, energy, greenhouse gases, wasteand occupied area). The estimated impact isconsidered alongside the organization’s grossrevenue, leading to a “minimum performance ofconservation actions”.The LIFE Methodology is comprised of threetechnical documents:• LIFE Technical Guide 01: assesses theorganization’s impact on biodiversity based onthe quantity and severity of five environmentalaspects: (i) water consumption; (ii) energyconsumption; (iii) greenhouse gas emissions;(iv) waste production; (v) occupied areas.• LIFE Technical Guide 02: establishes ahierarchy that guides companies to investresources in priority and efficient biodiversityconservation actions.• LIFE Certification Standards: the Standards arebuilt upon a set of principles and criteria, andprovide a qualitative approach to the internalenvironmental management.Target usersPublic or private organizations of any size andsector, located in any country.Requirements and other tips(expertise, software, data, etc.)• The documents are freely available on-line.• LIFE Key is a complementary software thatallows a self-assessment of the organization’smanagement according to LIFE Methodology.Examples of company usersTen pilot audits have been carried out: POSIGRAF(Printing and Publishing – 1 site), O Boticário(Cosmetics – 1 site), MAGISTRAL (Packaging– 1 site), GAIA-SILVA-GAEDE & ASSOCIADOS(Attorney Office – 1 site), ITAIPU BINACIONAL(Energy – 1 site), MPX (Energy – 1 site),PETROBRAS (Oil – 4 sites).• Boticário believes that LIFE is an innovativetool for business to invest in biodiversityconservation.• PETROBRAS considers the LIFE Methodologymay represent an opportunity to improveenvironmental performance. The road-test helped expand the company’s visionregarding biodiversity, contributing toincreased awareness and improved results.Sponsoring organization and developersAVINA Foundation, BOTICÁRIO GroupFoundation FOR NATURE PROTECTION;POSIGRAF–, spvs (Society for Wildlife Researchand Environmental Education) , O Boticário,MPX, ITAIPU BINACIONAL, CONESTOGA-ROVERS & ASSOCIATES, PETROBRASWebsite and contact: http://institutolife.org/en/certificacao-life/documentos/, Maria AliceAlexandre: email@example.com
24Local Ecological Footprinting Tool (LEFT)2013ScopeType Map and Quantify/valueUsed/road-tested by company Yes (no summaries publicly available)Cost£750 for business use (pay-per-use); free for academics andnon-commercial useMain question this tool answersWhere can we damage? i.e. which parts of the landscape carrythe highest ecological risk if damaged.Purpose and objectivesLEFT is a web-baseddecision support tooloriginally developedto aid extractiveindustries in evaluatingthe pattern of relativeecological risk acrossa landscape. It aimsto inform planning offacility placement sothat environmentalimpact is minimized.Input is minimal –either the latitude/longitude of a siteand/or a shape file/GPS location of aconcession area.Once the details areentered of a givenarea, a coloredmap and report areproduced, detailingecological scores every 300m within this area.The tool works for any region in the world andoutput takes a few minutes to generate. Fivevariables are used to determine the ecologicalrisk of a landscape, namely: biodiversity,threatened species, connectivity, resilience andfragmentation. Calculation of these variablesacross the landscape is determined using acombination of globally available databases(11 databases are remotely accessed) andmodeling. Results are aggregated to producea set of maps which are sent to the user as acustomized PDF report and a zip file of GISdata. The PDF contains maps displaying a mapfor each variable across the selected area (e.g.resilience, connectivity, biodiversity, vulnerabilityand threaten species) and a single summarymap of relative ecological risk, to highlight areaswithin the selected area that carries the highestecological risk if developed.Tool type and resultsLEFT is a very easy to use, automatic web-basedmapping tool. LEFT produces a PDF reportcontaining 11 maps and a detailed explanation ofthe analysis process. Additionally, all the mappeddata is also provided as geotiffs in a zip file forspecialist users to use in GIS software.Target usersBusinesses, academic users, NGOsRequirements and other tips(expertise, software, data, etc.)• No specialist software or GIS expertise isnecessary – it is a ‘stand-alone’ tool and theoutput (the maps and report etc.) are self-explanatory in this respect.• Input takes seconds (just need to draw/selectlandscape for analyses using GoogleEarth-typeinterface).• All analyses are secure and confidential.Examples of company usersStatoil, other oil companies, large retailcompanies, other extractive industriesSponsoring organization and developersBiodiversity Institute University of Oxford,Department of Computer Science University ofOxford, StatoilWebsite and contact: www.biodiversity.ox.ac.uk/left, Kathy Willis: firstname.lastname@example.org
25ScopeType Check/score and Quantify/valueUsed/road-tested by company NoCost FreeMain question this tool answersCan I carry out a rapid assessment of ecosystem services at asite, to highlight key issues and to know if more detailed studieswould be helpful?Measuring and monitoring ecosystem services at the site scale2011Purpose and objectivesThis explanatory guide presents a methodologicalapproach to help measure ecosystem servicesat the site scale, following a framework whichis accessible to non-experts. It explains somekey concepts, including the need to consider a‘plausible alternative state’ to measure differencesresulting from changes in land managementand use, the issues around focusing solely oneconomic valuation and the importance ofidentifying and taking into account servicesimportant to different beneficiaries.The approach helps users with limited capacity(technical knowledge, time) and resources(money, people)) to measure ecosystem services.It provides scientifically robust informationon ecosystem services – a first step which canguide practitioners on whether more detailedstudies would be useful. It helps decision-makersappreciate the true value of nature, and theconsequences of destruction and degradation ofnatural habitats.Tool type and results• The framework is presented in a 12-page PDFas an introduction to the approach.• It provides assessments of ecosystem servicesat sites, and a way of assessing how thesewould change if the sites were altered.• It indicates how different groups ofbeneficiaries will be impacted as a resultof any change in land use and ecosystemservice delivery.Target usersOrganizations working in the field ofconservation, though could be used by anyonewishing to understand the impacts of activitieson ecosystem services.Requirements and other tips(expertise, software, data, etc.)• The PDF is available on-line.• Data needs to be inputted by the userbased on, for example, field studies, internalknowledge, published research, expert input,external reports, resources and tools.Examples of company usersNo use of the tool by a company has beendocumented to date, though this is beingexplored through RSPB corporate partnersSponsoring organization and developersCambridge Conservation Initiative (CCI) andBirdlife International, along with UNEP-WCMC,RSPB and othersWebsite and contact: www.unep-wcmc.org/a-toolkit-for-measuring-ecosystem-services-at-the-site-scale-is-released_751.html, Kelvin Peh andJenny Birch: email@example.com; Jenny.Birch@birdlife.orgWatch out for a more comprehensive“Toolkit for Ecosystem Service Site-basedAssessments (TESSA)” that will leveragethis guide and provide a step-by-step processto assess multiple services at a site and theimpacts of change on people. To be launchedlater in 2013.
26Multi-scale Integrated Models of Ecosystem Services (MIMES)2007ScopeType Map and quantify/valueUsed/road-tested by company NoCost FreeMain question this tool answersWhat is value of ecosystem services in a range of landmanagement and land use scenarios?Purpose and objectives• MIMES is a multi-scale, integrated suiteof models that assesses the true value ofecosystem services under various landmanagement and land use scenarios.• The goal of MIMES is to highlight the value ofecosystem services and to aid decision-makersin making more informed decisions abouttheir management.• MIMES provides economic arguments forland use managers to approach conservationof ecosystems as a form of economicdevelopment. The model facilitatesquantitative measures of ecosystem serviceeffects on human well-being.Tool type and resultsMIMES is a systems modeling approach thathelps scenario planning and sensitivity analysis,and provides quantitative and monetary results,based on integrated data in the tool.Target usersLand use managers, researchersRequirements and other tips(expertise, software, data, etc.)• MIMES is freely available through adownloadable ZIP file. It is also necessaryto download Simile, the visual modelingsoftware.• The models use input data from GIS sources,time series, etc. to simulate ecosystemcomponents under different scenarios definedby stakeholder input.• Models can be developed in a cross-disciplinary charette or workshop approach.• Technical expertise is required to run the datamodels.Examples of company usersNo use of the tool by a company has beendocumented to dateSponsoring organization and developersGund Institute, Accounting For DesirableFutures LLCWebsite and contact: www.afordablefutures.com/services/mimes, Dr. Roelof Boumans:firstname.lastname@example.orgIdeal 2ndstepaf te r SERV E S
27ScopeType Map and quantify/valueUsed/road-tested by company YesCost FreeMain question this tool answersWhat will happen to resources under different scenarios andwhere are opportunities for mitigation of impacts?NatureServe Vista2004, updated 2012Purpose and objectives• The aim of the tool is to enable users toevaluate, create, implement, and monitorland use and resource management scenariosdesigned to achieve conservation, use, andmanagement goals within existing economic,social, and political contexts.• Vista is a conservation planning support toolthat incorporates science, expert opinion,community values, and GIS. It is a multi-objective tool to develop balanced scenariosfor implementation. Specific examples ofapplication sectors include conservationand restoration planning; coastal zonemanagement and watershed use; hazardassessment and resilience planning;transportation and land use planning; multi-use public land management, etc.• The comprehensive cumulative effectsassessment module is based on scenarios thatcan include all uses, management practices,and stressors such as invasive species, fire,noise, climate change, etc.Tool type and results• Vista is a conservation planning supporttool, operating as an extension to the GISsoftware package, ArcView. It provides variousfunctions for data and expert knowledgeintegration and management, analysesand exploration, impact assessment, andmitigation planning. It works with a numberof other useful software tools to incorporateland use, economics, and ecological andgeophysical modeling.• Vista produces maps of land use scenarios thatreflect impacts relative to conservation goals,e.g. it can highlight areas of conflict between“conservation elements” (e.g. threatenedspecies) and land use.Target usersBroadly applicable to conservation, land use, andresource planning.Requirements and other tips (expertise,software, data, etc.)• Vista is offered as a free download for unlimiteduse, complete with extensive integrated helpmanuals (datasets are included in the tool).• Basic GIS skills are required; ArcGIS withSpatial Analyst is needed.• Discipline experts are required to providedefensible knowledge to the database.• Data exists globally to apply Vista for basiccoarse scale planning, or can accept nearly anyuser- provided data for fine scale planning.• Manual integration with many other usefulmodeling and planning tools has beendemonstrated.• NatureServe can provide full training,technical support, and consulting services.Examples of company usersPotlatch Corporation (forest products): Vista wasused to identify species and ecological systems;to calculate the total conservation value of eachforest stand under different scenarios; to rank foreststands by their conservation value; to compare thetimber production and conservation values of eachforest stand, in order to identify forest stands thatare appropriate for timber production and foreststands that should be conserved.Sponsoring organization and developersNatureServeWebsite and contact: www.natureserve.org/vista, Patrick Crist: email@example.com
28Normative Biodiversity Metric (NBM)2011, updated 2012ScopeType MapUsed/road-tested by company Yes (no summaries publicly available)Cost FreeMain question this tool answersWhat is the biodiversity significance (pristineness) of the landmy company owns?Purpose and objectivesThe NBM methodology assesses the land acompany owns with a measure of ecosystempristineness, combined with a measure ofendangered species presence. These variablesgive each piece of land a score. Businesses reporton changes to the biodiversity score on theirowned land annually.Key termsPristineness, endangered species, score, mappingTool type and resultsAn 8-page PDF provides guidance on how toattribute the pristineness classes which informthe biodiversity accounting process, and there isan on-line global ‘normative biodiversity metric’map. This map gives an approximate indicationof the biodiversity significance of differentareas globally based on the NBM methodology,combining species data with pristineness data.Target usersBusinessRequirements and other tips (expertise,software, data, etc.)• On-line access to the map (freely available).• Information on the company and local useand management of the land comes from theuser.Examples of company usersCelestial Green Ventures use the NBM to trackthe biodiversity performance of their REDD+projects.Sponsoring organization and developersEcometricaWebsite and contact: http://nbm.ourecosystem.com/interface/, David Jarrett: firstname.lastname@example.org
29ScopeType Quantify/valueUsed/road-tested by company NoCostFree for users who contribute substantially to the service toencourage community engagement and broad adoption, butwill have a low-cost sliding-fee for other usersMain question this tool answersWhat is the economic value of a specific area’s ecosystemservices that I can use in decision-making?Simple Effective Resource for ValuingEcosystem Services (SERVES)2006, public preview release June 2012Purpose and objectivesSERVES is a subscription-based, self-servicenatural capital appraisal tool for natural resourcemanagers, to rapidly and preliminarily estimatethe value of a specific area’s ecosystem services,using benefit-transfer methodology. SERVESoutputs are used for developing natural capitalfinancing mechanisms, informing policy at thebasin/watershed/project scales.Tool type and resultsSERVES is a step-by-step web tool, designed tosignificantly lower cost and time barriers to rapidecosystem service valuation. The user is asked toidentify the study area on a map or in a list ofgeographies, and provide the number of acresin each land cover type. They are then walkedthrough study selection process based andcalculation parameters, such as the discount ratesthey would like used. The result is an MS Excelworkbook which contains a detailed breakdownof monetary value by ecosystem service andby land cover type for the selected areas.Additionally, a detailed bibliography and caveatsof use is provided. SERVES includes acreage,currency and inflation converters.Target usersPrivate and public natural resource landmanagers, landscape architects, civic planners,appraisers, environmental engineering firms,sustainability policy, and program officers,consultantsRequirements and other tips (expertise,software, data, etc.)• Requires internet browser on Mac, PC ormobile device; no software is downloaded.• Designed to be a low-cost method to obtaininitial valuation data; being designed forbackend extensibility to support projectadvancement with MIMES, ARIES and InVEST.• SERVES is one part of a suite of evaluationtools called EVT (Ecosystem Valuation Toolkit)which includes both free and for-fee services.SERVES will be free to users who contributesubstantially to the service, to encouragecommunity engagement and broad adoption,but will have a low-cost sliding-fee for otherusers.• Custom reporting for Environmental ImpactAssessment (EIS), Benefit-Cost Analysis (BCA)or natural capital accounting available throughthe development team.Examples of company usersNo use of the tool by a company has beendocumented to date.Sponsoring organization and developersEarth Economics, Gordon and Betty MooreFoundation, The Bullitt FoundationWebsite and contact:www.esvaluation.org, General inquiries: email@example.com. Senior Software ProgramManager:Corinne Cooley firstname.lastname@example.orgI d e a l 2 n ds t e p b e f o r eARIE S, InV E S T or MIME S
30The tools below do not provide a comprehensiveand exhaustive list, as many other tools exist.If helpful tools exist that could be shared inEco4Biz, please write to email@example.com it will be considered for the next version.Also, many other tools are included in listsmaintained by others, such as the EBM onlineTools database and IFC’s 2012 AnnotatedBibliography in the Guidance Note 6“Biodiversity Conservation and SustainableManagement of Living Natural Resources”.SECTOR-SPECIFIC TOOLSAgricultureGAIA Biodiversity Yardstick• Developer: CLM (independent consultancy)• Overview: Freely available high-levelassessment of farm practices and on-farmbiodiversity. The tool is still in developmentand is being created for farmers and is nowbeing tested by a Dutch dairy company, afood processing company and a farmers’union. The biodiversity yardstick consists of40 questions that cover: crop and animalvarieties; general management applied withbiodiversity benefits; productive areas undertargeted nature management; area andmanagement of non-productive elements inthe field (water courses, hedgerows, etc); onthe farmyard, and management of naturalreserves.• Company examples: none publicly available.• Website: http://gaia-biodiversity-yardstick.eu/Nutrient Tracking Tool (NTT) – US only• Developer: US Department of Agriculture• Overview: Tool compares agriculturalmanagement systems to calculate a change innitrogen, phosphorous, sediment loss potential,and crop yield. Agricultural producers and landmanagers can enter a baseline managementsystem and an alternative conservationmanagement system and produce a reportshowing the nitrogen, phosphorous, sedimentloss potential, and crop yield differencebetween the two systems.• Company examples: none publicly available.• Website: http://nn.tarleton.edu/NTTWebARS/CementBiodiversity Management System: proposalfor the integrated management ofbiodiversity at Holcim sites• Developer: IUCN-Holcim Independent ExpertPanel.• Overview: Guidance document on howto establish and implement a BiodiversityManagement System (BMS) for Holcim’sworldwide operations, in order to integratebiodiversity considerations into policy,strategic and operational processes.• Company examples: Holcim, publiclyavailable.• Website: http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/biodiversity_management_system___final.pdfGuidelines on Quarry Rehabilitation• Developer: Cement Sustainability Initiative(CSI) of WBCSD• Overview: Freely available, high-levelguidelines and recommendations on how tosuccessfully rehabilitate a quarry.• Company examples: Many case studiesdemonstrating each section in the guide areavailable anonymously.• Website: http://www.wbcsdcement.org/index.php/key-issues/biodiversityPromotion of biodiversity at the mineralextraction sites of HeidelbergCement• Developer: HeidelbergCement• Overview: Guideline that manifests the basicparameters for the promotion of biodiversityat mineral extraction sites and aims atdefining consistent standards for restorationand renaturation. This guideline is to beeffective at the company’s locations in Europe.Its worldwide implementation is currentlybeing prepared.• Company examples: HeidelbergCement, andit is publicly available.PART 3: Tools for specific uses
31• Website: http://www.heidelbergcement.com/NR/rdonlyres/8C349C89-1D09-4AC5-AF89-1CB86F27D2B4/0/HC_Biodiversitaet_E.pdfWorking with nature: BiodiversityGuidance for Lafarge sites• Developers: WWF International and othermembers of Lafarge’s International BiodiversityExpert Panel and Lafarge employees.• Overview: How to facilitate the protection,restoration and enhancement of biodiversityacross all Lafarge sites worldwide (includingquarries, plants and offices). It is aimedprimarily at business unit and site managers,as well as any local employee teams dealingwith biodiversity issues.• Company examples: Lafarge, and it ispublicly available.• Website: http://www.lafarge.com/11082012-publication_sustainable_development-Lafarge_Biodiversity_Guidance-uk.pdfEnergy sourcesRenewable energy: Greening Blue Energy• Developer: IUCN, E.ON, SwedishInternational Development CooperationAgency.• Overview: Overview of key biodiversityissues, to include in impact assessment ofrenewable infrastructure, with the aim toimprove the environmental performance ofoff shore renewable energy projects. Theguidance supports best practice biodiversityconsiderations and provides a genericframework for key issues to consider, andis illustrated by specific examples, whererelevant.• Company examples: none publicly available.• Website: http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/2010-014.pdfBiofuels: Guidelines on biofuels andinvasive species• Developer: IUCN• Overview: Guidelines aim to highlightthe risks of biological invasion by speciesintroduced for biofuels production and toprovide constructive recommendationson how to prevent the introduction,establishment and spread of invasive speciesresulting from biofuel developments. Itsupports the selection of the appropriatefeedstock for biofuel production.• Company examples: none publicly available.• Website: http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/2009-057.pdfBioenergy: Implementing sustainablebioenergy production : a compilation oftools and approaches• Developer: IUCN• Overview: Compilation of example principles,frameworks and tools already in use in theconservation community which may beapplied to bioenergy production, to identifyand reduce environmental, as well as socio-economic risks, and promote opportunities.• Company examples: none publicly available.• Website: http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/2008-057.pdfOil & gas: Ecosystem services guidance:Biodiversity and ecosystem servicesguide and checklists• Developers: IPIECA and OGP• Overview: The aim of this guide is threefold.Firstly, it explains the relationship betweenbiodiversity, ecosystem services and the oiland gas industry. Secondly, it provides a set ofchecklists to help identify the main ecosystemservice dependencies and impacts of oil andgas developments. Thirdly, it highlights keyassociated risks and opportunities for oil andgas companies, and provides guidance onpotential measures for managing them.• Company examples: 3 short anonymouscase studies are available in the guide. enie&p division uses this tool for site-levelidentification, assessment and managementof operational dependencies and potentialimpacts on biodiversity and ecosystemsservices.• Website: http://www.ipieca.org/publication/ecosystem-services-guidance-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-services-guide
32FinanceEcosystem Services Benchmark (ESB)• Developers: Natural Value Initiative, incl. FFI• Overview: ESB is a finance-sector evaluationtoolkit and benchmark methodologyfor assessing biodiversity and ecosystemservices-related risks and opportunities inthe food, beverage and tobacco sectors,as well as pharmaceutical and extractiveindustries. NVI has adapted the EcosystemServices Benchmark for application to thepharmaceutical sector and the extractivesectors.• Company examples: ESB was tested on 31companies in the food, beverage and tobaccosectors in the UK, Brazil, U.S. Australia,Switzerland, Malaysia, the Netherlands andFrance.• Website: http://www.naturalvalueinitiative.org/content/003/303.phpBiodiversity Principles for the FinanceIndustry• Developers: VfU (Verein fürUmweltmanagement and Nachhaltigkeit inFinanzinstituten) with Centre for SustainabilityManagement (CSM) at the LeuphanaUniversity Lüneburg (Germany) and othercontributors.• Overview: The principles serve as a guidefor business companies within the financialservices and insurance sectors, helpingthem to develop individual strategies andto integrate the conservation of biodiversityinto their business practices and offering arecommended course of action. They helpindividual companies further specify andimplement specific biodiversity managementstrategies.• The VfU Biodiversity Principle for the financesector is accompanied by “Guidelines forAssessing Biodiversity-Related Risks andOpportunities in the Financial Sector”.• Company example: none publicly available.• Website: http://www.vfu.de/default.asp?Menue=1&News=79Sustainable Forest Finance Toolkit• Developers: PwC and WBCSD• Overview: The toolkit is designed to supportthe financial sector in sustainable financing ofindustries impacting forests. It is composedof stand-alone modules, easily tailored tobanks’ needs and integrated into existingprocedures, and it is aligned to industrystandards and best practices in the financialand forestry, paper and packaging industries.It is publicly available and includes succinctresources providing background to the keyrisks and issues related to the forest-basedsector. Finally, it incorporates detailed inputfrom some of the world’s leading commercialbanks, forest companies, certification bodiesand NGOs.• Company examples: none publicly available.• Website: http://www.pwc.co.uk/sustainability-climate-change/issues/forest-finance-home.jhtmlGreen Infrastructure Accounting Guide• Developers: Earth Economics and DukeUniversity, with financial support of the U.S.Water Environment Research Foundation.• Overview: The Green InfrastructureAccounting Guide provides a stepwisemethodology for natural capital accounting,with a focus on public and private drinkingwater, stormwater, and wastewater utilityoperating environments. The Guide providesan accounting methodology for both naturalcapital (e.g. forests, wetlands, rain gardens)and associated ecosystem services (e.g.water quality, flood protection, carbonsequestration) that can be integrated withconventional government financial statements.The Guide was developed with input fromwater utility finance officers and naturalresource managers, auditors, academics andaccounting standards-setters.• Company examples: The Green InfrastructureAccounting Guide was initially pilot testedbetween 2012-2013 with three utilities in theUnited States: Clean Water Services (Oregon),City of Asheville Water Resources Department(North Carolina), and City of Raleigh PublicUtilities Department (North Carolina). The
33second phase of pilot testing will begin withan expanded set of utilities in mid-2013.• Website: http://www.werf.org/a/k/Search/ResearchProfile.aspx?ReportID=INFR6R12Forest productsHCV (High Conservation Value) ResourceNetwork• Developers: ProForest for the WWF-IkeaCo-operation on Forest Projects.• Overview: The HCV process is a practical toolfor forest certification, land-use planning, anddecision-making for responsible purchasingand investment, and conservation advocacy.It helps identify, assess and manage areasof high conservation value and providesguidance on interpreting and understandingthe values themselves, analyzing threats,devising appropriate management andmonitoring. HCV provides users with guidanceon how to (i) identify, (ii) manage, and (iii)monitor sites of high conservation value.• Company examples: none publicly available.• Website: http://www.hcvnetwork.org/resources/global-hcv-toolkitsSustainable Forest Finance Toolkit(see under Finance)Sustainable Procurement of Wood andPaper-based Products• Developers: WRI and WBSCD• Overview: This guide and resource kit isdesigned to help corporate managers makeinformed choices, understand and find thebest advice on how to purchase forest-basedproducts, whether for paper for printing orpackaging, wood in construction, or as officefurniture. The guide provides an overview ofthe context of forests and their management;identifies the most critical issues underpinningprocurement; consolidates a wide selectionof effective tools, initiatives and additionalresources; explains the maze of terms whichoften stand in the way of effective actionand communication between suppliers andbuyers and improves transparency throughoutthe supply chain of wood and paper-basedproducts. The third edition was released inDecember 2012, which incorporates the mostup-to-date developments on the legalityof forest products, the latest advances intechnological and data-management systemsto trace and control forest product supplychains, and an expanded overview of thesocial implications of sourcing forest-basedproducts. By providing clear information onexisting approaches to procurement, theguide is intended to help customers frame andformulate their own procurement policies. Thefull guide, and more, is available online and isavailable in English, Spanish and Chinese.• Company examples: MeadWestvaco handsout the guide (or introductory guide) to theirclients to educate them about forest/paperproducts; Taylor Guitars and Disney uses itas a reference and source of information oncertification, traceability, etc.• Website: http://www.sustainableforestproducts.org/MiningGood Practice Guidance for Mining andBiodiversity• Developer: International Council on Miningand Metals (ICMM).• Overview: The Good Practice Guidance forMining and Biodiversity was published as partof an extensive dialogue between ICMM andIUCN, which was set up to explore differentaspects of biodiversity conservation in themining and metals sector. The guide providesan informative, accessible and highly practicalreference source on biodiversity which canbe used by mining companies at all stages oftheir operations, from initial exploration, tomine closure planning and implementation.Released in 2006, the 150-page PDF isavailable in English, French, Spanish,Portuguese and Chinese.• Company examples: Company examples areincluded in the guidance document, e.g. RioTinto, BHP Billiton.• Website: http://www.icmm.com/page/1182/good-practice-guidance-for-mining-and-biodiversity
34TourismBiodiversity Principles for siting and designof hotels and resorts• Developer: IUCN• Overview: Five key biodiversity principlesthat a hotel developer should follow, so thatbiodiversity and associated social impactscan be better addressed in hotel and resortdevelopment. Note that other relateddocumentation is available on IUCN’s websiterelated to specific locations.• Company examples: none publicly available.• Website: http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/2012-013.pdfISSUE-SPECIFIC TOOLSBiodiversity offsetsBusiness and Biodiversity Offsets Program(BBOP)• Developers: Forest Trends and WildlifeConservation Society, with ExecutiveCommittee and Advisory Group of morethan 75 different companies, financialinstitutions, government agencies, civil societyorganizations and service providers.• Overview: Provides a set of principles,guidance and a standard for best practicebiodiversity offsets through on-the-groundpilot project experiences.• Company examples: Anglo Platinum pilottested the BBOP methodology to calculatebiodiversity losses and potential gains,using the ‘habitat hectares’ method whenconsidering the expansion of an existing mine.Suggested offset activities included a wildlifereserve with re-stocking of indigenous ungulatecomponent, improved protection, active rangemanagement and rehabilitation. Rio Tinto pilottested the tool to achieve and quantify thecompany’s strategy of “Net positive impact”on biodiversity. It included the advice of apanel of experts and partners such as IUCN.The offset consisted of on- and off-siteconservation of littoral forest, plus a rangeof livelihood initiatives. Other case studiesavailable for review here: http://www.forest-trends.org/documents/files/doc_3123.pdf• Website: http://bbop.forest-trends.org/EmissionsThe Greenhouse Gas Protocol(GHG Protocol)• Developers: World Resources Institute (WRI)and WBCSD• Overview: It is the most widely usedinternational accounting tool for governmentand business leaders to understand, quantify,and manage greenhouse gas emissions.It provides the accounting framework fornearly every GHG standard and program inthe world – from the International StandardsOrganization to The Climate Registry – as wellas hundreds of GHG inventories prepared byindividual companies.• Company examples: Since the publicationof the first edition of The Greenhouse GasProtocol: A Corporate Accounting andReporting Standard (Corporate Standard)in 2001, more than 1,000 businesses andorganizations worldwide have developed theirGHG inventories using the GHG Protocol.For example, Royal Philips Electronics ofthe Netherlands has used the GHG Protocol(GHGP) to calculate its operational carbonfootprint since its first publication in 2007.Using the GHGP, Philips semi-annually reportsprogress in achieving its target of 25% carbonfootprint reduction by 2012 from 2007, bothto internal as well as external stakeholders.Applying this most widely used internationalstandard has been a crucial step in developinga successful GHG management strategyfor Philips, which contributed to achievingleadership positions in the Carbon DisclosureProject and the Dow Jones Sustainability for anumber of consecutive years.• Website: http://www.ghgprotocol.org/
35WaterWater for Business – initiatives guidingsustainable water management in theprivate sector• Developer: WBCSD• Overview: WBCSD has led the “mapping” ofwater tools and initiatives which companiescan use or engage with to help them managewater more sustainably. The latest release(version 3) was carried out in collaborationwith SustainAbility and IUCN. The inspirationto develop Eco4Biz was derived from Water forBusiness (Water4Biz). Many companies haveinformed WBCSD of the value of this “guide tothe guides.”• Company examples: Several companies haveprovided anecdotal feedback concerning thehelpfulness of this guide.• Website: http://www.wbcsd.org/waterforbusiness3.aspxTools available to business to quantify andreduce the impacts of their water use• Developer: DEFRA• Overview: A series of research documentsthat aim to: identify the different scenarios inwhich businesses might look to understandand quantify the impacts of, and risks relatingto, their water use. It maps the differentmethodologies, tools, guidance, initiatives,and standards (hereafter collectively called‘tools,’ but referring to all of the above) thattackle the issue of corporate and supply chainwater impacts of business and their efforts toreduce them.• Company examples: none publicly available.• Website: http://randd.defra.gov.uk/Default.aspx?Menu=Menu&Module=More&Location=None&Completed=0&ProjectID=17962Regional toolsJapan: Toolkit for Sustainable businesssite management• Developers: JBIB (Japan Business Initiative forBiodiversity) Sustainable Land-use WorkingGroup members, co-working with TohokuUniversity.• Overview: The biodiversity-focused toolkitevaluates and monitors how the land useof business sites contributes to biodiversityconservation. It includes: a textbook –Guideline for sustainable business sites, aMS Excel file – Land Use Score Card anda Monitoring Sheet. The tool kit is aimedtowards companies in order to manage theirlands in a PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) cycle tominimize land development impacts, as wellas biodiversity conservation and maintenanceof ecosystem services provided from thesite. Available in the seminars held by JBIBSustainable Land-use Working Group. Seminarfee 15,000 yen.• Company examples: Several leadingcompanies in Japan, e.g. JSR, Osaka Gas,Mitsubishi Estate, Panasonic, Ajinomoto,Takenaka Corporation, Shimizu Corporationand Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance. Some of theiractivities are presented on their websites.• Website: http://www.blunc.org/USA: LandScope America• Developers: NatureServe, in partnership withNational Geographic, the natural heritagenetwork, and dozens of other national andstate partners.• Overview: This free, publicly available websiteseeks to increase the pace and effectivenessof land conservation, in part, through anationwide map viewer, that provides easyaccess to authoritative maps on conservationpriorities, protected areas, threats, plantsand animals, ecosystems, recreation, andenergy. LandScope provides business usersonline access to more than 200 data layers ofreliable, scientifically sound information to aidin evaluation of lands across the United Statesfor their conservation value.
36• Company example: ExxonMobil staffaccess authoritative scientific data to assesswhich lands hold high conservation value.LandScope provides details on the ecologicalvalues of a site, including the habitat typesand a list of the federally protected andimperiled species known to occur in thesurrounding watershed, with direct links tocomprehensive species and ecosystem reportsfrom the NatureServe Explorer database.• Website: www.landscope.orgUSA and Canada: NatureServe Surveyor• Developers: NatureServe• Overview: An easy-to-use web applicationthat compares a selected area on theinteractive map against the NatureServenetwork’s federated data and informs as towhether an endangered, threatened, or otherat-risk species is known to occur in that area.Each survey returns its own report that canbe printed, saved, and included in projectdocuments. The size of the project areadetermines the amount of information thesurvey returns – the larger the area, the moredetailed the information obtained about theplants and animals known within it. It is alsopossible to access NatureServe Surveyor asa web service to seamlessly integrate surveyresults into individual applications.• Company example: No company examplesto date, but it has been used by U.S.Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. ArmyCorps of Engineers.• Website: https://surveyor.natureserve.org/