Ni eworkshop5thmay


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Ni eworkshop5thmay

  1. 1. Definitions… • Electronic-Commerce could be defined as the E-Commerce, Security, Ethics, Professional E-Commerce, buying and selling of information, products, Issues, and Software/Hardware Evaluation and services via computer networks and distributed media, usually the World Wide Web. 1 2 What is E-Commerce? Examples Electronic commerce (e-commerce) is a general term • for any type of business, or commercial transaction that involves the transfer of information across the • Internet. • This covers a range of different types of businesses • from consumer-based retail sites, like, through auction and music sites like eBay or, to business exchanges trading goods or services between corporations. 3 4 5 6
  2. 2. E-Commerce Advantages • Reduction of risk; low capital requirements • cost savings • Increased efficiency • Growth of customer base and market share • Better profits • Access to up-to-date information • Efficient price comparison of a large number of products on a single web portal ( 7 8 E-Commerce Advantatges • Integrated information on inventories, payments, tracking of logistics SCM • Enhanced customer services and information about products/services through Customer Relationship Management CRM systems • Feedback of vital information; allows customisation • Business Process Reengineering through the changes in the organisational structure and culture 9 10 E-Commerce Benefits E-Commerce Challenges • Elimination of Constraints with traffic, parking, limited store hours, other shoppers, carrying heavy • lack of understanding/communication packages. between departments (IT dept and • Better accessibility by clients who has Business Units do not understand internet -> Global market each others) • 24hrs * 365 days accessibility • Resistance by the employees to • Reduced price through reduced change business processes overheads and disintermediation ( • Brand awareness (first brand stays in links in supply chain may disappear) customer’s mind); solve by offering 11 Internet freebies 12
  3. 3. E-Commerce Challenges Variants of E-Commerce(Pure vs partial) • Consumer lacks trust in information security systems • Customer has to know exactly what • Variants of EC exists depending on the he/she wants degree of digitization of three parameters • E-Commerce wrongly perceived as a 1. The product or service technology issue rather than a business 2. The process opportunity 3. intermediary 13 14 Variants of E-Commerce(Pure vs partial) Variants of E-Commerce(Pure vs partial) • Observations (Partial and Pure Ecommerce) – In traditional commerce, all 3 dimensions are physical – In pure e-commerce, all dimensions are digital eg: buying digital products such as an e- book,music, software – In other types a blend of digital and physical dimensions (Minimum of one digital dimension). merchandise is physically delivered. • This situation is partial e-commerce). – example: buying grocery items online from keelsSuper Portal is partial e-commerce, 15 16 Characteristics Comparison Revenue Models Digital Organisations Physical Brick-and-Mortar Organisations Merchandise is Digital Merchandise is Physical Online auctions 24hrs, 365days Conventional Limited auctions accessibility Virtual marketplace Physical market place e-intermediateries and Value Addes Broker based services, physical Services transactions Electronic billing, payment processing, Paper based billing, tendering, tendering payment processing Order driven Pull Production Forecast based Push Production Enhanced e-Marketing Word of Mouth Slow limited advertising Hub - based Supply Chains Linear Supply Chains 17 18
  4. 4. Online Stores: Components & Processes Online Stores 1 a Catalogue • List of Products Customers Customer Catalogue • Descriptions • Prices • Options, size, etc. Banks b • Pictures 2 Shopping Cart Shopping • A temporary list of Cart item to be purchased Suppliers •Products Payment Your Website •Prices Processor c •Descriptions •Accounts 3 d Checkout Payment • Billing Info Database Checkout • Shipping Address Collection • Shipping Cost Web Hosting Company • Record Order 19 • Process Payment 20 E-Governance • • ICT in Health me 21 22 VR Applications • Hospital Maganement – WorldVista Medical Applications 23 24
  5. 5. Therapeutic uses Post-Traumetic Stress Disoreder War Zone Stress Reliever • Treat post-traumatic stress disorder in troops • Provides effect of reactions on the battlefield • Isolate things that were causing war-related stress 25 26 Medical Training Surgical Simulation • Prosolvia Clarus is currently involved in a project called Virtual Shoulder Arthroscopy (VSA). The purpose of this project is to develop a simulator for arthroscopic operations on shoulders 27 28 Medical Applications Medical Applications Anaesthesia Training Simulator - Maelstrom •Eye Surgery Simulator: Medical College, Georgia • Portable Simulator • Networked environment • Performance evaluation capability • Eye surgery training simulation • Real-time "feel" of tool-tissue interaction • Tactile recording facility 29 30
  6. 6. VR Treatment Treatment With Kids •Exposure desensitization treatment has proved effective • VR provides an effective distraction for a wide range of phobias utility • “Alleviates pain for those that have severe injuries or illnesses” • Minimizes stress during long operations • Increases endurance in certain situations if allow to interact with the VR 31 32 Public Key Encryption Data Security • Uses two different keys: a public and a private key. • Receiver’s public key must be delivered in advance. • Sender uses receiver’s public key to encrypt the message and receiver uses private key to decrypt the message (Sender can be sure the receiver is the true receiver) • Example: – RSA (Rivest, Shamir, and Adelman) – Note: Although the two keys are mathematically related, deriving one from the other is “computationally infeasible”. 33 34 Public Key Cryptography – A Simple Public Key Cryptography: Creating a Case Digital Envelope 35 36
  7. 7. Digital Signature Digital Certificates and Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) • Digital certificate: Digital document that • It is used for the authentication and includes: non-repudiation of senders. Name of subject or company Subject’s public key • A certificate is a digital document issued Digital certificate serial number Expiration date by a trusted third-party certificate Issuance date authority (CA). Digital signature of certification authority (trusted third party (institution) that issues certificate • A certificate contains records such as a Other identifying information serial number, user’s name, owner’s public • Public Key Infrastructure (PKI): refers to the CAs and digital certificate procedures that are key, name of CA, etc. accepted by all parties • Example of CA: VeriSign, U.S. Postal Service. 37 38 Protecting Networks: Firewalls and Digital Certificates and Proxy Servers Certification Authorities • Firewall: Software application that acts as a filter between a company’s private network and the Internet • Firewall methods include: Packet filters • Proxy servers: Software servers that handle all communications originating from for being sent to the Internet (act as “spokesperson” or “bodyguard” for the organization) 39 40 Security Risk Management Firewalls and Proxy Servers Must actively seek to understand the possible risks (new risks regularly emerging), and implement appropriate security measures. Review and maintain: • Information architecture • Organisation policies and practices • Information security technologies 41 42
  8. 8. Professional Issues, Ethics The roles of IT professionals • Technical/machine-oriented • Systems-oriented • Information oriented • Specialist application area-oriented • Technical/machine-oriented – Programmer, network engineer, systems administrator • Systems-oriented – Systems analyst, system designer, business analyst • Information oriented – Records manager, librarian, data integrity officer • Specialist application area-oriented – Multimedia, health informatics 43 44 Knowledge, Skills and Aptitudes Professional Organisations for IT 1 Oral communication skills 2 Capacity for co-operation and teamwork 3 Capacity to learn new skills 4 Interpersonal skills with colleagues and clients 5 Written communication skills 6 Capacity to analyse and solve problems 7 Effective use of Information and Communication Technologies 8 Understanding of professional ethics 9 Ability to apply knowledge in the workplace 10 Numeracy 45 46 Bodies of Knowledge Ethics in IT • Define essential knowledge and understandings for the profession – Mandatory knowledge – Interpersonal Communication – Ethics/Social Implications/Professional Practice – Project Management and Quality Assurance – Secondary knowledge » Computer Organisation and Architecture » Conceptual Modeling » Database Management » Data Communication and Networks » Data Structures and Algorithms » Discrete Mathematics » Program Design and Implementation » Security » Software Engineering and Methodologies » Systems Analysis and Design 47 48 » Systems Software
  9. 9. What is Ethics? Ethics • What is right? • What is wrong? • “set of moral principles or values” • What is good? • What is bad? • “the discipline of dealing with good and bad and with moral duty or obligation” • What is just? • What is unjust? • simplify ethics to mean • What we ought to do? “DOING THE RIGHT THING ! “ 49 50 Ethics and technology Ethics is People • Intellectual property People are the only ethical component of • Copyright an IT system • Fair use • Pirated software, music and movies • Counterfeit software • Privacy 51 52 Individual choices Ethical ≠ Legal 53 54
  10. 10. Ethics and the Law • The relationship between ethics and law Evaluating Hardware, leads to four possible states for a given Software, & Services problem LEGAL NOT LEGAL Copying software to use only ETHICAL Buying a software package as a backup even if the licence to use at work prohibits copying for the purpose Using a pirated version Not ETHICAL of a software in a country Pirating copyrighted software with no copyright laws 55 56 Evaluating Hardware, Software, Evaluating Hardware, Software, & Services and Services (continued) • May require suppliers to present bids and • May use a scoring system for evaluation proposals based on system specifications – Determine evaluation factors and assign – Minimum acceptable physical & performance points characteristics for all hardware and software requirements are established • Performance of hardware and software – Large businesses and government agencies must be demonstrated and evaluated formalize requirements by listing them in a Request for Proposal (RFP) or a Request for – May use benchmark test programs Quotation (RFQ) 57 58 Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services (continued) Services (continued) • Hardware evaluation factors • Hardware evaluation factors (continued) – Performance – Reliability • Speed, capacity, throughput • Risk of malfunction & maintenance requirements – Cost • Error control and diagnostic features (e.g Hard • Lease or purchase price Disk Diagnostic) • Cost of operations and maintenance – Compatibility • With existing hardware and software? • With hardware & software provided by competing suppliers? 59 60
  11. 11. Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services (continued) • Hardware evaluation factors (continued) – Technology • Year of product life cycle • Does it use a new, untested technology? • Does it run the risk of obsolescence? – Ergonomics • “human factors engineered”? Keyboard • User-friendly? • Safe (e.g Radiation), comfortable, easy to use? 61 62 Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services (continued) Services (continued) • Hardware evaluation factors (continued) • Hardware evaluation factors (continued) – Connectivity – Software • Easily connected to WANs and LANs that use • Is system and application software available that different types of network technologies and can best use this hardware? – Interoperable / bandwidth alternatives? Legacy Apps runs? – Scalability – Support • Can it handle the processing demands of end • Is support available? users, transactions, queries, & other processing requirements? E.g Expansion Bays Communication Technologies: WSN 63 64 Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services Services (continued) (continued) • Software evaluation factors • Software evaluation factors (continued) – Quality – Flexibility • Bug free? • Can it handle our processes easily without major – Efficiency modification? • Well-developed system of program code that – Security does not use much CPU time, memory capacity, or • Does it provide control procedures for errors, disk space? malfunctions, and improper use? 65 66
  12. 12. Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services (continued) (continued) • Software evaluation factors (continued) • Software evaluation factors (continued) – Connectivity – Documentation • Web-enabled? • Well-documented? Help screens and helpful – Language software agents? • Is the programming language familiar to internal – Hardware software developers? • Does existing hardware have the features required to best use this software?. Windows XP on PIII? 67 68 Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services The Six Quality Characteristics of (continued) a Software (ISO/IEC 9126) • Software evaluation factors (continued) – Other factors • Performance, cost, reliability, availability, compatibility, modularity, technology, scalability, and support characteristics 69 70 The Six Quality Characteristics of a Software (ISO/IEC 9126) • Software quality: The totality of features and characteristics of a software product that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. • Software quality characteristics: – A set of attributes of a software product by which its quality is described and evaluated. – A software quality characteristic may be refined into multiple levels of sub-characteristics. – Each characteristic is refined to a set of sub- characteristics . – A sub-characteristic is evaluated by a set of metrics. Some metrics are common to several sub- characteristics. 71 72
  13. 13. Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services (continued) • Evaluating IS Services – Performance • Past performance in view of past promises – Systems development • Are website and other e-business developers available? Quality and cost 73 74 Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services (continued) (continued) • Evaluating IS services (continued) • Evaluating IS services (continued) – Maintenance – Training • Is equipment maintenance provided? Quality and • Provided? Quality and cost cost – Backup – Conversion • Are similar computer facilities available nearby • What systems development & installation services for emergency backup purposes?: Special Apps. will they provide during the conversion period? 75 76 Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services Evaluating Hardware, Software, and (continued) Services (continued) • Evaluating IS services (continued) • Evaluating IS services (continued) – Accessibility – Hardware • Services from local or regional sites? • Provide a wide selection of compatible hardware • Customer support center? devices and accessories? E.g Special H/W • Customer hot line? – Software – Business position • Offer a variety of useful e-business software(e.g • Financially strong with good industry market osCommerce) and application packages? prospects? 77 78