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INTRODUCTION TO
OPERATIONS RESEARCH
INTRODUCTION
Operations Research is the method of
analysis by which management receives aid
for their decisions. Though the name of this
method, Operation Research (O.R.) is
relatively new, but the method used for this
is not a new one. Operation Research is
concerned with the application of the
principles and the methods of science to the
problems of strategy.
HISTORY OF OPERATIONS RESEARCH
 Operation Research is a relatively new discipline. It
was really only in the late 1930's that operational
research began in a systematic fashion, and it
started in the UK.
 The subject of operation research was born during
Second World War in U.K., and was used for
military strategy. After the World War II, it was
started applying in the fields of industry, trade,
agriculture, planning and various other fields of
economy.
MEANING OF OPERATIONS
RESEARCH
Operations Research is the method of
analysis by which management receives aid
for their decisions. Though the name of this
method, Operation Research (O.R.) is
relatively new, but the method used for this
is not a new one. Operation Research is
concerned with the application of the
principles and the methods of science to the
problems of strategy.
DEFINITIONS OF OR
 OR is the systematic application of
quantitative methods, techniques and tools
to the analysis of problems involving the
operations of systems” – Daelenbash and
George
 “OR is a scientific approach to problem
solving for executive management” –
Wagner.
GENERAL METHODS FOR SOLVING
O.R MODELS
Analytic method
Iterative method
Monte- Carlo method
SCOPE OF OPERATION
RESEARCH
In Agriculture
In Finance
In Industry
In Marketing
In Personnel Management
In Production
APPLICATIONS OF
OPERATIONS RESEARCH
Accounting
Construction
Facilitate Planning
Finance
Manufacturing
Marketing
Human Resource
Purchasing
Research and Development
CHARACTERISTICS (FEATURES)
OF OPERATION RESEARCH
(i) Inter-Disciplinary Team Approach
(ii) Wholistic Approach to the System
(iii) Methodological Approach
(iv) Objective Approach
(v) Decision Making Approach
(vi) Digital Computer
PHASES OF OPERATIONS
RESEARCH
(i) Judgment Phase
(ii) Research Phase
(iii) Action Phase
LIMITATIONS OF OR
i) Distance between O.R. specialist and
Manager
ii) Magnitude of Calculations
iii) Money and Time Costs
iv) Non-quantifiable Factors
v) Implementation
OR TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
Linear Programming
Game Theory
Decision Theory
Queuing Theory
Inventory Models
Simulation
Non-linear Programming
Dynamic Programming
Integer Programming
Markov Process
Network Scheduling
Information Theory
OR AND DECISION-MAKING
i) Better Control
ii) Better Coordination
iii) Better System
iv) Better Decisions
THANK YOU

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Introduction to Operations Research Methods

  • 2. INTRODUCTION Operations Research is the method of analysis by which management receives aid for their decisions. Though the name of this method, Operation Research (O.R.) is relatively new, but the method used for this is not a new one. Operation Research is concerned with the application of the principles and the methods of science to the problems of strategy.
  • 3. HISTORY OF OPERATIONS RESEARCH  Operation Research is a relatively new discipline. It was really only in the late 1930's that operational research began in a systematic fashion, and it started in the UK.  The subject of operation research was born during Second World War in U.K., and was used for military strategy. After the World War II, it was started applying in the fields of industry, trade, agriculture, planning and various other fields of economy.
  • 4. MEANING OF OPERATIONS RESEARCH Operations Research is the method of analysis by which management receives aid for their decisions. Though the name of this method, Operation Research (O.R.) is relatively new, but the method used for this is not a new one. Operation Research is concerned with the application of the principles and the methods of science to the problems of strategy.
  • 5. DEFINITIONS OF OR  OR is the systematic application of quantitative methods, techniques and tools to the analysis of problems involving the operations of systems” – Daelenbash and George  “OR is a scientific approach to problem solving for executive management” – Wagner.
  • 6. GENERAL METHODS FOR SOLVING O.R MODELS Analytic method Iterative method Monte- Carlo method
  • 7. SCOPE OF OPERATION RESEARCH In Agriculture In Finance In Industry In Marketing In Personnel Management In Production
  • 8. APPLICATIONS OF OPERATIONS RESEARCH Accounting Construction Facilitate Planning Finance Manufacturing Marketing Human Resource Purchasing Research and Development
  • 9. CHARACTERISTICS (FEATURES) OF OPERATION RESEARCH (i) Inter-Disciplinary Team Approach (ii) Wholistic Approach to the System (iii) Methodological Approach (iv) Objective Approach (v) Decision Making Approach (vi) Digital Computer
  • 10. PHASES OF OPERATIONS RESEARCH (i) Judgment Phase (ii) Research Phase (iii) Action Phase
  • 11. LIMITATIONS OF OR i) Distance between O.R. specialist and Manager ii) Magnitude of Calculations iii) Money and Time Costs iv) Non-quantifiable Factors v) Implementation
  • 12. OR TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES Linear Programming Game Theory Decision Theory Queuing Theory Inventory Models Simulation Non-linear Programming Dynamic Programming Integer Programming Markov Process Network Scheduling Information Theory
  • 13. OR AND DECISION-MAKING i) Better Control ii) Better Coordination iii) Better System iv) Better Decisions