Andragogy Pedagogy Demands of learning Learner must balance life responsibilities with the Learner can devote more time to the demands of learning demands of learning. because responsibilities are minimal. Role of instructor Learners are autonomous and self directed. Teachers Learners rely on the instructor to direct the learning. Fact guide the learners to their own knowledge rather than based lecturing is often the mode of knowledge supplying them with facts. transmission. Life experiences Learners have a tremendous amount of life experiences. Learners are building a knowledge base and must be shown They need to connect the learning to their knowledge how their life experiences connect with the present learning. base. They must recognize the value of the learning. Purpose for learning Learners are goal oriented and know for what purpose Learners often see no reason for taking a particular course. they are learning new information They just know they have to learn the information. Permanence of learning Learning is self‐initiated and tends to last a long time. Learning is compulsory and tends to disappear shortly after instruction.
LEARNING STYLES AND STRATEGIES Richard M. Felder Hoechst Celanese Professor of Chemical Engineering North Carolina State University Barbara A. Soloman Coordinator of Advising, First Year College North Carolina State UniversityACTIVE AND REFLECTIVE LEARNERS • Active learners tend to retain and understand information best by doing something active with it-- discussing or applying it or explaining it to others. Reflective learners prefer to think about it quietly first. • "Lets try it out and see how it works" is an active learners phrase; "Lets think it through first" is the reflective learners response. • Active learners tend to like group work more than reflective learners, who prefer working alone. • Sitting through lectures without getting to do anything physical but take notes is hard for both learning types, but particularly hard for active learners.Everybody is active sometimes and reflective sometimes. Your preference for one category or the other may bestrong, moderate, or mild. A balance of the two is desirable. If you always act before reflecting you can jumpinto things prematurely and get into trouble, while if you spend too much time reflecting you may never getanything done.How can active learners help themselves?If you are an active learner in a class that allows little or no class time for discussion or problem-solvingactivities, you should try to compensate for these lacks when you study. Study in a group in which the memberstake turns explaining different topics to each other. Work with others to guess what you will be asked on thenext test and figure out how you will answer. You will always retain information better if you find ways to dosomething with it.How can reflective learners help themselves?If you are a reflective learner in a class that allows little or no class time for thinking about new information,you should try to compensate for this lack when you study. Dont simply read or memorize the material; stopperiodically to review what you have read and to think of possible questions or applications. You might find ithelpful to write short summaries of readings or class notes in your own words. Doing so may take extra time butwill enable you to retain the material more effectively.SENSING AND INTUITIVE LEARNERS • Sensing learners tend to like learning facts, intuitive learners often prefer discovering possibilities and relationships. • Sensors often like solving problems by well-established methods and dislike complications and surprises; intuitors like innovation and dislike repetition. Sensors are more likely than intuitors to resent being tested on material that has not been explicitly covered in class. • Sensors tend to be patient with details and good at memorizing facts and doing hands-on (laboratory) work; intuitors may be better at grasping new concepts and are often more comfortable than sensors with abstractions and mathematical formulations.
• Sensors tend to be more practical and careful than intuitors; intuitors tend to work faster and to be more innovative than sensors. • Sensors dont like courses that have no apparent connection to the real world; intuitors dont like "plug- and-chug" courses that involve a lot of memorization and routine calculations.Everybody is sensing sometimes and intuitive sometimes. Your preference for one or the other may be strong,moderate, or mild. To be effective as a learner and problem solver, you need to be able to function both ways. Ifyou overemphasize intuition, you may miss important details or make careless mistakes in calculations orhands-on work; if you overemphasize sensing, you may rely too much on memorization and familiar methodsand not concentrate enough on understanding and innovative thinking.How can sensing learners help themselves?Sensors remember and understand information best if they can see how it connects to the real world. If you arein a class where most of the material is abstract and theoretical, you may have difficulty. Ask your instructor forspecific examples of concepts and procedures, and find out how the concepts apply in practice. If the teacherdoes not provide enough specifics, try to find some in your course text or other references or by brainstormingwith friends or classmates.How can intuitive learners help themselves?Many college lecture classes are aimed at intuitors. However, if you are an intuitor and you happen to be in aclass that deals primarily with memorization and rote substitution in formulas, you may have trouble withboredom. Ask your instructor for interpretations or theories that link the facts, or try to find the connectionsyourself. You may also be prone to careless mistakes on test because you are impatient with details and dontlike repetition (as in checking your completed solutions). Take time to read the entire question before you startanswering and be sure to check your resultsVISUAL AND VERBAL LEARNERSVisual learners remember best what they see--pictures, diagrams, flow charts, time lines, films, anddemonstrations. Verbal learners get more out of words--written and spoken explanations. Everyone learns morewhen information is presented both visually and verbally.In most college classes very little visual information is presented: students mainly listen to lectures and readmaterial written on chalkboards and in textbooks and handouts. Unfortunately, most people are visual learners,which means that most students do not get nearly as much as they would if more visual presentation were usedin class. Good learners are capable of processing information presented either visually or verbally.How can visual learners help themselves?If you are a visual learner, try to find diagrams, sketches, schematics, photographs, flow charts, or any othervisual representation of course material that is predominantly verbal. Ask your instructor, consult referencebooks, and see if any videotapes or CD-ROM displays of the course material are available. Prepare a conceptmap by listing key points, enclosing them in boxes or circles, and drawing lines with arrows between conceptsto show connections. Color-code your notes with a highlighter so that everything relating to one topic is thesame color.How can verbal learners help themselves?
Write summaries or outlines of course material in your own words. Working in groups can be particularlyeffective: you gain understanding of material by hearing classmates explanations and you learn even morewhen you do the explaining.SEQUENTIAL AND GLOBAL LEARNERS • Sequential learners tend to gain understanding in linear steps, with each step following logically from the previous one. Global learners tend to learn in large jumps, absorbing material almost randomly without seeing connections, and then suddenly "getting it." • Sequential learners tend to follow logical stepwise paths in finding solutions; global learners may be able to solve complex problems quickly or put things together in novel ways once they have grasped the big picture, but they may have difficulty explaining how they did it.Many people who read this description may conclude incorrectly that they are global, since everyone hasexperienced bewilderment followed by a sudden flash of understanding. What makes you global or not is whathappens before the light bulb goes on. Sequential learners may not fully understand the material but they cannevertheless do something with it (like solve the homework problems or pass the test) since the pieces they haveabsorbed are logically connected. Strongly global learners who lack good sequential thinking abilities, on theother hand, may have serious difficulties until they have the big picture. Even after they have it, they may befuzzy about the details of the subject, while sequential learners may know a lot about specific aspects of asubject but may have trouble relating them to different aspects of the same subject or to different subjects.How can sequential learners help themselves?Most college courses are taught in a sequential manner. However, if you are a sequential learner and you havean instructor who jumps around from topic to topic or skips steps, you may have difficulty following andremembering. Ask the instructor to fill in the skipped steps, or fill them in yourself by consulting references.When you are studying, take the time to outline the lecture material for yourself in logical order. In the long rundoing so will save you time. You might also try to strengthen your global thinking skills by relating each newtopic you study to things you already know. The more you can do so, the deeper your understanding of the topicis likely to be.How can global learners help themselves?If you are a global learner, it can be helpful for you to realize that you need the big picture of a subject beforeyou can master details. If your instructor plunges directly into new topics without bothering to explain how theyrelate to what you already know, it can cause problems for you. Fortunately, there are steps you can take thatmay help you get the big picture more rapidly. Before you begin to study the first section of a chapter in a text,skim through the entire chapter to get an overview. Doing so may be time-consuming initially but it may saveyou from going over and over individual parts later. Instead of spending a short time on every subject everynight, you might find it more productive to immerse yourself in individual subjects for large blocks. Try torelate the subject to things you already know, either by asking the instructor to help you see connections or byconsulting references. Above all, dont lose faith in yourself; you will eventually understand the new material,and once you do your understanding of how it connects to other topics and disciplines may enable you to applyit in ways that most sequential thinkers would never dream of.
Performance Objective Verbs in the Cognitive DomainLevels of learning range from the lowest, “knowledge” to the highest,“evaluation.”Evaluation – Assessing the value of ideas and things. Involves acts of decision-making, judging, or selecting based on criteria and rationale. Requiressynthesis in order to evaluate.Appraise Discriminate Rank/RateAssess Estimate ResearchCheck Evaluate ReviewChoose Grade ReviseCompare Inspect ScoreCritique Judge SelectDecide on/to Measure ValueDetermine value of MonitorSynthesis – Assembling a whole into parts. Combines elements to form newentity from original one, the creative process. Requires analysis in order tosynthesize.Arrange Design ManageAssemble Determine OrganizeCollect Relationship of parts PlanCombine Diagnose PrepareCompose Differentiate ProposeConclude Dissect RefuteConstruct Examine Set upCreate FormulateAnalysis – Disassembling a whole into parts until relationship among parts isclear. Requires ability to apply information in order to analyze.Analyze Debate InventoryAppraise Diagram QuestionCalculate Differentiate RelateCategorize Distinguish SolveCompare Examine TestContract ExperimentCriticize Inspect
Application – Using what has been previously learned. Requires comprehensionof information in order to apply in new situation.Apply Illustrate ShopAssign Interpret SketchDemonstrate Operate UseDramatize PracticeEmploy ScheduleComprehension – Interprets, translates, summarizes or paraphrases giveninformation. Requires knowledge in order to demonstrate comprehension.Describe Identify RestateDiscuss Locate ReviewExplain Recognize TellExpress Report TranslateKnowledge – Remembering/recalling facts and specificsCite Name Select from a listDefine Recall StateGive Record Tell how toLabel Relate UnderlineList Repast Write directions forMatch
Performance Objective Verbs in the Psychomotor DomainThe list of verbs below is not a comprehensive list. It is presented as a list ofexamples to stimulate thinking. The particular verb to use is dependent on theterminology associated with the particular equipment or process in whichlearners are being trained. Performance in each of the verbs can be required atthe five levels immediately below; “imitation” the lowest level, “naturalization”, thehighest.Naturalization – Completes one or more skills with ease and becomesautomaticArticulation – Combines more than one skill in sequence with harmony andconsistencyPrecision – Reproduces a skill with accuracy, proportion and exactness. Usuallyperformed independent of original sourceManipulation – Performs skill according to instructor rather than observationImitation – Observes skill and attempts to repeat it.Add Collate DyeAdjust Collect EditAdvertise Conduct EndorseAlter Conserve EnhanceAnswer Construct EnterApply Control ExamineApportion Cook ExecuteArrange Cool ExhibitAssemble Coordinate FileAssist Copy FinishAttach Correct FixBalance Count FoldBill Create FormBuild Cut FormatBundle Deliver GatherBuy Demonstrate GougeCalibrate Design GradeCancel Diagram GridCare for Dictate GrowCarry out Direct GuideCenter Dismantle HandleChange Display HarvestCheck Distribute HelpClean Do HighlightClear Document HoldClip Draw ImplementClose Dry InsertCode Duplicate Inspect
Instruct Prepare SecureInterview Present SeedKeep Preserve SelectKey Preside SellKeyboard Press SeparateLayer Price ServeLay out Print ServiceLead Print out Set, set upLengthen Process SewLetter Produce ShearLift Program SharpenLine Promote ShortenLoad/reload Proof ShowLocate Proofread SimplifyLog Propagate SimulateLower Prove SitMaintain Provide SizeMake Prune SketchManage Punch SortMark Purchase SpliceMatch Put in SpreadMeasure Raise Start/restartMeet Read StratifyMix Receive SterilizeMount Recheck StitchMove Record StockNumber Recycle StoreObtain Refill TapeOpen Regulate TerminateOperate Remove ThankOrganize Renovate TransferPackage Repair TransplantPerceive Replace TransportPerform Replenish TreatPick up Reproduce TrimPin Respond TroubleshootPlace Retrieve TypePlant Root Use, utilizePlate Route VerifyPortion Run WashPosition Save WaterPost Scarify WearPot Screen WeedPower down Search WirePower up Season Work withPractice Seat Write
Performance Objective Verbs in the Affective DomainLevels of learning in the affective domain range from the lowest, “receiving” to thehighest, “characterizing.”Characterizing – Consistently behaves in a manner that predictably reflects the valuesystem.BelievePracticeContinue toCarry outOrganizing – Development of a values system.OrganizeSelectJudgeDecideIdentify withValuing – Sensing worth in a value.AttainAssumeSupportParticipateResponding – Minimal participationReplyAnswerFollow alongApproveContinueReceiving – Willingly hears or reads.Listen toPerceiveBe alert toShow tolerance ofObey
Task Analysis for Changing a Tire 1. Find a stable and safe place to work. You need a solid, level surface. Avoid soft ground and hills. If you are near a road, park as far from traffic as possible and turn on your emergency flashers (hazard lights). 2. Make sure that the car cannot roll. Apply the parking brake and put car in "Park" position or in first or reverse if using a standard transmission. If possible, it is a good idea to place a heavy object (such as a brick) in front of the front tire (if changing a rear tire), and vice‐versa. 3. Take out the spare tire and the jack. Place the jack under the frame near the tire that you are going to change. Make sure that you place it where it will meet the metal portion of the frame. 4. Raise the jack until it is supporting, but not lifting the car. The jack should be firmly in place against the underside of the vehicle. Make sure that it is lifting straight up and down. 5. Remove the hub cap and loosen the nuts by turning counterclockwise. Dont take them all the way off. Just break the resistance. Having the wheel on the ground means that youre turning the nuts instead of the wheel. Use the wrench that came with your car or a standard cross wrench. Your wrench may have different sizes of openings on different ends. Place the right size of the wrench on the lug nut. The right size is the one that slips easily over the nut but does not rattle. 6. Pump or crank the jack to lift the tire off the ground. You need to lift it high enough to remove the flat tire and to put the spare on it. As you lift, make sure that the car is stable. If you notice any instability, lower the jack and fix the problem before full lifting the car. If you notice the jack lifting at an angle or leaning, lower and reposition it so that it can lift straight up. Chock the tires if you notice the car starting to roll. You can use logs, large stones or other heavy, solid objects to help keep the car in place. 7. Remove the nuts the rest of the way. Turn them counter clockwise until they are loose. Repeat with all lug nuts, then remove the nuts completely. 8. Remove the tire. Place the flat tire under the vehicle so in event of jack failure the vehicle will fall on the old wheel, hopefully preventing injury. If the jack is placed on a flat, solid base, you shouldnt have any problems. 9. Place the spare tire on the hub. Take care to align the rim of the spare tire with the wheel bolts, then put on the lug nuts. Tighten the nuts by hand until they are all snug. They should turn easily at first. Using the wrench, tighten the nuts as much as possible. To ensure the tire is balanced, dont completely tighten the nuts one at a time. Going in a star pattern around the tire, one nut across from another, give each one a full turn until they are equally tight. Avoid using so much force that you risk upsetting the jack. You will tighten the lug nuts again once the car is down and there is no risk of it falling. 10. Lower the car to the ground. Do not put full weight on it yet. Finish tightening the nuts as much as possible. 11. Lower the car to the ground fully and remove the jack. Tighten the nuts again. Replace the hubcap. 12. Put the old tire in your trunk and take it to a mechanic. Small punctures can usually be repaired for less than $10. If the tire is not repairable, they can dispose of it properly and sell you a replacement. Objectives 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________
1 Resource List for Adult Learning, Learning Styles, and Instructional Design 1. The Learning Style Inventory. A self‐scoring questionnaire you can take to discover your learning style. http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/ILSpage.html 2. This is a nice article about Malcolm Knowles that goes through the development and components of his theory. It is quite interesting and a quick read. It makes a good introduction to the idea of adult learning and education and links it to other theories that he draws from. http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et‐knowl.htm 3. This is a good comprehensive website with clickable links so you can skip down to a particular part. It is broad and covers a lot but is not overwhelming to read. http://www.fsu.edu/~adult‐ed/jenny/learning.html 4. An excellent article by Richard Felder and Rebecca Brent entitled “Understanding Student Differences”: http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Papers/Understanding_Differences.pdf 5. A Dozen Teaching Tips for the Diverse Classroom: Article focuses on diverse student populations found in community colleges. http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/12tips.htm 6. This website leads to a synopsis of Dr. Oullette’s research on styles of learning in adults. There is a link to the presentation. http://polaris.umuc.edu/~rouellet/learnstyle/learnstyle.htm 7. This “About” website offers a very general overview of experiential adult learning based on Malcolm Knowles’ theory and has links to more resources for assessing and instructing adults. http://adulted.about.com/od/teachers/a/teachingadults.htm 8. This website is also a brief overview of learning styles and Kolb’s theory, specifically looking at Adults. Its very general but would be good to use in combination with the learning styles questionnaires, it references the inventory designed here at NCSU. http://www.educationforadults.com/Help‐Center/learningstyle.html 9. This website on the 7 habits of highly effective Adult Learning Programs has some good overall information and has a link to tips for teaching and learning. http://www.newhorizons.org/lifelong/workplace/billington.htm 10. The strategies link leads to more links that give articles on the various types of learning and intelligence. Each link leads to more and this group has a lot of information that can be searched as needed and based on what you’ re looking for at a particular time. http://www.newhorizons.org/strategies/front_strategies.html
2 11. This website provides a good broad overview of the concepts of adult learning in a paper by Stephen Brookfield of National Louis University. It covers: Research, Self Directed learning, Critical reflection, Experiential and learning how to Learn, Trends, Cross cultural Adult learning, Practical Theorizing, Distance Learning, and goes extensively into further research areas. There is also a long solid reference list and links to other papers by this author, and other faculty on the topic. http://www.nl.edu/academics/cas/ace/facultypapers/StephenBrookfield_AdultLearning.cfm 12. This is an extensive site about the history of instructional design from the University of Houston http://www.coe.uh.edu/courses/cuin6373/idhistory/index.html 13. A hugely popular site with instructional designers, Big Dog and Little Dog’s Juxtaposition is extensive in its materials about instructional systems design, with a focus on performance. http://www.nwlink.com/~Donclark/hrd/sat.html 14. This is a list of the skills and knowledges that are essential for competency in instructional design. http://www.coedu.usf.edu/it/resources/files/competen.html 15. On this website you will find a review of many of the theories and models that form the framework for the practice of instructional design. http://www.spsu.edu/htc/hughes/papers/interface.htm 16. This site provides an in‐depth introduction to instructional design and provides historical perspectives on the development of instructional systems design. http://www.whidbey.com/frodo/isd.htm 17. This is an article about instructional design where the designer is working with subject matter experts (SMEs). http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/coffs00/papers/mike_keppell.pdf 18. This is a link to a paper by Brent Wilson that suggests that instructional design should be performed based on the context of the learning. http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~bwilson/sitid.html 19. This site explains how to design instruction based on competencies. http://home.att.net/~jnimmer/Competency.htm 20. This site is an in‐depth resource about all facets of instructional design from models to evaluations. http://www.gdrc.org/info‐design/instruct/instruct.html 21. This site provides a tutorial on how to develop objectives using a Mager approach with a twist. http://edweb.sdsu.edu/courses/edtec540/objectives/objectiveshome.html 22. This site provides a tutorial focused on how to apply theory to instructional design. http://www.patsula.com/usefo/webbasedlearning/ 23. This website is full of great resources that are aimed at faculty at a community college. http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/adults‐2.htm