How the Americas Change:The Long 19th CenturyBy Susan HinerHistory 141Fall 2011
The Americas in the 19th Century• The Creole elites of Latin America • Civil wars occurred both in Latin dominated and conquered the native America and the United States. North people. America fought over slavery and• Mexico had many governments ruled by individual state rights and Latin armies too powerful for the middle-class America’s war was for independence and peasant workers who fought for land from Spanish and Portuguese rule. and liberty in the Mexican revolution • The Americas won their independence (1911-1920) from European powers, however, we are struggling still today to obtain freedom, equality and a constitutional government.
The Americas in the 19th Century • Growth and power caused the • Canada’s growth was due to the natives of each nation to be either British loyalists moving from the relocated or forced into a society U.S. Britain granted Canada their formed by the new government independence and although there leaders. were political and ethnic differences • Millions of immigrants from between the French and British Europe and Asia to America Canadians, they were resolved for increased the population and fear of a U.S. invasion of their economic growth, causing western territories. expansion and the Mexican- American War.
The Little Ice Age • Northern Europeans • Napoleon retreats from Russia to immigrated to the U.S due to Vilnius resulting in the death of the cold weather. 90,000 men who starved or froze during their trek, and only 4-5 • English defeated the Spanish thousand survived of the 40,000 Armada by blocking their who made it to Vilnius. ships which were later • George Washington’s Battle of destroyed by the storm. Trenton was won with his surprise attack against Britain, crossing an ice clogged Delaware River.
Frontiers of the Americas • Colonial wars in South America between the Spanish and Portuguese as well as civil wars from 1763 lasting for 160 years were major factors in the culture and politics, including the Catholic Church. • Brazilian politics focused on family and their differing government views resulting in revolts. • Due to the type of land in Brazilian-Uruguayan area, cattle slaughtering was the accepted gaucho culture which led to brutal human violence. It was socially accepted and honorable to slit someone’s throat in public to settle a dispute between class and race differences. • Pride, greed, hatred and competition led men to violence to determine who was better with a knife and who his enemies were.
Frontiers of the Americas • In 1803 the U.S. purchased all or part • The Haitian Revolution occurred of 15 states and two Canadian between slaves and French colonists who provinces from France for $15 million, owned the profitable colony of Saint- known as the Louisiana Purchase, Domingue. which doubled the size of the U.S. • If the Haitians had not revolted and • New Orleans was a major trade port to succeeded, the slave rebellion in the U.S. France and Spain. The purchase by may have decreased as well as the Thomas Jefferson ensured American number of refugees. Expansion would be trade access, previously blocked by reduced if France decided to keep Spain. Louisiana. • A Swiss artist, Karl Bodmer and a German scientist and native cultural historian, Prince Maximilan zu Wied, visited the native U.S. Indians resulting in important historical records of the tribes from their paintings and diaries.
Crossroads of FreedomEuropean Powers• Battlefield events and cotton • Both Britain and France abolished exports from the south were slavery and Britain opposed the important to Britain and France. Confederates of America issue on• The Confederates wanted to slavery, even though it was slaves persuade the British to break the that grew the cotton. Union blockade of exports. Also, • After Antietam and the they wanted diplomatic recognition Emancipation Proclamation by to ensure Confederate success, President Lincoln, the majority of which may have provoked a the British people thought it was a possible war with the United turning point in our history. It had a States. positive and wide effect on the British politicians and other European nations.
Crossroads of FreedomNews & Morale• Newspapers were widely read and the editorials were sometimes exaggerated as in the case of Lee’s invasion of Maryland. The New York Herald predicted mass destruction and farmers in Pennsylvania moved north and the archives were shipped to New York.• Wall Street stocks and value of the dollar fell after the North was defeated in the Seven Days Battles in July 1862. The press predicted a July 4th victory at Richmond before the battle engaged. Northern newspapers wrote upsetting stories of British intervention before the news reached Europe.• After the Union captured Norfolk, the New York Herald wrote that Virginia would be next. Panic arose, gold reserves set for evacuation as well as Jefferson Davis’ family and Cabinet members. Rumors flew and denials of them were ignored.• Public Opinion and morale was an important factor• Army of the Potomac received a warm welcome from the Maryland folks which increased morale.
Crossroads of FreedomGeorge B. McClellan• “The Young Napoleon” George B. McClellan was a Union General who was much admired by his troops. He always overestimated enemy strength, however he succeeded in organizing his men.• McClellan frequently held back on attacking or waiting for Washington to send more men or voicing his concerns about being outnumbered or the road conditions. He took no initiative without absolute assurance of success.• President Lincoln was urged by his cabinet members to dismiss McClellan, however there was no other alternative, until November 7 1862 when he finally ordered General Burnside to take command.
Crossroads of FreedomSharpsburg • General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson was brilliant, bold, mobile and took chances. • General Robert E. Lee decided to divide his army to attack in four areas. He issued Special Orders No. 191 which was found by a Corporal in the Union army. McClellan was made aware of the plans but did not act immediately, which gave Lee time to attack. • Harpers Ferry surrendered to Jackson’s army. • Lee’s confederate army was not totally destroyed or beaten but they did retreat, and lost almost a quarter of all troops because they were outnumbered. • The Union was victorious at Antietam, however more lives were lost on September 17, 1862 than in any other day in American history.