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Prokaryotes

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Prokaryotes

  1. 1. PROKARYOTES Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea (Chapter 16, sections 7-17) I. Characteristics of Prokaryotes • A. Sizes and shapes • coccus bacillus spirillum p.334 1
  2. 2. I. Characteristics of Prokaryotes • A. Sizes and shapes • B. No nucleus Bacterial Genes • Bacteria have a single chromosome – Circular molecule of DNA • Many bacteria also have plasmids – Self-replicating circle of DNA that has a few genes – Can be passed from one cell to another 2
  3. 3. cytoplasm, with ribosomes DNA, in nucleoid pilus bacterial flagellum outer capsule cell wall plasma membrane Fig. 21-2, p.334 I. Characteristics of Prokaryotes • A. Sizes and shapes • B. No nucleus • C. Most have cell walls • cytoplasm, with ribosomes DNA, in nucleoid pilus bacterial flagellum outer capsule cell wall plasma membrane Fig. 21-2, p.334 3
  4. 4. Prokaryotic Body Plan DNA capsule plasma ribosomes in membrane cytoplasm bacterial flagellum pilus cytoplasm cell wall Gram + Gram - Relates to level of peptidoglycan in cell wall Fig. 21-4, p.335 4
  5. 5. I. Characteristics of Prokaryotes • A. Sizes and shapes • B. No nucleus • C. Most have cell walls • D. Flagella • E. Pili cytoplasm, with ribosomes DNA, in nucleoid pilus bacterial flagellum outer capsule cell wall plasma membrane Fig. 21-2, p.334 Fig. 21-3c, p.335 5
  6. 6. sex pilus Conjugation Transfer of plasmid Fig. 21-6, p.337 I. Characteristics of Prokaryotes • A. Sizes and shapes • B. No nucleus • C. Most have cell walls • D. Flagella • E. Pili • F. Metabollic diversity 6
  7. 7. I. Characteristics of Prokaryotes • A. Sizes and shapes • B. No nucleus • C. Most have cell walls • D. Flagella • E. Pili • F. Metabollic diversity • G. Reproduce by fission 7
  8. 8. II. Prokaryotic growth and reproduction • Growth through numbers • Processes Stepped Art Fig. 21-5, p.335 Fig. 21-5, p.335 8
  9. 9. III. Classifying Prokaryotes • Lots of gaps, very diverse group • Biochemical analysis III. Classifying Prokaryotes • Lots of gaps, very diverse group • Biochemical analysis • Often use numerical taxonomy/strains for comparative purposes. Biochemical analysis indicated first genetic divergences occurred soon after life originated. to ancestors of eukaryotic cells DOMAIN BACTERIA DOMAIN ARCHAEA biochemical and molecular origin of life p.337 9
  10. 10. IV. Domain Bacteria • A. Representative Groups Bacterial Diversity Fig. 21-7a, p.338 Bacteria • Includes most familiar bacteria • Have fatty acids in plasma membrane • Most have cell wall; always includes peptidoglycan • Classification based largely on metabolism 10
  11. 11. Bacterial Diversity • Photoautotrophic – Aerobic (Cyanobacteria) – Anaerobic (Green bacteria) • Chemoautotrophic – Important in nitrogen cycle • Chemoheterotrophic – Largest group Cyanobacteria resting spore photo- synthetic cell heterocyst Fig. 21-8a, p.339 11
  12. 12. Proteobacteria Monophyletic, gram - Example: Rhizobium sp. Chlamydia • Parasitic within animals to obtain ATP • One genus – species produce STD 12
  13. 13. Spirochaetes Borelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) Gram positives Not a monophyletic group 13
  14. 14. DNA spore coat capsule around cell wall Fig. 21-8d, p.339 14
  15. 15. V. Domain Archaea V. Domain Archaea • A. How they differ from bacteria • How they are similar to eukaryotes clip 15
  16. 16. •Forms Fig. 21-11a, p.340 Fig. 21-11b, p.340 Archaens Methanogens Extreme halophiles Extreme thermophiles Cryophiles 16
  17. 17. Smallest known cell .. Nanoarchaeum equitans Fig. 21-12c, p.341 17

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