Shared Writing Overview of the presentation• Shared Writing What is shared writing? Steps in shared writing Role of teacher Role of student Time taken for shared writing and materials needed• Why is shared writing important?• Example of shared writing• How can it be used with students?• The ultimate goal of shared writing• References
What is shared writing? Shared writing is an instructional approach to teach writing to students by writing with them. The idea is to teach writing through writing. The process of writing is demonstrated by the teacher through a ‘write aloud’ process. The teacher acts as a scribe while the students contribute ideas. In other words, the pen is always in the teacher’s hand.
Steps in shared writing• Teacher establishes purpose of shared writing session• Teacher brainstorms ideas with a student or whole class• Teacher chooses one idea out of many with students• Teacher invites students to elaborate on the idea• Teacher and students compose the text together -Teacher models the process of writing -Teacher focuses on specific elements of writing -Teacher and students revise the text together• Celebrate writing by publishing, reading aloud, sharing it with the class
Steps in shared Role of the Role of the teacherwriting studentEstablish the purpose Student listens Teacher establishes the purpose ofof writing and writing E.g.: writing a narrative piece, participates in exercising imagination, writing poems, the talk using descriptive wordsBrainstorm ideas Students Teacher records the ideas on a charttogether contribute paper ideasChoose ‘a’ topic Zero down on Teachers helps decide which idea to one idea to choose. write aboutElaborate on ideas Elaborates on Teacher helps elaborate by asking the ideas guided questions – What else do you think you can add? What might make it sound better? etc.Model the process of Student Teacher explicitly models the writingwriting answers process. Teacher explains each teacher’s decision she makes and the reasons for questions, the same. For example, if focus is on gives his/her using descriptive words, and teacher opinion on uses one word over other, she explains what teacher the reason for it. She also invites
Steps in shared Role of the Role of the teacherwriting studentModel the process of Student Re-reads the sentences before writingwriting answers them down, to provide students with teacher’s insights on how to compose a questions, sentence. gives his/her opinion on Reads sentences over and over again what teacher to ensure flow of sentences. Asks says. students, ‘Now does it sound better. “ Provides enough wait time for students to think and respond. If students find it challenging to respond, teacher asks guided questions to elicit responses. Teaches different genres of writing and explicitly models the structure during this stage.
Steps in shared writing Role of the Role of the teacher studentRevise together Student Teacher reads the text and asks participates in the the students, ‘Does the text flow discussion with well? Can I add more sentences to teacher/peers. make it sound better? Can I add more detail?Final piece Student reads it Teacher reviews all the elements aloud to the of writing addressed during the teacher session.Celebrate writing Students share it Teachers provides means/ideas to with the class the students to share their writing through and provides positive classroom reinforcement by highlighting their newsletters, with strengths in writing- creativity, parents, class good use of verbs, variety in blogs, writing sentence structure, etc. journals.
Setting, time taken and materials usedSetting Informal In a safe and comfortable environment In the class or at homeTime taken 15-20 minutes per sessionMaterials used Markers, chart papers, magnets, rulers
Why is shared writing important?Regie Routman (1994) lists several benefits of utilizing the shared writing strategy with students. Some of these include the recognition that shared writing: • Reinforces and supports reading as well as writing • Makes it possible for all students to participate • Encourages close examination of texts, words, and options of authors • Demonstrates the conventions of writing-spelling, punctuation, and grammar • Focuses on composing and leaves transcribing to the teacher(quoted from http://www.teachervision.fen.com/reading-and-language-arts/skill-builder/48883.html)Helps build motivation and increases confidence in struggling readers.It is a step towards independent writing
Example of Shared Writing• Student’s name: Mac• Grade: 3• Teacher: Sushree• Purpose of the session: Exercising imagination to write a free verse poem• Time taken for the session: 20 minutes• Materials used: Paper, pen• Setting: One-on-one Source of the idea: Pg. 57, Exercising the imagination, Craft Lessons:Teaching Writing K-8, Ralph Fletcher, Joann Portalupi.
Writing a poem together• Discussed purpose of the session – writing a free verse poem together, exercising imagination, understanding how a poem is different from prose• Brainstormed ideas for poem together.• Zeroed in on - What if….• Chose one topic from the list Mac suggested – What if I was a tree• Elaborated on the idea using mind map.
Elaborating on the idea chosenThe smaller circlesrepresent the ideaslisted by Mac. Give shade to people Make What If I house, boat for was a tree people Make painting for my friend
First draftIf I was a treeI would make shade for peopleI would make house for peopleI would make boats for peopleI would make paintings with branchesWe decided to add details to this poem. We then elaborated on eachidea. I asked him these questions: WHY do you want to make shade forpeople? WHY do you want to make houses for people? WHY do youwant to make boats for people? WHY do you want to make paintingswith branches?The idea was to elicit further responses from Mac and make histhinking more visible.
Second draftIf I was a treeI would make shade for peopleSo they won’t be hot anymoreAnd they could be happyIf I was a treeI would make house for peopleSo they won’t be homelessIf I was a treeI would make boats for peopleSo they could sail to oceanIf I was a treeI would make paintings with branchesAnd gift it to my friendSo he could sell the paintingAnd get moneyThe lines in red represent the additions made. Then I asked Mac, ‘Do you think it is a good idea to add the line – andthey could be happy’ to the other stanzas too?’ Mac said, ‘Yes, that sounds better. The repetition sounds good.’
Final draftIf I was a treeI would make shade for peopleSo they won’t be homelessAnd they could be happyIf I was a treeI would make house for peopleSo they won’t be homelessAnd they could be happyIf I was a treeI would make boats for peopleSo they could sail to ocean Mac’s illustration – Can you guess what is happening here?And they could be happyIf I was a treeI would make paintings with branchesAnd gift it to my friendSo he could sell the paintingAnd get moneyAnd he could be happy
How can shared writing be used withstudents?• One-on-one with struggling students• As a whole class activity• With partners, collaboration with peers• As a part of writer’s workshops• At home with parents• Making lists, making cards, greeting, morning messages in class, classroom newsletters
The ultimate goal of shared writing is to getstudents motivated to write more, write better and writeindependently.
References• Fletcher R. and Portalupi J., Craft lessons: Teaching Writing K-8, Second Edition, Stenhouse Publishes.• Payne C. D and Schulman M. B., Getting the most out of morning message and other shared writing , Scholastic.• Cohen V. L. and Cowan J. E., Literacy for children in an information age: Teaching Reading, Writing, and Thinking, First Edition, Wadsworth Publishing.• Burkhardt R. M., Writing for real: Strategies for Engaging Adolescent Writers, Stenhouse Publishers.• http://www.teachervision.fen.com/reading-and-language-arts/skill- builder/48883.html• http://www.ncte.org/library/NCTEFiles/Resources/Journals/LA/0783- jan01/LA0783Reading.pdf• http://www.readwritethink.org/professional-development/strategy- guides/shared-writing-30686.html