The main objective of this presentation is to obtain first-hand knowledge on
how Control station works and how it can be applied to the main work field of
Engineering and Technology.
It is our heartiest gratitude to respected SMT. JAYITA DUTTA, faculty and
guide through-out this project work for her professional
guidance, advice, motivation, endurance and encouragements during her supervision
period. The present work would have never been possible without her vital supports
and valuable assistance.
Needless to mention that she has rendered her whole -hearted support and help
to make this project a success.
It is only because of her and our all-out effort that we could draw up to this
extent in such a field of excellence in the present days of Science and
Modern Industrial plants are always at the risk of fire since lot of toxin inflammable
gases are often present, the temperature is also high. These are normally unmanned
machinery space. Supervisory rooms are always away from the actual plant. All light
fixtures are explosion proof.
Some sensing devices are placed at certain places where chances of possible explosion
and danger persists.
The sensing elements provide an alarm for certain barrier conditions when it exceeds
certain desired set values. Mainly temperature fire smoke sensor are used in the
circuit to obtain a precautionary measure from any sort of casualties what so ever
may pose due to out burst certain flames.
To sense fire:
Even a small short circuit or lighting an
agarbatti may result to buzzing the alarm:
Fire can be sensed by:
• All these three things are to be sensed to sense a fire.
• To sense a fire we need a high range of heat, smoke
• Not easy to depict in our project.
• Range are minimized.
Device used to measure temperature of medium:
• Contact sensor
• Non-contact sensor
Mostly in use
Calibrated directly in ° Celsius (Centigrade)
Linear + 10.0 mV/°C scale factor
0.5°C accuracy observed (at +25°C)
Rated for full −55° to +150°C range
Suitable for remote applications
Low cost due to wafer-level trimming
Operates from 4 to 30 volts
Less than 60 μA current drain
Low self-heating, 0.08°C in still air
Nonlinearity only ±1⁄4°C typical
Low impedance output, 0.1 W for 1 mA load
Precision Centigrade Temperature Sensors
An experiment showing the Linear
characteristics of LM 35
1. Here we have taken the IC of LM 35on a bread board and given a power supply.
2. The output of IC is observed using a voltmeter.
3. The heat is given to the IC with a soldering iron.
4. We have assumed the temperature while implementing in practical.
2 28 0.028
4 30 0.030
6 32 0.032
8 35 0.035
10 38 0.038
12 40 0.040
14 42 0.042
OF LM 35
80C48 and 80C80/85 Bus Compatible - No Interfacing
Conversion Time < 100μs
Easy Interface to Most Microprocessors
Will Operate in a “Stand Alone” Mode
Differential Analog Voltage Inputs
Works with Band gap Voltage References
TTL Compatible Inputs and Outputs
On-Chip Clock Generator
Analog Voltage Input Range
(Single + 5V Supply) 0V to 5V
No Zero-Adjust Required
80C48 and 80C80/85 Bus Compatible - No Interfacing
Pin number Output voltage
11 2.56 v
o Input bias current is about 80 nA
o Input offset current is about 10 nA
o Input impedance is about 2 Megohms
o Common mode voltage should be within +/-12V for +/-
o Output impedance is about 75 ohms.
o Voltage gain rolls off 6dB per octave starting at 100kHz.
o finite input offset
o input offset is typically 2mV to <6mV.
o slew rate is 0.5V/microsecond.
Detects smoke typically as an indicator of fire.
Most smoke detectors work by
optical detection (photoelectric)
physical process (ionization),
both detection methods to increase sensitivity to smoke.
Sensitive alarms are used to detect and determine in banned places.
usually powered by a central fire alarm system
TYPES OF SMOKE DETECTORS:
1. Optical smoke detector
2. Ionization smoke detector
3. Photoelectric Smoke Detector
4. Photoelectric Light Scattering Smoke Detector
5. Photoelectric Light Obscuration Smoke Detector
o Device that is used to detect light.
o Photocell is a small sensor that changes its resistance when light shines on it
o A charged coupled device (CCD) transports electrically charged signals, and is used as
a light sensor in digital cameras and night-vision devices.
o Photomultipliers detect light and multiply it.
o Used in scientific devices.
o SECURITY DEVICES:
1. burglar alarm
2. garage door opener
PROPOSED ONE FOR FUTURE
1) Sounds a fire alarm to attract attention.
2) If the reset SW is not pressed within 30
seconds, the projects takes further action
3) Shut down the plant,
4) Start sprinkling
5) Make an emergency call to , deliver an
emergency message .
6) It will call five times at the interval
of one minute and again check for the
smoke, if smoke is still present it will
continue to do so otherwise start monitoring
Up to 4K Bytes Internal Program
Up to 128 Bytes Internal Data
8 bit Data bus
16 bit address bus
Up to 128 Special Function Regis
32 general purpose register.
Two 16-bit timer/counters.
Features of 74245(BUFFER)
Bi-Directional bus transceiver
high-density 20-pin package
3-STATE outputs drive bus lines directly
PNP inputs reduce DC loading on bus lines
Hysteresis at bus inputs improve noise
IOL (sink current)- 24 mA
IOH (source current)- 15 mA
FEATURES of P89021(OTP):
· Standard CMOS process.
· Embedded 512K/256K bits EPROM.
· 21sec Voice Length at 6KHz sampling.
· Maximum 12 voice groups.
· 960 table entries are available for voice
· Two triggering modes are available
(EPROM programmable options).
- Key Trigger Mode.
- CPU Parallel Trigger Mode.
· Voice Group Trigger Options: Edge / Level.