Person Job Fit Person Variables
Person Job Fit <ul><li>Concept  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Matching of  personal  characteristics  with the requirements of j...
<ul><li>Major dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Personal/ biographical characteristics (age, gender,  </li></ul></ul><ul>...
<ul><ul><li>Popular belief: performance declines with age  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive qualities:  </li></ul></ul>...
<ul><ul><li>Productivity: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age and productivity not directly related </li></ul></ul></ul><ul...
Gender & Job Performance <ul><ul><li>A highly debated issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No conclusive evidence of major dif...
Marital Status & Job Performance <ul><ul><li>Job value increase with marriage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause-effect rela...
Tenure & Job Performance <ul><ul><li>A controversial issue  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity: </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Ability <ul><li>Fact: People differ in terms of their abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Issue: How abilities differ in people </...
Intellectual Ability <ul><li>Cognitive intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to understand complex ideas, ad...
Intellectual Ability <ul><li>Cognitive intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals possess these dimensions in varying...
Intellectual Ability <ul><li>Practical intelligence ( doing smart ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adeptness at solving the practi...
Physical Abilities <ul><li>The capacity to engage in the physical tasks required to perform a job such as: </li></ul><ul><...
Ability Job Fit <ul><ul><li>A high ability-job fit necessary for improved job performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need ...
Value & Value System <ul><li>Value </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The most stable or enduring human characteristic </li></ul></...
Value & Value System <ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determines behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul...
Value & Value System <ul><li>Rokeach’s values types </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Terminal values </li></ul></ul></ul></ul...
Types of Value <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Terminal values </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 A comfortable life </li>...
Personality <ul><li>Popular notion </li></ul><ul><li>The descriptive: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adjective approach (e.g. e...
Personality <ul><li>Concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How people affect others, how they understand and view themselv...
Determinants of Personality <ul><li>Can the person do X? </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Ability </li></ul><...
Personality <ul><li>Fundamental issue concerning personality development: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Nature or nurture?  ...
Understanding & Prediction Basic physiological & psychological characteristics   (heredity, brain, self-concept) <ul><ul><...
Personality Traits <ul><li>16 PF </li></ul><ul><li>MBTI </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E vs I </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><...
Personality Traits & Performance <ul><li>Traits: general indicators of work performance and behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><u...
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Person Job Fit1=3

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Person Job Fit1=3

  1. 1. Person Job Fit Person Variables
  2. 2. Person Job Fit <ul><li>Concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Matching of personal characteristics with the requirements of job. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Importance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive performance/behavioral outcomes (higher performance, greater satisfaction, lower absenteeism and turnover, more organization citizenship behavior, less stress etc). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person profiling and job profiling. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Major dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Personal/ biographical characteristics (age, gender, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>marital status, tenure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Perception and attribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Learning </li></ul></ul>Person Profiling
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>Popular belief: performance declines with age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive qualities: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>experience, judgement, a strong work ethic and commitment to quality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative qualities: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lack of flexibility and resistant to technology </li></ul></ul></ul>Age & Job Performance
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Productivity: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age and productivity not directly related </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical loss of ability offset by gain in experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed findings: positive to U-shaped relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Among professionals: continuing increase in satisfaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Among non-professionals: decline during middle age and increase in the latter years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turnover: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less likely </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absenteeism: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less avoidable, more unavoidable absence </li></ul></ul></ul>Age & Job Performance
  6. 6. Gender & Job Performance <ul><ul><li>A highly debated issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No conclusive evidence of major differences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Productivity: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No consistent differences in problem solving ability, analytical skills, competitive drive, motivation, sociability, or learning ability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minor psychological differences: women more conformists and men more aggressive and ambitious </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No difference </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Turnover: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed evidence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Absenteeism: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High rate among women </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Marital Status & Job Performance <ul><ul><li>Job value increase with marriage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause-effect relations not very clear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effects not fully researched </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turnover: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absenteeism: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Tenure & Job Performance <ul><ul><li>A controversial issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive relationship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive relationship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turnover: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negative relationship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absenteeism: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negative relationship </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Ability <ul><li>Fact: People differ in terms of their abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Issue: How abilities differ in people </li></ul><ul><li>Ability: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 A person’s capacity to perform various tasks in a job </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of ability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Intellectual: cognitive, practical and emotional intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Physical </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Intellectual Ability <ul><li>Cognitive intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to understand complex ideas, adapt effectively to the environment, learn from experience, engage in various forms of reasoning, and overcome obstacles by careful thought </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core dimensions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂊 Number aptitude </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂊 Verbal comprehension </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂊 Perceptual speed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂊 Inductive reasoning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂊 Deductive reasoning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂊 Spatial visualization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂊 Memory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Intellectual Ability <ul><li>Cognitive intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals possess these dimensions in varying proportion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different jobs place different demands with respect to these dimensions for successful performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement through IQ and GMAT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A high IQ not a prerequisite for all jobs (routine work) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests involving assessment of verbal, numerical, spatial and perceptual abilities are valid predictors at all levels of jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses in selection, placement, promotion and training </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Intellectual Ability <ul><li>Practical intelligence ( doing smart ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adeptness at solving the practical problems of everyday life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to devise effective ways of getting things done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More important than IQ in business setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tacit knowledge (knowing how to get things done) as opposed to formal academic knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂊 Action oriented </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂊 Practically useful </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Physical Abilities <ul><li>The capacity to engage in the physical tasks required to perform a job such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Strength </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Flexibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Stamina </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual and job differences in these abilities </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Ability Job Fit <ul><ul><li>A high ability-job fit necessary for improved job performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for identifying abilities requirements of the job for adequate performance and for measuring those abilities in individuals to establish the fit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of fit leads to performance problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If, Ability < Job Requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>basic cause of poor performance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability > Job Requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>organizational inefficiency and job dissatisfaction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Value & Value System <ul><li>Value </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The most stable or enduring human characteristic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A fundamental conviction that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains a judgemental element: right or wrong </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has content (a mode of conduct or end-state is important) and intensity (how important is it) attributes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Value system </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Ranking of values in terms of their intensity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Value & Value System <ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determines behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has emotive/ feeling base </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contributes to human identity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is relatively permanent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has common/ universal applications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Importance </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drives, motivates and governs the way people think, behave, and relate to other people and the society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basis for understanding attitudes, motivation and perception </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Value & Value System <ul><li>Rokeach’s values types </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Terminal values </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desirable end-states of existence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumental values </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preferable modes of behaviors (means of achieving terminal values) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Types of Value <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Terminal values </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 A comfortable life </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 An exciting life </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 A sense of accomplishment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 A world at peace </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 A world of beauty </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Equality </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Family security </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Freedom </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Happiness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Inner harmony </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Mature love </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumental values </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Ambitious </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Broad minded </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Capable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Cheerful </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Clean </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Courageous </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Forgiving </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Helpful </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Honest </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Imaginative </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Independent </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Personality <ul><li>Popular notion </li></ul><ul><li>The descriptive: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adjective approach (e.g. external appearance and social success) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only a partial explanation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychological perspective: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differences and similarities in individuals (different and similar ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>􀂄 Personality account for and explain these similarities and differences in people. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Personality <ul><li>Concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How people affect others, how they understand and view themselves, their pattern of inner and outer measurable traits, and the person-situation interaction. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The unique and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts and emotions of individuals in response to a situation. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Role of personality in OB </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helps in understanding and predicting how people are likely to behave in various situations. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Determinants of Personality <ul><li>Can the person do X? </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Ability </li></ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this the kind of person who is inclined to do X? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul></ul>Elements of person <ul><ul><li>The person does or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>does not do X </li></ul></ul>Will the person do X? <ul><ul><li>Does the setting encourage/discourage the person to do X? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situational demands </li></ul></ul>Elements of situation
  22. 22. Personality <ul><li>Fundamental issue concerning personality development: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Nature or nurture? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(heredity, brain, genetic factors vs. situational/ environmental factors) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Both (inter-actionistic view) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Understanding & Prediction Basic physiological & psychological characteristics (heredity, brain, self-concept) <ul><ul><li>Situational factors (family, group, role, work, organization, culture) </li></ul></ul>Individual Personality <ul><ul><li>Learning processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(consequences of behaviors) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Personality Traits <ul><li>16 PF </li></ul><ul><li>MBTI </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E vs I </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>J vs P </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S vs N </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T vs F </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Big Five </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional stability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extraversion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreeableness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Openness to experience </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Personality Traits & Performance <ul><li>Traits: general indicators of work performance and behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness: strongest positive correlation with job performance and other job variables in most studies; mixed results in recent studies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other traits also positively related to performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negative effect also (e.g. extraversion and absenteeism) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>􀂄 Personnel selection, placement, training and development, work assignment, job design, team formation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>

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