• The GLASS CEILING-Women, Racial, Minorities…. Difference and Inequality• "A gender or racial difference that is not explained by other job-relevant characteristics of the employee."• "A gender or racial difference that is greater at higher levels of an outcome than at lower levels of an outcome.• "A gender or racial inequality in the chances of advancement into higher levels"• "A gender or racial inequality that increases over the course of a career."
• Why in HR?Impact an organizations reputation,customer loyalty, diversity of skill sets, growth potential and even its bottom line.• Gender biased diversity, Sexual discrimination …..
Levels of glass ceiling barriersSocietal barriersInternal business barriersGovernmental barriersOther barriers
Studies Study by David R. Hekman• White men receive significantly higher customer satisfaction scores than equally well-performing women and minority employees.• White male doctors were rated as more approachable and competent than equally-well performing women or minority doctors.• Customer ratings tend to be inconsistent with objective indicators of performance. Occupational segregation• Women hold only 16% of the top executive positions in America’s largest corporations and enterprises.• Full-time working women is only 70.5% of full-time working men.• Earning gap mid 30s($$) to mid 50s($$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$)
Corporate Glass Ceiling • Prevents qualified women from advancing upward into senior management level positions. • Discriminatory barrier that prevents women from rising to positions of power or responsibility, as within a corporation.
Reasons for the Corporate Glass Ceiling LATE 1970s – EARLY 1980s MID – LATE 1980’s Women lacked required • Trends started changing experience and skills • More women took up higher education in management • Looked for careers in operating areas They were restricted to clerical and other support services jobs
Factors that prevent women from rising through the corporates • Family responsibilities • Paid less than men • Sex Discrimination • Sign of racism • Job segregation • Sexual Harassment
Women Managers are praised for:► Soft Skills► Caring► Understanding► Good teamwork► Good communication skills► Patience►Style of Management► Unique skills
Approaches towards Glass Ceiling• Encourage women to assimilate, to adopt more masculine attribute.• Accommodate the unique needs and situations of women e.g.. Extended maternity leave, rooms for nursing infants
Continued.. • Forgo assimilation and accommodation and instead emphasize the differences that women bring to workplace. • Emphasize existing systems can be reinvented by altering the everyday practices in which biases are expressed
Signs of the Glass Ceiling•Median earnings of female full-time workers were 17% lower than theearnings of their male counterparts and that 30% of the variation ingender wage gaps• Womens hourly earnings were 17.5 % lower on average• The female-to-male earnings ratio was 0.77 in the United States in 2009.• In 2002 the median total compensation of male CEOs in non profitorganizations was $147,085, approximately 50% higher than the mediantotal of female CEOs ($98,108) in similar settings.• Corporate policies and practices.• Work/life balance challenges.• Difference in life style.
International studies on Glass CeilingAccording to studies, – Opportunities for womens advancement have greatly improved in the past five years. – Disadvantaged due to the lack of organizational support . – All women managers in the study stated they hit the glass ceiling in their organizations early in their careers . – Only 25% believed they could make it to the top of their professions.
Continued… – Women are perceived to be disadvantaged, compared with men, regarding international mobility, balancing work and personal responsibilities. – Women in international assignments tend to be more isolated than their male – Counterparts, often lacking formal support, such as mentors and networks, from their organizations.
Recommendations Examine the Organizational culture. Policies & practices Informal culture Drive change through management commitment. Support top management. Ensure diversity &accountability Foster inclusion. Establish & lead a change Develop & implement retention.
Cont…. Educate and support women in career development. Support develop & utilization of women network Create & implement. Measure for change monitoring strategies, determining leadership , Evaluate & measure explore reason why women leave organization.
Conclusion • Barriers to women advancement still exist. • Have knowledge about labor laws and regulations before going on foreign assignment • HR has significant role to play • Seek challenging assignments and task consistently. • No matter how things become….Don’t give up.. Believe in yourself.