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Detection of
Narcotic
substance in hair
Presented by
Sushma Sharma
M.Sc. Forensic (F) Science
Roll no – 11
Contents
 Introduction
 Significance of Drug testing from hair
 Mechanisms of drug incorporation into hair
 Hair sample collection and preparation
 Separation of drugs from hair matrix
 Hair analysis techniques
 Advantages of hair analysis
 Disadvantages of hair analysis
 Case study
 Conclusion
References
Introduct
ion Millions of drugs and medications have been used by the
society since the very beginning. So many of peoples start
using drugs excessively for their benefits.
 Drug abuse a major cause of social problems worldwide.
Drugs which are mainly involved in drug of abuse are
narcotic substance which includes all the drugs which are
prohibited by law like cocaine, amphetamine,
metamphetamine, morphine, PCP, heroine etc.
 Undoubtedly blood and urine are the routine samples of
choice for drug analysis. Nowadays, besides blood and urine,
hair is being recognized as an alternative and fundamental
biological specimen for drug testing.
 Hair analysis when compared to blood or urine is the non-
invasive collection procedure; furthermore the sample not
easily be adulterated.
 It gives larger detection windows, compared to those of
urine/blood.
 Evaluation of long term history to short term history
Some of the major drugs and there metabolites which are detected
from hairs are
 Amphetamines
Methamphetamines (MDMA)
Cocaine (cocaine and cocaine metabolite)
Cocaethylene
Opiates (codeine, morphine, heroin metabolite)
Phencyclidine (PCP)
Significance of Drug testing
from hair
Mechanisms of Drug Incorporation
into Hair
 After a drug is used, it takes about 7- 10
days for the hair containing the drugs to
grow out of the scalp.
 The incorporation is dependent on the
drug concentration.
Incorporation
Blood
vessels
Sweat and
sebum
external
environmen
Hair sample collection and
preparation
Checking the person identity
Collection the hair sample
Packing of samples
Paper work
Decontamination
 The goal of washing is to remove only the external
contaminants, dirt and grease from the surface of
the hair.
 Solvents used for washing are-
Methanol, ethanol, acetone
Sodium dodecyl sulfate solution
Dichloromethane
Separation of drugs from hair
matrix
Enzymatic digestion
Acidic extraction
Alkaline digestion
Applied when alkaline stable compounds, such as
morphine, amphetamines and cannabinoids have to
be analyzed.
Acidic extraction of drugs from hair is usually carried
out with 0.1–0.6 M HCl or 0.005 H2SO4 at room
temperature or 37◦C overnight. It involves the drugs
like heroine and lipophilic drugs such as THC24.
Several enzymes like β-glucoronidase, proteinase K,
protease E and protease VIII have been use to digest
hair protein.
Hair Analysis Techniques
Screening test
Confirmatory
test
Immunoassay
test
GC-MS
LC-MS
MS-MS
Immunoassay
 Immunoassays are chemical tests used to detect the analyte using an
immunological reactions. It provides either a positive or negative result,
indicating the presence or absence of detectable drug.
Three types of immunoassays that are in
common use;
 Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) - detection in
hair of opiates, cocaine, phencyclidine and
methadone.
 Fluorescence polarization immunoassay
(FPIA) - detection in hair of morphine.
 Radioimmunoassay (RIA) - detection of
amphetamines in hair specimen.
Confirmatory Test
One a positive test result is returned using a screening method, it should not be
assumed to be 100% accurate. A second and more accurate testing method using
different chemical principles has to be applied in order to confirm the results.
Gas
chromatography
coupled to MS
Liquid
chromatography
coupled to MS
Tandem mass
Spectroscopy
Gas chromatography
coupled to MS Gas chromatography coupled to mass
spectrometry (GC-MS) is by far the most
widely used analytical tool for drug
determination in hair specimens.
 The GC/MS testing method has the
highest levels of sensitivity and
specificity.
 Analysis the opiates, cocaine and related
drugs, amphetamines, cannabinoids,
benzodiazepines, therapeutical drugs and
pesticides .
Liquid chromatography
coupled to MS LC–MS is an analytical
chemistry technique that
combines the physical
separation capabilities
of liquid
chromatography (or HPLC)
with the mass analysis
capabilities of mass
spectrometry (MS).
 It is capable of providing
structure, molecular weight,
empirical formula, and
quantitative information
about a specific drug.
Tandem mass
Spectroscopy
 Tandem mass spectroscopy (MS2 ) has been a powerful tool for detecting and
confirming the presence of drugs in complex biological matrices.
 In order to achieve that a low standard (0.1 ng) of each drug from the group
are injected individually into the MS/MS to see if there were any interfering
peaks or false positive results.
Advantages of Hair
Analysis
 Evaluation of long term history to short term history
 Hair collection is non-invasive.
 It is also easy to store and ship specimens.
 Very low risk for contamination.
 It is generally easily to obtain sufficient hair for
confirmation testing or reanalysis.
 Hair is difficult to substitute or adulterate.
 Hair analysis has the widest window of drug detection.
 Analysis can also done after death.
 Result stands up in the court
Disadvantages of Hair
Analysis
 Hair analysis cannot be used to determine levels of drug use.
 Hair analysis cannot detect recent drug use (within 7 days)
because of its slow growth rate.
 There are a limited number of laboratories offering
commercial hair testing services.
 It is generally not possible to use hair analysis to reliably
detect very low drug use, i.e. 2-3 times per month
 Cost of testing
 Not easily digest it takes several days up to 10 days
Case of Hair
Analysis The first case of the determination of drugs in human hair was published in the
1850s and reported the presence of arsenic in the hair of a body exhumed after 11
years.
 In July of 1990, a Miami man became extremely ill after drinking an imported
malted beverage from Colombia. The man went into a coma immediately after
making the statement and was rushed to the hospital.
 At the hospital he was diagnosed as suffering from acute cocaine intoxication after
a urinalysis test.
Cocaine was detected in the residue of the bottle consumed by the victim. The
subject was maintained alive for 24 days. A recall of the malt beverage found an
average of 30 grams of cocaine per bottle of the tampered product.
 After the victim died, hair samples were collected to determine whether he was a
regular cocaine user who had overdosed or the victim of a product tampering .
Historical information on his drug usage was gathered by conducting segmental
analysis . The high level of cocaine indicate the victim was a user of cocaine before
the incident, which revealed the victim was a chronic cocaine user.
Conclusion
 Hair analysis has the widest window of drug
detection.
 Evaluation of long term history to short term history
(e.g. if urine is analyzed).
 The sample collection is non-invasive, it is easy to be
performed under conditions that prevent
adulteration.
 There are a limited number of laboratories offering
commercial hair testing services so its generally not
analysed.
References
 Baumgartner W.A., Hill B.S., and Blahd, W.H. Hair analysis for drugs of abuse. J Forensic Sci
34(6):1433-1453, 1989.

 Cooper G.A.A., Kronstrand R., and Kintz P. Society of Hair Testing guidelines for drug
testing in hair. Forensic Science International, 218 (2012), 20-24.

 Chatt A., and Katz S.A. Hair Analysis: Applications in the Biomedical and Environmental
Sciences. New York: VCH, 1988. pp. 11-12.
 Cordero R., and Paterson S., Simultaneous quantification of opiates, amphetamines,
cocaine and metabolites and diazepam and metabolite in a single hair sample using GC-
MS. Journal of Chromatography B, 850 (2006), 423-431.
 http://www.forensicmag.com/article/2013/09/hair-analysis-forensic-toxicology
 https://www.omegalabs.net/hair-testing-service/hair-testing-faqs/other-services.cmsx
 http://www.cansfordlabs.co.uk/alcohol-drug-test-detection/hair-drug-alcohol-testing/
 http://www.cansfordlabs.co.uk/wp_cansfordlabs/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/HAIR-
DRUG3.png
 http://fastestlabs.com/php-oak/themes/global/documents/images/hair-follicle-drug-
test.jpg
Detection of narcotic substance in hair

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Detection of narcotic substance in hair

  • 1. Detection of Narcotic substance in hair Presented by Sushma Sharma M.Sc. Forensic (F) Science Roll no – 11
  • 2. Contents  Introduction  Significance of Drug testing from hair  Mechanisms of drug incorporation into hair  Hair sample collection and preparation  Separation of drugs from hair matrix  Hair analysis techniques  Advantages of hair analysis  Disadvantages of hair analysis  Case study  Conclusion References
  • 3. Introduct ion Millions of drugs and medications have been used by the society since the very beginning. So many of peoples start using drugs excessively for their benefits.  Drug abuse a major cause of social problems worldwide. Drugs which are mainly involved in drug of abuse are narcotic substance which includes all the drugs which are prohibited by law like cocaine, amphetamine, metamphetamine, morphine, PCP, heroine etc.  Undoubtedly blood and urine are the routine samples of choice for drug analysis. Nowadays, besides blood and urine, hair is being recognized as an alternative and fundamental biological specimen for drug testing.
  • 4.  Hair analysis when compared to blood or urine is the non- invasive collection procedure; furthermore the sample not easily be adulterated.  It gives larger detection windows, compared to those of urine/blood.  Evaluation of long term history to short term history Some of the major drugs and there metabolites which are detected from hairs are  Amphetamines Methamphetamines (MDMA) Cocaine (cocaine and cocaine metabolite) Cocaethylene Opiates (codeine, morphine, heroin metabolite) Phencyclidine (PCP) Significance of Drug testing from hair
  • 5. Mechanisms of Drug Incorporation into Hair  After a drug is used, it takes about 7- 10 days for the hair containing the drugs to grow out of the scalp.  The incorporation is dependent on the drug concentration. Incorporation Blood vessels Sweat and sebum external environmen
  • 6. Hair sample collection and preparation Checking the person identity Collection the hair sample Packing of samples Paper work
  • 7. Decontamination  The goal of washing is to remove only the external contaminants, dirt and grease from the surface of the hair.  Solvents used for washing are- Methanol, ethanol, acetone Sodium dodecyl sulfate solution Dichloromethane
  • 8. Separation of drugs from hair matrix Enzymatic digestion Acidic extraction Alkaline digestion Applied when alkaline stable compounds, such as morphine, amphetamines and cannabinoids have to be analyzed. Acidic extraction of drugs from hair is usually carried out with 0.1–0.6 M HCl or 0.005 H2SO4 at room temperature or 37◦C overnight. It involves the drugs like heroine and lipophilic drugs such as THC24. Several enzymes like β-glucoronidase, proteinase K, protease E and protease VIII have been use to digest hair protein.
  • 9. Hair Analysis Techniques Screening test Confirmatory test Immunoassay test GC-MS LC-MS MS-MS
  • 10. Immunoassay  Immunoassays are chemical tests used to detect the analyte using an immunological reactions. It provides either a positive or negative result, indicating the presence or absence of detectable drug. Three types of immunoassays that are in common use;  Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) - detection in hair of opiates, cocaine, phencyclidine and methadone.  Fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) - detection in hair of morphine.  Radioimmunoassay (RIA) - detection of amphetamines in hair specimen.
  • 11. Confirmatory Test One a positive test result is returned using a screening method, it should not be assumed to be 100% accurate. A second and more accurate testing method using different chemical principles has to be applied in order to confirm the results. Gas chromatography coupled to MS Liquid chromatography coupled to MS Tandem mass Spectroscopy
  • 12. Gas chromatography coupled to MS Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is by far the most widely used analytical tool for drug determination in hair specimens.  The GC/MS testing method has the highest levels of sensitivity and specificity.  Analysis the opiates, cocaine and related drugs, amphetamines, cannabinoids, benzodiazepines, therapeutical drugs and pesticides .
  • 13. Liquid chromatography coupled to MS LC–MS is an analytical chemistry technique that combines the physical separation capabilities of liquid chromatography (or HPLC) with the mass analysis capabilities of mass spectrometry (MS).  It is capable of providing structure, molecular weight, empirical formula, and quantitative information about a specific drug.
  • 14. Tandem mass Spectroscopy  Tandem mass spectroscopy (MS2 ) has been a powerful tool for detecting and confirming the presence of drugs in complex biological matrices.  In order to achieve that a low standard (0.1 ng) of each drug from the group are injected individually into the MS/MS to see if there were any interfering peaks or false positive results.
  • 15. Advantages of Hair Analysis  Evaluation of long term history to short term history  Hair collection is non-invasive.  It is also easy to store and ship specimens.  Very low risk for contamination.  It is generally easily to obtain sufficient hair for confirmation testing or reanalysis.  Hair is difficult to substitute or adulterate.  Hair analysis has the widest window of drug detection.  Analysis can also done after death.  Result stands up in the court
  • 16. Disadvantages of Hair Analysis  Hair analysis cannot be used to determine levels of drug use.  Hair analysis cannot detect recent drug use (within 7 days) because of its slow growth rate.  There are a limited number of laboratories offering commercial hair testing services.  It is generally not possible to use hair analysis to reliably detect very low drug use, i.e. 2-3 times per month  Cost of testing  Not easily digest it takes several days up to 10 days
  • 17. Case of Hair Analysis The first case of the determination of drugs in human hair was published in the 1850s and reported the presence of arsenic in the hair of a body exhumed after 11 years.  In July of 1990, a Miami man became extremely ill after drinking an imported malted beverage from Colombia. The man went into a coma immediately after making the statement and was rushed to the hospital.  At the hospital he was diagnosed as suffering from acute cocaine intoxication after a urinalysis test. Cocaine was detected in the residue of the bottle consumed by the victim. The subject was maintained alive for 24 days. A recall of the malt beverage found an average of 30 grams of cocaine per bottle of the tampered product.  After the victim died, hair samples were collected to determine whether he was a regular cocaine user who had overdosed or the victim of a product tampering . Historical information on his drug usage was gathered by conducting segmental analysis . The high level of cocaine indicate the victim was a user of cocaine before the incident, which revealed the victim was a chronic cocaine user.
  • 18. Conclusion  Hair analysis has the widest window of drug detection.  Evaluation of long term history to short term history (e.g. if urine is analyzed).  The sample collection is non-invasive, it is easy to be performed under conditions that prevent adulteration.  There are a limited number of laboratories offering commercial hair testing services so its generally not analysed.
  • 19. References  Baumgartner W.A., Hill B.S., and Blahd, W.H. Hair analysis for drugs of abuse. J Forensic Sci 34(6):1433-1453, 1989.   Cooper G.A.A., Kronstrand R., and Kintz P. Society of Hair Testing guidelines for drug testing in hair. Forensic Science International, 218 (2012), 20-24.   Chatt A., and Katz S.A. Hair Analysis: Applications in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. New York: VCH, 1988. pp. 11-12.  Cordero R., and Paterson S., Simultaneous quantification of opiates, amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites and diazepam and metabolite in a single hair sample using GC- MS. Journal of Chromatography B, 850 (2006), 423-431.  http://www.forensicmag.com/article/2013/09/hair-analysis-forensic-toxicology  https://www.omegalabs.net/hair-testing-service/hair-testing-faqs/other-services.cmsx  http://www.cansfordlabs.co.uk/alcohol-drug-test-detection/hair-drug-alcohol-testing/  http://www.cansfordlabs.co.uk/wp_cansfordlabs/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/HAIR- DRUG3.png  http://fastestlabs.com/php-oak/themes/global/documents/images/hair-follicle-drug- test.jpg