The new vocabularyTerm Definitionof cloud: 50 key termsexplained
Cloud is changing more than Term Definitionjust the way we use IT infrastructureand deliver IT services. It’s alsochanging the way we talk about IT.It has created its own vocabulary, with new So you’re clear on the distinction, we’vewords and phrases to describe technologies, highlighted Canonical terms. We’ve alsopractices and concepts that had scarcely been asked some of our top people to expandimagined five or ten years ago. on some of the words and phrases throughout the glossary, to give you an idea of whereAnd while everyone can agree on the definition we stand on certain key concepts.of some of them, others are still in flux, toonew to be pinned down to a single meaning. We hope you find this glossary useful –Some are used in different ways by different and if there’s anything you’d like furthervendors and groups, depending on their own clarification or advice on, please do get in touchparticular stance on cloud. It’s a bit of on +44 (0)20 763 2471 or ubuntu.coma semantic minefield. The Canonical Cloud TeamThis glossary is our attempt to define50 terms used in cloud computing today.Most of them are vendor-independent, butyou’ll find a few Canonical-specific terms inhere too. As we’re the company behind Ubuntu,the most popular operating system for thecloud, some of our own terminology reflects– and is inextricably linked with – wider cloudcomputing concepts.
Term DefinitionAnything as a The collective term for anything being provided as a serviceService (XaaS) through a cloud based computing model. SaaS, IaaS and PaaS are forms of XaaS.Automated The automatic creation, configuration and deployment of newProvisioning virtual machine instances in a cloud environment. Automated provisioning is a critical element of cloud computing as it enables new instances to be created and activated instantly to meet user demand.Autoscaling The ability to add or de-provision cloud services and infrastructure automatically, depending on usage demands. See also: Elastic ComputingBig Data Very large volumes of structured or unstructured data that have the potential to offer deep business or market insight when analysed. Full descriptionCanonical The company behind Ubuntu, the worlds most popular distribution of the Linux operating system.Charms Juju Charms are a set of pre-written instructions that deploys a cloud service. Charms encapsulate the knowledge connected with an application—dependencies, relations and platform configuration—to enable developers to deploy new cloud services quickly.Closed Cloud A cloud environment built using proprietary, licensed software components.Cloud A model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources - such as networks, servers, storage, applications, and services - that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.Cloud The act of moving heavy, occasional workloads from a privateBursting cloud into the public cloud for more cost-effective processing. See also: Cloudstorming
Term Definition “The stability of Ubuntu gives us peace of mind that our systems and data will be constantly available, and that the site will stay up at all times.” Leandro Reox, Senior Analyst and Cloud Builder, Mercadolibre
Term DefinitionCloud A computing environment in which individual cloud applicationsOrientated are orchestrated together to perform a specific serviceArchitecture or automate a specific process.Cloud The ability to move applications and data easily from one cloudPortability provider to another.Cloud A company that provides cloud services, whether softwareProvider as a service (SaaS), platform as a service (PaaS) or infrastructure as a service (IaaS).Cloud The act of buying cloud services (whether SaaS, PaaS or IaaS)Sourcing from an external provider.Cloud The act of moving heavy, occasional workloads from a privatestorming cloud into the public cloud for more cost-effective processing. See also: CloudburstingCluster A group of servers, implemented to act like a single system to enable high availability or workload balancing.Data as A cloud service by which data files such as text, sound anda Service images are provisioned and distributed to users for use in their(DaaS) own applications. Delivery is normally via the public internet.Elastic The ability to add or de-provision cloud services andComputing infrastructure automatically, depending on usage demands. See also: AutoscalingFederating/ The act of combining data or user identities acrossFederation multiple systems.
Term DefinitionGrid Grid computing is where workstations on the same network haveComputing their resources pooled in order to complete computing tasks to address a single problem. Grid is sometimes used synonymously with cloud computing.Guest In the cloud, a self-contained instance of an operating systemInstance provisioned for the user for the duration of their session in the cloud.Hadoop An open-source file system that is optimised for the storage and retrieval of very large data sets. See also: Big DataHybrid Cloud A cloud computing strategy that makes use of both private and public cloud infrastructure - sometimes shifting workloads between them as economics and demand for computing resource dictate.Hyperscale A description commonly applied to a data center characterised by a high-volume, high-density deployment of commodity blade servers. Full descriptionInfrastructure A service that provides organisations with access to elastic,as a Service on-demand computing resources in the cloud, including servers,(IaaS) storage and networking, on top of which the customer may deploy their own applications, middleware, database, virtual machines and operating system software.Juju A service orchestration tool from Canonical that enables the use of charms to deploy new services quickly and easily in the cloud. Full descriptionKeystone An identity service used in authentication and high-level authorization for users of the OpenStack cloud platform.Landscape A systems management and monitoring service from Canonical that allows users to manage multiple Ubuntu machines easily and reduce management and administration costs.
Term DefinitionMetal as Developed by Canonical, a method of quickly and easilya Service provisioning hardware servers for the deployment of complex(MaaS) services that need to scale up and down dynamically, like Ubuntu’s OpenStack cloud infrastructure.Multi- Typical of many Software as a Service solutions (SaaS), a multi-Tenancy/ tenancy architecture sees multiple customers (tenants) sharingMulti-Tenant a single instance of a software application, with their own data securely partitioned from other users data.MySQL An open source relational database management system, developed by Sun Microsystems and now managed by Oracle, that is often used in web applications.NoSQL A broad class of non-relational database management systems designed for the storage and retrieval of very high volumes of data that exceed the limitations of traditional relational databases. See also: Big DataOpen Cloud A cloud infrastructure built using free, open source software components. Full descriptionProprietary Cloud software that incurs license costs and/or which has limited interoperability with other software components due to its closed, proprietary APIs.Open Source Any piece of software whose source code is open and available for anyone to use, modify, contribute to and improve upon. Open source software is typically free of charge to license and use.OpenStack An open source computing platform comprised of multiple, interoperable software components, for creating cost-effective, high-performance private or public clouds. Full descriptionPlatform as a A cloud service for developers and organisations to deployService (PaaS) cloud applications using third party virtual machines, operating systems, middleware, networking, storage and hardware. Typically the developer creates and maintains application code and the PaaS provider manages the layers below it.
Term DefinitionPrivate Cloud A cloud computing infrastructure that an organisation builds in its own data centre and maintains behind the corporate firewall.Proprietary Cloud software that incurs license costs and/or which has limited interoperability with other software components due to its closed, proprietary APIs.Public Cloud The public cloud allows organisations to use and deploy software (applications, databases, storage) on systems that are hosted and managed outside their firewalls. It differs from traditional managed services in that the instances are virtualised and can be created, updated and terminated using an API.Server Image A file that contains all the information needed to create a new instance of a server virtual machine in a cloud environment. It reduces the time it takes to configure a new server each time one is needed.Service If you are using a cloud service vendor, then service migrationMigration is when you move your cloud from one vendor to another.Service An essential part of Cloud, service orchestration allows for theOrchestration automated provisioning of services, applications and workflows so that resources can be scaled or provisioned in the cloud automatically. See also: Juju, Autoscaling, HyperscaleSingle- In Software as a Service (SaaS), a model by which an individualTenancy customer (tenant) has access to a single instance of an application and the infrastructure behind the application serves this one tenant. See also: SaaS, Multi-TenancySoftware as a A software application that is deployed on a cloud infrastructureService (SaaS) by a third-party cloud provider and made available to users over a network such as a VPN or the public internet. SaaS is typically deployed on a multitenant model, whereby multiple users share the same application instance and underlying cloud infrastructure. Typically, customers are billed either on a monthly subscription or a pay-as-you-go model, based on the number of users accessing the application, the amount of data stored, or the amount of processor resource consumed.
Term DefinitionSpinning Up The process of creating and activating a new virtual machine image in a cloud environment. In cloud infrastructures that require high elasticity due to fluctuating user volumes, the ability to spin up new instances quickly and easily is critical.Ubuntu The worlds most popular distribution of Linux, Ubuntu is a free, open-source operating system that scales all the way from consumer electronics to the desktop, and into the cloud for enterprise computing.Ubuntu Cloud An easy way of installing Ubuntu Server instances on anyGuest of the leading public clouds or in a private cloud environment. Ubuntu is the most heavily used guest OS on both Amazon AWS and Rackspace Cloud.Ubuntu Cloud A full OpenStack IaaS platform built into Ubuntu Server versionInfrastructure 12.04 LTS and higher, providing all the tools you need to create a private IAAS cloud on your own hardware.Virtualisation A way of making better use of available hardware resources by running multiple operating systems on one server as "virtual machines", and managing the virtualized software layer separately from the hardware. With its emphasis on decoupling software from hardware, virtualization is a step on the way to cloud computing. Virtualization cannot be thought of as true cloud computing, however, because it does not offer elastic scaling of resources or automated provisioning of new virtual machine instances.Workload A term coined by IBM to describe any application or system that is moved into the cloud.
Big Data DefinitionTerm definedBy Mark Baker, Ubuntu ServerProduct Manager, CanonicalWikipedia defines Big Data as datasets that While many proprietary software vendors have“grow so large that they become awkward cloud offerings and claim to offer virtuallyto work with,” presenting difficulties in unlimited scalability, their commercial model“capture, storage, search, sharing, analytics, is often a barrier to entry. The standard ‘useand visualisation.” more, pay more’ approach doesn’t lend itself to computing elasticity, or to cost-effective BigTypically, datasets grow to enormous sizes Data analytics.when they are captured by always-on devices,from aerial sensory technologies, software logs “Proprietary software doesn’t lend itself toand cameras, to microphones, wireless sensor cost-effective Big Data analytics.”networks and optical network components. Open-source technology is helpingWhile Big Data presents significant challenges, organisations of all types and sizes convertit also offers many benefits for organisations massive datasets into meaningful businesslooking to understand trends and identify intelligence. Ubuntu makes this possiblenew opportunities. But to accommodate Big with technologies for distributing NoSQLData applications, underlying technology databases, file systems and innovative Big Datainfrastructure must be scalable, powerful and applications such as Hadoop, across tenshugely reliable. Applications must be designed or even hundreds of nodes.to scale well in distributed environments, anddeliver results fast. Today, Ubuntu is one of the leading operating systems for supporting Big Data applicationsThat’s why Big Data applications are often and new Big Data development – both ondeployed in the cloud, where resources can dedicated hardware and in the cloud. Ourbe added and removed quickly on demand commercial model makes Ubuntu ideal for Bigwith a ‘pay-as-you-go’ model. For smaller Data, as our software can be deployed on anyorganisations, the cloud is the only financially number of servers with no additional licensingviable way to access the significant computing costs, enabling organisations to scale Big Dataresources required. activities without restrictions.Canonical White Paper –Ubuntu: Helping Drive BusinessInsight from Big Data ?
Hyperscale definedTerm DefinitionBy Mark Shuttleworth,Founder, CanonicalServers used to aspire to being expensive. The catch, however, is in the costPowerful. Big. We gave them names like of provisioning. Hyperscale won’t work“Hercules” or “Atlas”. The bigger your business, economically if every server has to beor the bigger your data problem, the bigger provisioned, configured and managedthe servers you bought. It was all about being as if it were a Hercules or an Atlas. To reapbeefy – with brands designed to impress, like the benefits, we need leaner provisioningPOWER and Itanium. processes.Today, server capacity can be bought as a That’s why Canonical developed Metal as acommodity, based on the total cost of compute. Service. MAAS makes it easy to set up theWe can get more power by adding more nodes hardware on which to deploy any service thatto clusters, rather than buying beefier nodes. needs to scale up and down dynamically –We can increase reliability by doubling up, so a cloud being just one example. With a simpleservices keep running when individual nodes web interface, you can add, commission, updatefail. Much as RAID changed the storage game, and recycle servers at will.this scale-out philosophy, pioneered by Google,is changing the server landscape. In the hyperscale world, an operating system like Ubuntu makes even more sense. ItsIn this hyperscale era, each individual node freedom from licensing restrictions, togetheris cheap and wimpy – but together, they’re with the labour saving power of tools likeunstoppable. The horsepower now resides MAAS, make it cost-effective, finally, to deployin the cluster, not the node. The reliability and manage hundreds of nodes at a time.of the infrastructure depends on redundancy,rather than heroic performances fromspecific machines.“The horsepower now resides in the cluster,not the node.”Webinar –Ubuntu Cloud, with Mark Shuttleworth &Stephen O’Grady of Redmonk
Juju definedTerm DefinitionBy Mark Baker, Ubuntu ServerProduct Manager, CanonicalA Juju charm is a collection of instructions that Those charms continue to improve and evolve,deploys, updates and scales a particular cloud so cloud deployments become smarter, moreservice. When defining a new workload or efficient and more reliable every time they areservice, a charm is created for it using whatever updated. In a recent example, work done tosystem works best. It can be a shell script, it can reduce the cost per day of a very high-trafficuse puppet, or it can use any other framework cloud-hosted website was shared immediatelyyou like. This makes it easy to re-use existing with other websites using the same cloud stack.tools or expertise that may be present In an enterprise setting, an improvement to thein-house, wrapping it up in a way that will charm for a component in many cloud stackswork on the cloud. brings benefit to all users.Most services can be charmed in an hour or The collection of Juju charms includes alltwo, at least for initial testing. And investments the common components of typical cloudin a charm pay off every time it is re-used. deployments – popular databases, webCharms encapsulate everything a service needs application servers, load balancing systems,to know about itself, or tell other services computational frameworks; everything fromabout itself, so it’s very easy to re-use them game servers to finite element analysisin a different team or environment. is ready for off-the-shelf deployment in the cloud.“Investment in a charm pays off everytime it is re-used.”Canonical maintains a collection of publiccharms that are developed in the open, underthe same transparent governance that hasmade Ubuntu the leading cloud OS. Each charmdistills best practice from the leading devopsfor that particular service, worldwide. Juju putsthem all at devops teams’ fingertips.Canonical White Paper –Ubuntu: Helping Drive Business Insightfrom Big Data
Open Cloud definedTerm DefinitionBy Susan Wu, Cloud and VirtualizationProduct Marketing Manager, CanonicalOpen-source software is increasingly at the As well as delivering many business benefits,heart of the biggest changes happening in open cloud software like Ubuntu 12.04 LTSenterprise computing all over the world. is also helping devops massively reduce theOpen cloud is a perfect way to illustrate the complexity of cloud projects with deploymentbenefits open source is bringing businesses. and service orchestration tools like Juju and MAAS. These sorts of technologies areThe business case for switching to or adopting streamlining the deployment process, makingcloud computing – and in particular, the open it quicker and simpler than ever to getcloud – has never been stronger. Enterprises applications running in the cloud.are reducing costs and increasing flexibilitywithout the risk of vendor lock-in. Open clouds The combination of Ubuntu and OpenStacklet organisations move critical workloads to the has rapidly become the platform of choicecloud with the confidence that they can move for businesses building private cloudfrom one vendor to another – or on to a private infrastructure.cloud – as they demand. This is because opensource technology complies with establishedopen standards.“The business case for switching to the opencloud has never been stronger”Canonical White Paper –Creating the Open Cloud
OpenStack definedTerm DefinitionBy Kyle MacDonald,VP of Cloud, CanonicalThe OpenStack Foundation is leading the cloud OpenStack developers are building and testingindustry in developing the most cutting-edge on Ubuntu every single day, which is whyopen enterprise-class cloud platform available. Ubuntu can fairly claim to be the most tightly integrated OS with OpenStack – and the mostAs a founding platinum member of the stringently tested. Today, thousands of globalOpenStack Foundation, Canonical contributes enterprises and service providers are deployingto the project’s governance, technical their cloud infrastructures on Ubuntu anddevelopment and strategy. We’re helping OpenStack. Organisations like Mercadolibre,service providers and enterprises, as well as Internap and Nectar are running mission criticaltheir customers and users, benefit from the applications on their Ubuntu OpenStack clouds.open technologies that are making the cloud Ubuntu and OpenStack are also poweringmore powerful, simple and ubiquitous. clouds at the likes of HP, AT&T, Rackspace and Dell.Ubuntu has been the reference operatingsystem for the OpenStack project since the Over recent months, other technology vendorsbeginning. That makes it the easiest and most have recognised the lead and impact thattrusted route to an OpenStack cloud, whether OpenStack is making in the market and havefor private use or as a commercial public cloud announced their commitment to the project.offering. We include it in every download of We should see even more of them joining theUbuntu Server, giving us a huge interest in its party and coming up with OpenStack offeringscontinuing development. in the months to come. But in the meantime, the best way to build your OpenStack cloud is through the proven, rock-solid combination of OpenStack and Ubuntu.Case Study –Mercadolibre Builds 1,000-Node PrivateCloud with OpenStack and Ubuntu
Find out MoreTerm DefinitionWe hope you’ve found this glossary useful.To find out more about building a cloudinfrastructure with Ubuntu, visit thefollowing resources:To find out more about cloud computing withUbuntu: www.ubuntu.com/I-cloudTo learn about Ubuntu Advantage,the Canonical support programme for yourUbuntu cloud deployments:ubuntu.comTo speak directly to a member of the Canonicalteam: +44 (0)20 763 2471Thank you for reading!The Canonical Cloud Team Tweet this