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Foundations Of Knowledge

Susan Wrege's extra credit Power Point presentation

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Foundations Of Knowledge

  1. 1. The Foundations of Knowledge Intelligence, Thinking, and Geniuses!
  2. 2. How do we define intelligence? It just depends on who you ask! Intelligence according to… David Wechsler : Intelligence is the capacity to understand one’s world and the resourcefulness to cope with its challenges. Jean Piaget : Intelligence is an adaptation. Intelligence is assimilation to the extent that it incorporates all the given data of experience within its framework. American People (based on research study) : Intelligence consists of three sets of abilities including problem solving, verbal ability, and social competence. Michael Gardner: There are multiple intelligences. In fact, there are 7 types including verbal, logical, spatial, musical, body-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and interpersonal. Robert Sternberg : We don’t have one type (or seven types) of intelligence, we have three types: analytical, creative, and practical. (Sterk, Marteney, 2008)
  3. 3. Nature vs. Nurture <ul><li>Wait, wait, wait…if we are born with a certain level of intelligence, does that mean biology is ALL that determines how “smart” we become? </li></ul><ul><li>Again, it depends on who you ask! Here’s the stances: </li></ul><ul><li>NATURE : Humans are a product of their genes. Environment plays a small role in how intelligent a person becomes. You are born with a certain capacity for a certain level of intelligence, and it cannot be changed. Intelligence and academic testing can sort out themore intelligent from the less intelligent. </li></ul><ul><li>NURTURE : We are born with a “blank slate.” Our environment shapes our intelligence potential. Academic and vocational placement tests are exclusionary and do not accurately measure one’s potential. All people have an equal potential for intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>FINAL THOUGHTS: Intelligence is not solely determined by nature or nurture. It’s a combination of both. One directly affects the other. Genes can alter one’s, and one’s environment can turn on and off certain genes. (Santrock, 2008). </li></ul>
  4. 4. So, how do I become a genius? Firstly, understand that intelligence is different than thinking. We are born with a certain level of intelligence. Thinking is a skill, which can be practiced, altered and improved.
  5. 5. Think, think, think! There are different ways we each think, and different patterns of thinking: <ul><li>Emotional Thinking: Heart over mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Logical Thinking: Factually justified. </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical Thinking: Step-by-step, like a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal thinking: Very creative, unconventional. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Thinking: Using logical, emotional, and ethical criteria to mae up your mind. </li></ul>
  6. 6. So, can I improve my thinking? Yes! <ul><li>According to Edward deBono, we can use something he calls “lateral thinking” in order to more efficiently solve problems. There are 4 ways to implement lateral thinking: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize dominant ideas that polarize perception of a problem. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Search for a different way of looking at things. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relax the rigid control of thinking. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use chance to encourage other ideas. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Wait, what’s a critical thinker exactly? I’m glad you asked! According to our text “Communicating Critical Thinking,” critical thinkers excel in the following abilities: 1.) Intellectually curious 2.) Open-minded 3.) Avoid “red-herrings” 4.) Know how to use anecdotes effectively 5.) Learn to handle confusion 6.) Are able to control emotion 7.) Sensitive to the needs of others 8.) Can distinguish between a conclusion that might be “true” and one they would like to be “true.” 9.) Know when to admit to not knowing something 10.) Seek a dialogical approach to the process of argument.
  8. 8. So then, what makes a genius? An article entitled “The Questioning Mind: Newton, Darwin, and Einstein” ( describes some interesting facts about these historical geniuses: *Newton, Darwin, and Einstein all hated school, and saw no purpose for it! *None of these geniuses did well academically in school! *Therefore, the greatest minds of our history were not possessed by the greatest students, but rather the greatest critical thinkers…the “questioning minds.” *So then, to become considered a &quot;genius,” o ne need not be an A+ student! I nstead, it is the passion to discover through a questioning mind and a fervent dedication to searching and analyzing one's own ideas and thoughts that can lead to such a status
  9. 9. In conclusion… <ul><li>Intelligence and thinking are two different things. However, they do work together! </li></ul><ul><li>We all have multiple intelligence levels (just ask Gardner). </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence can be measured in different ways and is affected by both Nature and Nurture. </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking is how we choose to use and practice our intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>We can actually learn to think differently and practice at thinking critically. </li></ul><ul><li>We are all capable of becoming better critical thinkers…and possibly geniuses! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Acknowledgement: This power point presentation has been a review of the information found in the modules, articles, posts, and overall chapter entitled “The Foundations of Knowledge” from our “Communicating Critical Thinking” textbook (Sterk, Marteney, 2008.)