Open Learning: Lowering the Cost of Education


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This presentation is a report to a group project prepared for EDDE 804 at Ed. D., Athabasca University, Canada in 2011

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Open Learning: Lowering the Cost of Education

  1. 1. Open Learning: Lowering the Cost of Education<br />Angela Batsford, Jan Thiessen, and Su-Tuan Lulee<br />
  2. 2. Social Problem<br />Rising cost of education is a significant barrier to individuals & institutions<br /><ul><li>Cost of 4-year college education rose from 18  25% of annual family income during past ten years (Lataif, 2011)
  3. 3. In U.S. postsecondary education the Higher Education Price Index has an average change of 4.47% per year while the Consumer Price Index has only increased an average of3.4% per year. (Wellman, 2008, p.47).
  4. 4. In Ontario, student debt has risen 300% -- to $28,000 from $8,000 in 1991 (Lem, 2009).</li></li></ul><li>Where Universities get their Money<br />Adapted from CBC News, 2010<br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6. Intervention<br />Open learning is one solution to the rising cost in education<br />
  7. 7. What is Open Learning? <br />
  8. 8. Why Open Learning?<br /><ul><li>Cost of providing open learning is low
  9. 9. Educational resources and learning software applications are free and available
  10. 10. terrya: American Public Univ, (who also includes texts in fees) saves $1.5 million month by using open access texts in top 20 courses! from Phil Ice</li></li></ul><li>Open Educational Resources<br /><ul><li>Open Educational Resources are teaching, learning or research materials that are in the public domain or released with an intellectual property license that allows for free use, adaptation, and distribution (UNESCO, 2010).
  11. 11. Dave Wiley’s (2010) four characteristics of OER</li></ul>Can be reused<br />Can be revised<br />Can be remixed<br />Can be redistributed<br /><ul><li>These four “R”s can largely reduce the cost for developing learning materials.</li></li></ul><li>Supportive Computer Technologies<br />Open source tools have been increasing rapidly during the past decade. <br />Tools for improving open learning:<br />Learning Management System - Moodle and SAKAI<br />Video conferencing tools - WizIQ<br />Concept mapping tools - Cmap and VUE<br />Social learning tools - Blogger, GoogleDocs, Mahara, SlideShare, Google Group, Netvibes<br />Visual tools -ManyEyes and OECD Factbook<br />Learning analytics tools -SNAPP, Singnal<br />And many more …<br />
  12. 12.
  13. 13. How Open Learning Can Reduce Costs<br />Source:<br />
  14. 14. Leadership Solution - Complexity Leadership<br />Complexity Leadership: <br />Expanding leadership from “isolated, role-based actions of individuals to the innovative, contextual interactions” across a whole system” (Lichtenstein, Uhl-Bien, & Marion, 2006, p. 2).<br />Enables the learning, creative, and adaptive capacity of complex adaptive systems (CAS) in knowledge-producing organizations or organizational units. <br />Describes conditions in which adaptive dynamics emerge and generate creative and adaptive knowledge. <br />
  15. 15. Complexity Leadership Theory<br />Leadership not only a position and authority but also as an emergent, interactive dynamic that produces new patterns of behavior or new modes of operating. <br />Focuses on identifying and exploring the strategies and behaviors that foster organizational sub-unit creativity, learning, and adaptability (Uhl-Bien et al., 2007). <br />Leadership, as it in CLT, is the behavior and the resource elements of interacting individuals of the community come together in useful ways (Lichtenstein et al., 2006).<br />
  16. 16. Open Learning as a Complex Adaptive System<br />Different from traditional formal learning  informal; flexible pace, time and places; delivered through social networked learning environment. <br />CCK08 <br />Registration >2300<br />Students from >10 countries<br />Tech. used: Skype, Wikis, SecondLife, Facebook, and Google Reader, etc.<br />No existing learning paths & structures<br />Information and social relation were splicing <br />Open learning is a emergent, interactive, dynamic, and complex system.<br />
  17. 17. Why CLT is a Good Fit for Open Learning?<br /> Addresses the nature of open learning: nonlinearly changeable, unpredictable in the long term, temporally based, and dynamic interaction. <br />Allows a leadership perspective that extends beyond bureaucratic assumptions  leadership as a complex interactive dynamic through which adaptive outcomes emerge. <br />Provides an overarching framework that describes the interplay of bureaucratic leadership (formal managerial roles) and CAS (emergent, interactive dynamic) <br />(Uhl-Bien et al., 2007)<br />
  18. 18. Adopting Complexity Leadership<br /><ul><li>General steps:
  19. 19. Observing the network of interaction & changing environmental demands
  20. 20. Collecting data that shape ideas (network of interaction, patterns of conflict & tension, interdependent relationships, rules of action, and direct/indirect feedback loops.</li></li></ul><li>Adopting Complexity Leadership<br /><ul><li>General steps:
  21. 21. Analyzing the mechanisms, - correlated action- aggregation of ideas- behaviors that speed/enable certain activities- information flow - pattern formation
  22. 22. Enabling leadership- creating general structure- providing conditions- fostering interdependency with rules- promoting tension by heterogeneity- building atmosphere – respect diversity</li></li></ul><li>Complexity Leadership in Open Learning<br />(Modified from Siemens, G., 2010)<br />
  23. 23. Adopting Complexity Leadership<br />
  24. 24. Strategies for Leadership in Open Learning <br />Identifying and shaping the patterns and structures in models for best interactions (Hazy, 2010)<br />Focusing on how leadership may occur in any interaction <br />Focusing on managing and leading<br />Encouraging all members to be leaders<br />Driving responsibility downward<br />Using tension to create adaptive change <br />Leveraging the capability of analytic tools(Lichtensein et al., 2006) <br />
  25. 25. Case Study<br />International Response: UNESCO (Dr. McGreal)<br /><br />Institutional/Organizational Response: Athabasca University (Dr. Ives)<br /><br />Grassroots Response<br />
  26. 26. Conclusions<br />Open Learning – New opportunities and challenges<br />Cost effective model  Complexity leadership<br />Further research - How we can learn in an open world and the leadership required<br />
  27. 27. References<br />Calder, J., & McCollum, A. (1998). Open and flexible learning in vocational education and training. London: Routledge. Retrieved from<br />CBC News. (2010).Tuition fees on the rise ... again. Retrieved from<br />Godwin, S., McAndrew, P.,& Santos, A. “Behind the Scenes with OpenLearn: the Challenges of Researching the Provision of Open Educational Resources.” The Electronic Journal of e-Learning Volume 6 Issue 2, 139 - 148, Retrieved from <br />Hazy, J. K. (2010). Complexity thinking and leadership: How nonlinear models of human organizing dynamics can inform management practice. Adelphi University School of Business Working Paper SB-WP-2010-01. Retrieved from<br />Holt, D., & Bonnici,, J. (1988). In Rowntree. D. (1992). Exploring open and distance learning. London: Routledge<br />Jarvis, P., Holford, J., & Griffin, C. (2003). The theory & practice of learning. Oxford & New York: Routledge. Retrieved from<br />Lataif, L (2011) . Universities on the brink: ever increasing costs of education not sustainable. Retrieved from gttp://<br />Lem, S. (2009). High cost of higher education. Retrieved from<br />
  28. 28. References Cont’d<br />Lewis R., & Spencer, D. (1986). In Rowntree. D. (1992). Exploring open and distance learning. London: Routledge. <br />Lichenstein, B. B., Uhl-Bien, M., & Marion, R. (2006). Complexity leadership theory: An interactive perspective on leading in complex adaptive system. Emergence: Complexity and Organization, 8(4), 2-12.<br />Rowntree. D. (1992). Exploring open and distance learning. London: Routledge. <br />Siemens, G. (2010, October 18). Managing & Learning in Massive(ly) Open Online Courses. Presented at the Open Access Week, Athabasca, Canada. Retrieved from<br />Simon, S., & Banchero, S. (2010). Putting a price on professors. Wall Street Journal (October 22, 2010). Retrieved from<br />Uhl-Bien, M., Marion, R., & McKelvey, B. (2007). Complexity leadership theory: Shifting leadership from the industrial age to the knowledge era. The Leadership Quarterly, 18(4), 298-318. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.04.002<br />UNESCO, (2010) . ICTs in education. Retrieved from<br />Wellman, J. V., Desrochers, D. M., & Lenihan, C. M. (2008). The growing imbalance: Recent trend in U.S. postsecondary education finance . Washington, D.C.: Delta Project on Postsecondary Education Costs, Productivity and Accountability. Retrieved from<br />WikiEducator. OER university. Retrieved from<br />Wiley, D. A. (2010). Openness as catalyst for an educational reformation. EDUCAUSE Review, Open, 45(4). Retrieved from  <br />
  29. 29. Resources for Further Study<br />Complexity and Education<br />Complexity: An International Journal of Complexity and Education<br />IRRODL: Special Issue - Openness and the Future of HE<br />