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Introduction to Transformative Learning

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Created for EDDE 801, Ed D at Athabasca University, Canada on August, 2009

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Introduction to Transformative Learning

  1. 1. Transformative Learning<br />Su-Tuan Lulee<br />Mary McNabb<br />Gordon Preston<br />Rebecca Walker<br />EDDE 801 Group #4 Presentation at Athabasca University<br />
  2. 2. Transformative Learning<br />Overview<br />Research survey<br />Criticisms of TL theory<br />Implications for distance education<br />Summary and conclusions<br />Resources<br />
  3. 3. Definition of TL<br />Transformative Learning is “The process of using a prior interpretation to construe a new or revised interpretation of the meaning of one’s experience in order to guide future action&quot; (Mezirow, 1996: 162). <br />Idealized model of adult learning<br />Learners who are actively engaged vs. learners as receptacles<br />Critical reflection, discourse, and relationships<br />New perspectives guide actions<br />
  4. 4. Doug’s Transformative Learning<br />
  5. 5. Mezirow’s Ten Phases of Transformative Learning<br />Disorienting dilemma<br />Self examination<br />Critical assessment<br />Shared discontent<br />New roles, relationships, and actions<br />
  6. 6. Mezirow’s Ten Phases of Transformative Learning<br />Planning action<br />Knowledge/skill acquisition<br />Role experimentation<br />Role competency<br />Reintegration<br />
  7. 7. Cognitivism<br />Instrumental Learning<br />Behaviorism<br />Constructivism<br />Transformative Learning<br />
  8. 8. Research Survey<br /><ul><li>Jack Mezirow (1994, 1996 - unit B)
  9. 9. Adult Education Quarterly
  10. 10. Journal of Transformative Learning
  11. 11. John M. Dirkx, Jack Mezirow and Patricia Cranton (2006)
  12. 12. Andrew Kitchenham (2008)
  13. 13. Edward Taylor (1997, 2007)</li></li></ul><li>Empirical Research on TL<br /><ul><li>Conducted in a higher education context
  14. 14. Most studies used a qualitative research design
  15. 15. Reflection is essential in the process of TL
  16. 16. Relationships with others is also essential
  17. 17. Context, both personal and socio-cultural are significant factors </li></li></ul><li>Empirical Research on TL (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Most studies did not critically evaluate previous studies
  18. 18. Most studies did not critically evaluate Mezirow’s theory itself
  19. 19. Process can be gradual or epochal
  20. 20. Process is irreversible</li></li></ul><li>Criticism of TL<br /><ul><li>Need to distinguish between normal life cycle stages and TL (M. Tennant, 1993)
  21. 21. Perspective transformation not always dependent on critical reflection (Taylor, 1993)
  22. 22. Transformation may not be positive
  23. 23. Transformation is irreversible</li></li></ul><li>Criticism of TL (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>TL should suggest a more integrated and holistic understanding of subjectivity, one that reflects the intellectual, emotional, moral, and spiritual dimensions of our being in the world. (Dirks, 2006)
  24. 24. Too much emphasis on a rational approach ignoring the importance of intuition, imagination and emotion. (Boyd & Myers, 1988; Gravov, 1997)</li></li></ul><li>Criticism of TL (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Some individuals may never move beyond the intense emotions of the disorienting dilemma
  25. 25. Since TL is an “idealized” model of adult learning, is it over-prescribed in teaching?</li></li></ul><li>Resources<br />Transformative Learning Theory Web site http://transformativelearningtheory.com/index.html<br />Journal of Transformative Educationhttp://jtd.sagepub.com/<br />International Transformative Learning Conference http://transformativelearningbermuda.com/<br />Adult Education Quarterly http://www.sagepub.com/journalsProdDesc.nav?prodId=Journal200765<br />Group 4 Transformative Learning Web site http://transformative-learning.blogspot.com/<br />
  26. 26. Can TL be Applied to Online Distance Learning ?<br /><ul><li>More open and relaxed than F2F
  27. 27. Asynchronous discussions allow time and mental space  
  28. 28. Documentary nature allows reflection & discourse structurally and allows iteration and reiteration of concepts</li></li></ul><li>Technology and TL in Online Distance Learning<br /><ul><li>Technologies (virtual world, Blog, stream media) can create life-like situations
  29. 29. Collaborative learning platform (LMS, social software) provides an opportunity for those who live in isolation to participate
  30. 30. Web conferencing simulates F2F learning experience</li></li></ul><li>Examining TL Using Distance Education Learning Theory <br />Transformative Learning<br /><ul><li>Community of inquiry is important in higher-order thinking
  31. 31. Community of inquiry is a valuable context for critical thinking</li></ul>By Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000<br />
  32. 32. Examining TL Using Distance Education Learning Theory <br />Transformative Learning<br />Recognizing the problem - disorienting dilemma<br />Sense of puzzlement - self examination<br />Inquisitive Divergence, Information exchange – Exploration of options for new roles…<br />Tentative Convergence, Connecting ideas – Planning a course of action, Acquiring knowledge and skills<br />Committed Vicarious application to real world, Testing solutions – Trying new roles, Building competence & self-confidence in new roles …<br />Defending solutions – Reintegration new perspective into one’s life.<br />By Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000<br />
  33. 33. TL in Online SettingsCase Studies<br /><ul><li>Case studies on various course topics, e.g., cultural differences, loyalty, teacher development
  34. 34. Phases of transformative learning evident … ¼ have fundamental changes in preconceived ideas, beliefs, habits, or assumptions (Boyer et al, 2006)
  35. 35. Many false starts and random associations in CMC … Able to make rational discourse (Ziegahn, 2001)</li></li></ul><li>Technology in Practice for TL<br />
  36. 36. Technology in Practice for TL (Cont’d)<br />
  37. 37. Pedagogical Implications for Educators<br /><ul><li>Facilitate and support learning (Cranton, 1994)
  38. 38. Build safe, open, and trusting environment for
  39. 39. respectful, civilized dialogue (Taylor, 2000)
  40. 40. Post questions to stimulate reflection on target topics and to model process (Ziegahn, 2001)
  41. 41. Structure feedback to learning objectives (Boyer, Maher, & Kirkman, 2006) </li></li></ul><li>Implications for Students<br /><ul><li>Be a part of a community of learners
  42. 42. Responsible for constructing and creating the condition for transformative learning</li></li></ul><li>Implications for Societies<br />
  43. 43. Transformative Learning by Any Other Name . . .<br /><ul><li>DeBono – Thinking skills training for mine workers in South Africa
  44. 44. Average fights 210/month 4 month
  45. 45. Post-training grievances 7/day 4 month</li></li></ul><li>Summary & Conclusions<br />Areas for further study:<br /><ul><li>Kitchenham: applicability of TL in other disciplines.
  46. 46. Taylor: is TL something to be encouraged?
  47. 47. Personal and social negative consequences of perspective transformation.
  48. 48. Is TL theory the most effective method of bringing about changes in the way people view their world? </li></li></ul><li>Summary<br />Transformation Learning process uses prior interpretation to construct new meaning and guide action<br />

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