Assessing Teaching Presence In Instructional Cmc

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  • Assessing Teaching Presence In Instructional Cmc

    1. 1. Assessing Teaching Presence in Instructional CMC Susan Lulee Jan., 2009
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>A growing number of courses offered online and degrees offered through the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>New online technologies have provided a broad spectrum of supportive features for online teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>How will learning outcomes be ensured and improved? How will effective communication be established through online discussion? How new knowledge and understandings construct through instructional scaffolding? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Research Questions <ul><li>Have the measurement tools (categories & indicators) for assessing teaching presence developed by previous researches sufficient and appropriate? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there patterns of teaching presence existed, or not existed, in current practices? </li></ul>
    4. 4. Literature Review <ul><li>Transactional distance , Michael Moore (1980) </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Presence. Three areas in Community of Inquiry, Garrison, Anderson, & Archer (2000) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Literature Review (cont’d.) <ul><li>Content Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical Framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Henri’s five dimensions model (1992) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gunwardena, Lowe and Anderson’s five-phase interaction analysis model (1998) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biggs’ SOLO taxonomy (1999) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Garrison, Anderson, and Archer ‘s critical thinking and practical inquiry model (2000) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes, Flanders interaction analysis model (1967) for classroom observation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicators: Flander, Saba, Henri, Anderson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit of Analysis: sentence units, proposition units, paragraph units, thematic units; and message units </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Methodology <ul><li>Content analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tests that need to be performed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interpretation of those tests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instruments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revised tool developed by Anderson </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>273 instructors’ messages (out of 1735 posts) in 15 sessions of five online courses from 2 institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures of central tendency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency distributions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross tabulations </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Analysis & Findings <ul><li>Criteria for assessing teaching presence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some modifications made to the tool developed by Anderson </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Patterns of teaching presence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial session: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>encourage, acknowledge, or reinforce student contributions; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>create an open, warm, and trust climate for learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate sessions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>clarify and diagnose students’ misconceptions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>presenting content and questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ending session </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>acknowledging students contribution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>assessment and explanatory feedback </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Conclusions <ul><li>Role of online instructor is transforming from instructor to facilitator. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning control is passing on to students as constructivism suggested; however, students are not ready to take the responsibility of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Future study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What combination of teaching presence tends to spur larger amount of higher level thinking from student? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to inspire student-student discussion? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to assess cognitive skill level in order to measure learning results of a particular set of teaching presence? </li></ul></ul>

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