GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
SUBMITTED TO, SUBMITTED BY,
MS. LEENA MS. ASHA MATHEW
LECTURER 1YR MSC NURSING
ADVENTIST COLLEGE ADVENTIST COLLEGE
OF NURSING OF NURSING
SUBMITTED ON: 31-01-12
GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
Guidance and counseling in all disciplines have been a vital aspect of higher education. One of
the purpose of education is to help the individual in becoming a useful member of society.
Guidance and counseling ensures a healthy climate in the institution, which is essential for the
harmonious and integrated personality development of students.
Guidance and counseling is one of the major application of psychology in education. It enables
or assist the individual to solve educational, vocational and psychological problems. Guidance
and counseling helps to develop a set of goals for future behavior of an individual.It refers to
a process of helping the individual to discover himself and help him in achieving
maximum development of the individual & state.
PRINCIPLES OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
Guidance and counseling is unique to an individual.
Guidance and counseling is concerned with the total development of an individual.
Guidance is always goal oriented and goal directed.
Guidance and counseling should be based on a thorough knowledge of characteristics of
the stages of human growth and development.
Guidance and counseling is meant for all those who need help.
Guidance and counseling is not specific to any state of development.
Guidance and counseling is a continuous process and should have a flexible approach.
Guidance and counseling should be based on reliable data.
Guidance is a professional activity.
Guidance and counseling should have a flexible approach.
To help in the total development of students.
To assist in leading a healthy life by sustaining from whatever is deleterious to health.
To help in the proper selection of educational programmes.
To help in selection of careers according to their interests and abilities.
To help the students in vocational development.
To minimize the mismatching between education and employment and help the
efficient use of manpower.
To help students to overcome the period of turmoil and confusion.
To identify and motivate the students from weaker sections of society.
To identify and render help of students who are in need of special help.
To motivate the youth for self employment.
TRENDS AND ISSUES IN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
Nursing is the oldest of arts and youngest of professions. The need of nursing is universal.
Presently mere are so many issues occurring in nursing profession which is issues occurring in
nursing profession which is turned as to be in obstacles in providing proper nursing services to
patients and public at large.
Current issues in nursing:- All current issues in nursing are of sensitizing matter and they all
require counseling for overcoming. The issue can be classified under following headings:-
The nursing practitioners
The nursing educations
The nursing students.
Current issues of counseling in nursing for practitioners include no proper job description, no
job satisfaction, long length of working hours, no less profession, less salary and harassment.
Current issues of counseling in nursing students are increased fee, higher education,
inadequate hostel facilities, no associated hospitals to nursing colleges, in-service education, no
separate principals and building for schools and colleges. All issues leads to no work satisfaction
which sensitize the emotional, physical, spiritual growth of nurse as well as patient towards
degeneration and will limit the efficiency in performing tasks related to nursing profession. On
analyzing all these issues it comes to be that counseling is done effectively.
Guidance means to guide, to direct or to lead Is concerned with the best development of the
students for ultimate development of the school or college.
Guidance is a special training in which an individual discovers his natural endowments so that
he makes a living to his own best advantage and that of society.
According to stoops and Wahlquist, guidance is a continuous process of helping the individual
development in the maximum of their capacity in the direction most beneficial to himself and
According to Crow and Crow, guidance is assistance made available by professionally qualified
and adequately trained men/women to an individual of any age to help him manage his own
life activities, develop his own points of view, make his own decisions and carry his own
According to J. M. Brewer, guidance is a process through which an individual is able to solve
their problems and pursue a path suited to their abilities and aspirations.
The guidance is one of the major application of psychology in education. It enables or assist
the individual to solve educational, vocational and psychological problems. In the field of
psychology and education, the word guidance is having a specific meaning. It refers to a
process of helping the individual to discover himself which means his potentials and
capacities and capabilities, abilities and aptitudes, interest and natural endowments and to
help him in achieving maximum development and using all potentialities to the maximum
advantage of the individual and society.
4. NEED FOR GUIDANCE
Educational need:- a great need of guidance is required in the field of education because
the students have to face problems in:
To select subjects of course.
To select co curricular activities.
To select books.
To organize time and work.
To build social relationships.
To make satisfactory progress and adjustments in school.
Psychological need:- guidance is required from psychological and social point of view. Youth
of 20th century is subjected to have much greater emotional strain in home and in
community than the youth of 19th century. The number of problem children, delinquent
children, backward and maladjusted children has been increasing in our schools.
Vocational need:- The vocational guidance is essential for helping the individual to know
himself, for knowing the world of work, adequate information about jobs, skills and
opportunities for making a right choice in the vocation according to his abilities, interest and
aptitudes and to obtain jobs in their chosen field.
Social need:- society is becoming complex because many changes have occurred in the
entire structure of our economic, social and political system.
Breaking joint family system:- is becoming rare and homes are getting disintegrated.
There is growing tendency:- on the part of the youth for selecting their own
Employment of women: women enter field occupations in large numbers and their
children are deprived of maternal care and satisfaction.
Lack of guidance at home:- in earlier times the vocational efficiency and training was
given at home. But this is not possible in modern times. Hence responsibility of the
schools gets increased to meet the need of guidance.
According to Crow and Crow there are 14 significant guidance principles.
1) Every aspect of a person’s complex personality pattern constitutes a significant factor of
his total displayed attitudes and forms of behavior. Guidance services which are aimed
at bringing about desirable adjustment in any particular area of experience must be
taken into account the development of the individual.
2) Although all human beings are similar in many respects, individual differences must be
recognized and considered in any efforts aimed at providing help or guidance to a
particular child, adolescent or adult.
3) The functions of guidance is to help a person formulate and accept, stimulating,
worthwhile and attainable goals of behavior.
4) Existing social, economic and political unrest is giving rise to many maladjustive factors
that require the cooperation of experienced and thoroughly trained guidance workers,
counselors and the individual with a problem.
5) Guidance should be regarded as a continuing process of service to an individual from
young childhood through adulthood.
6) Guidance service should not be limited to the few who give observable evidence of its
need, but should be extended to all persons of all ages who can benefit there from
either directly or indirectly.
7) Curriculum materials and teaching procedures should evidence a guidance point of
8) Although guidance touches every phase of an individual’s life pattern, the generally
accepted areas of guidance include concern with the extent to which an individual’s
physical and mental health interfere with his adjustment to home, school and vocational
and social demands.
9) Parents and teachers have guidance appointed responsibilities.
10) Specific guidance problems of any age level should be referred to persons who are
trained to deal with particular areas of adjustment.
11) To administer guidance intelligently, programmes of individual evaluation and research
should be conducted and accurate cumulative records should be maintained.
12) An organized guidance programme should be flexible according to the individual and
13) The responsibility for the administration of guidance programme should be centered in
a personally qualified and adequately trained chairman or head of guidance, working
cooperatively with his assistance and other community welfare and guidance agencies.
14) Periodic appraisals should be made for existing school guidance programmes.
The basis of guidance is individual difference; it is own fact that no two individuals are
Guidance is the basis of rigid code of ethics
The basis of guidance is on educational and vocational objectives.
Guidance is able to develop the insight to make his own decisions and choices.
Guidance regards most of the individual as average normal persons.
Guidance is slow but a continuous process.
Guidance is universal.
Guidance attempts to review the entire situation and gives plans for future in
educational, vocational and social fields.
Guidance is developmental as well as comprehensive:- guidance is dealing with the child
from month to month, year to year and stage to stage. It is comprehensive because it
involves all types of educational, vocational and psychological problems.
Guidance is considered as an organized service and not incidental ie, it is a service which
is having a specific purpose.
Guidance is specialized and generalized service because it is incorporating the school
counselor, school psychologist, school social workers, curriculum expert, placement
worker, school physician and coordinator of school activities.
7) TYPES OF GUIDANCE
According to Brewer there are ten kinds of guidance:
Guidance for home relationship
Guidance for citizenship
Guidance for leisure and recreation
Guidance for personal wellbeing
Guidance in right doing
Guidance in thoughtfulness and cooperation
Guidance in wholeness and cultural actions.
According to Koos and Kefanver:-
Civic- socio- moral- guidance.
Guidance areas can be classified into education, vocation, personal, social,
avocational, health moral, religion and financial.
1) EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE
Educational guidance refer to the guidance of the students in all aspect of education. The
emphasis is on providing assistance to students to perform satisfactory in their academic
work, overcome learning difficulties, improve levels of motivation and use institutional
resources optimally such as library etc.
1. According to Myer, educational guidance refers to a process which is concerned with
bringing about an individual pupil with his distinctive characteristics on the one hand,
and differing group of opportunities and requirements on the other, a favorable
setting for the individuals development or education.
2. According to Arthur Jones, the educational guidance deals with assistance given to
pupils in their choices and adjustments with relation to schools, curriculum, courses
and school life.
To monitor academic programme of students
To identify special learners such as academically backward, gifted and creative
To assist students in further education
To provide assistance to special learners by catering to their educational needs
To help students in their adjustment to curricular and coo-curricular demands of
To provide carrier information.
PURPOSES AT DIFERENT STAGES
1) At elementary stage:-
To help pupils to develop good habits, right attitudes and basic skills.
To help pupils to make a good beginning.
To help pupils to plan intelligently.
To help pupils to obtain the best out of education.
2) At secondary stage:-
Helping the child to know himself.
Helping the child to make right choices of subjects.
Helping the child to know about the college education.
3) At college level:-
Providing library facilities for broadening mental horizon of students.
Providing special guidance for certain subjects and preparation for
Guidance should be provided to all.
Standardized test should be employed.
Selection of curriculum should be done by considering tests results, degree of
achievement and pupils and parents interest.
Remedy should be given in beginning: immediate steps have to be taken to
change the programme of studies.
Relevant informations has to be obtained:- for the purpose of imparting
educational and vocational guidance.
Follow-up study must be there:- counselor should follow the pupils
achievement during each term or year in each subject.
Relationship between school and parents should be set up with pupils between
parents and schools.
A. Orientation task:- these would create a proper orientation for guidance. The
experts delivers lectures on the importance of guidance and thereby encourages
the student to collect information on the various aspects of educational guidance
proposed to be taken in a particular field.
B. Initial interview:- in this interview the guidance committee must collect
Leisure time activity
Educational and vocational plans of the pupil.
C. Use of tests:- the guidance worker can use the following test.
1. Intelligence test: it is the ability to think in terms of abstracting ideas. There are
four intelligence tests: verbal individual intelligence tests, non verbal individual
intelligence tests, verbal group intelligence tests, non verbal intelligence tests.
2. Aptitude test: inorder to provide education guidance to the pupils to know
about his aptitudes.
3. Interest inventories:- it is a behavior orientation towards certain situation,
activities, experiences and objects. Selection of curriculum is an important
element according to the individuals interest.
4. Scholastic attainment test:- attainment tests are held for securing more reliable
information on this point.
5. Personality tests:- personality traits play a vital role in adjustment and selection
of subjects for further study.
D. Social and economic status study:- should be made to collect information
concerning socio economic status of parents, other family members, friends and
E. Study of school life:- data should be collected regarding school life of the child
Subjects studied by the child
Marks scored in various subjects
Position of child in class.
His interest in co-curricular activities.
F. Medical examination:- data should be collected concerning diseases, illness and
weakness of the pupil.
G. Final interview:- the pupil should be interviewed with a view to find out his views
on the past, present and future.
H. Construction of profile:- this profile shows much light on all the aspects of the
I. Follow up work:- follow up study of the pupil should be made so as to know
whether the guidance given is in right direction.
2) VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE
One of the main aims of education is to give maximum help in one’s professional life. If
vocational aim of education is not fulfilled then education becomes worthless. So there
should be organized programme for providing vocational guidance in school.
According to national vocational guidance association(USA 1937), it is the
progress of assisting the individual to choose an occupation, prepare it, enter
upon and progressing in it.
According to Myer, vocational guidance is functionally an effort for conserving
the priceless native capacities of youth and costly training provided for youth in
the schools. It conserves these riches of all human resources by helping the
individual to invest and use them where they will bring greatest satisfaction and
success greatest satisfaction and success to him and greatest benefit to society.
It helps the child to develop his potentialities to an optimum level.
It is a process which helps the person to impart occupational information and
including hos interest in vocational self help.
It is a process which helps individual to select an occupation of life, to prepare for
it and place him against a suitable job.
It is a process which helps the individual to evaluate his role in term of reality or
It is a process which helps the individual to make adjustments in relation to his
occupation or job.
1. At elementary stage:-
For developing the basic skills and attitudes.
For developing good interpersonal relationship.
For developing the spirit of co-operative work.
2. At secondary stage;-
To help pupils to prepare themselves for entering into the occupations of
To make pupils to be familiar with various occupations and their
To help pupils to know the vocational assets and liabilities.
3. At college level:-
To help pupils for making a comprehensive study of the careers which
they would like to pursue.
To help the pupils to make contacts that would help in putting their plan
into successful operations.
To help pupils for making themselves with avenues for higher studies.
3) PERSONAL GUIDANCE
Personal guidance refers to the guidance offered to students for enabling them to adjust
themselves to their own environment so that they become efficient citizens. Emotional
instability is a characteristics of adolescents and this is often the cause of many of their
personal problems. Personal guidance will help them to solve these problems.
Help student to improve mental health.
Assist students to understand and resolve their emotional problems. Assist
students to deal with the difficulties of personal as well as academic life.
Help students to develop interpersonal skills.
Assist the students to overcome the times of turmoil and confusion.
4) SOCIAL GUIDANCE
social guidance enables the students to make substantial contributions to the society,
leadership, confirm to the social norms, work as team members, develop healthy and
positive attitudes, appreciate , appreciate the problem of society, respect the opinions the
sentiment and fellow human being and perseverance and friendships.
Its main purpose is to enable the student to become an efficient citizens.
Help the student to carryout their responsibility as a responsible health team
Assist them in acquiring desirable set of values and developing a positive life
Motivate students to become a responsible member of professional organizations.
5) AVOCATIONAL GUIDANCE
Avocational guidance is the assistance to be provided to students to spend their available
leisure time profitably. Activities and program me outside the formal classrooms provide
many opportunities for the blossoming of talents of students.
Help students to prepare for the monthly educational and cultural programmes
conducted by SNA.
Assist students to conduct programmes related to world health day, nurses day
Assist students to participate in the activities of national service scheme, drug
bank, blood donors forum etc.
6) HEALTH GUIDANCE
Health guidance implies the assistance rendered to students for maintaining sound
physical and mental health.
Conduct periodic health checkups of students and maintain the health records.
Motivate students to take food regularly.
Supervision of college facilities such as hostels and canteen to see that healthful
condition and maintained.
7) FINANCIAL GUIDANCE
The function of financial guidance is to help the needy students in determining the
financial assistance they need in the light of the expected expenses and to get it from
financial organization after completing the formalities. Some students are hard pressed
for finances. They need to be guided regarding freeships, free concessions, scholarships,
stipends, etc available in the institution or offered by other welfare agencies and how and
when to apply.
Counseling refers to a process in which the pupil is made to approach to an individual level.
He gets help in educational, vocational or psychological field only at problem points.
1) According to Crow and Crow, counseling or assisting an individual in the solution of his
problems. The interview has an important place in guidance, but is only one stage in the
whole process of counseling.
2) According to wren, 1962, counseling is a dynamic and purposeful relationship between
two people, who approach a mutually defined problems with mutual considerations of
each other to the end that the troubled one or less mature is aided to a self determined
resolution of his problem.
3) According to Bermard and Fuller’s, basically counseling involves understanding and
working with the individual to discover his unique need motivations and potentialities
and help him appreciate them.
NEEDS FOR COUNSELING
To achieve positive mental health to the students.
To help in resolving their problems.
To improve personal effectiveness.
To maximize individual freedom to choose and act within the conditions imposed by
To identify and render help to students who are in need of special help.
PRINCIPLES OF COUNSELING
Emphasizes thinking with the individual.
Avoid dictatorial attitude.
Maintains relationship of trust and confidence with the client.
Client’s need is to be put first
The client’s family members and significant influencing personnel must be included in
Skills of warmth, friendliness, openness and empathy are the ingredients of successful
Counselor has to listen attentively answer questions objectively.
Maintain dignity of individual as individual is primary concern in counseling.
Tailor made to the requirement of an individual’s problem.
It is a purposeful learning experience for the counselee.
It is a purposeful oriented and private interview between the counselor and counselee.
Based on mutual confidence satisfactory relationship will be established.
Counselee process is structured around the felt needs of the counselee.
Main emphasis in the counseling process is on the counselee’s self direction and self
Counseling can be classified according to the nature of the problem, the complexity of
treatment and the competence of the counselor.
a) Surface level counseling:- is offered when the student wishes only some item of
information. The counseling given may be brief or casual.
b) Counseling at next level:- it requires a more prolonged contact because the counselee
needs more and complicated informations.
c) Therapeutic counseling:- this may be needed when the student is seriously disturbed. In
other way, we can classify counseling as:-
Developmental counseling:- aims the all round development of the individual by
helping him to achieve personal growth, formulate goals and to develop right
attitudes, values etc.
Preventive counseling:- has the individuals to face the untoward incidents like
failure in the examinations, not getting the desired job etc. in the future life.
Facilitative counseling:- is intended to correct or undesirable behaviour. It is also
known as remedial or adjustingcounseling.
Crisis counseling:- helps the individual to overcome the crisis situations with
minimum damage. Counselor helps the individual to get a realistic view
regarding the crisis situation.
PHASES OF COUNSELING
Phases of counseling include:-
1) Appointment and establishment relationship:- Since counseling is essential a face
to face relationship between the counselee and counselor, this ohase is the most
important one in the process of counseling. The principles governing the counseling
relationship are uniqueness of students, his capacity to choose and decide, what is
good for him, belief in his ability to make changes, maintaining confidentiality, being
non-judgmental and a trusting relationship.
2) Assessment:- This phase is concerned with data collection, analyzing the data and
clarification of expectations. The counselee is encouraged to talk about his
problems, ventilate his feelings whereas the counselor asks questions, collects
information, observes and clearly state his problems.
3) Diagnosis:- in this phase, the counselor diagnosis the problem of the student and
decides the areas of interaction.
4) Setting goals:- In this phase, the counselor explains to the student the setting goals
which will inturn provide direction to the counselee and counselor. Goals may be
short term and long term goals.
5) Interventions:- Interventions are needed to achieve the goals. In this phase,
counselor explains to the students how the goals can be achieved. Interventions is a
process of adaptations and the counselor sould be prepared to change the
interventions is not yielding results.
6) Termination and follow up:- Succesful termination is an important aspect in
counseling. It must be done without destroying the accomplishment gained and
shold be done in a phased manner covering few sessions. This will prevent the
development of a feeling of sense of loss in the counselee.
APPROACHES TO COUNSELING
The purpose of counseling in education institution are to enable teachers to:-
Understand the manifestation of a variety of problems of their students.
Understand and analyse the cause of problems. To achieve above purposes there are
several approaches in counseling which includes
1. DIRECTIVE OR COUNSELEE CENTERED COUNSELING.
It is an approach in which the counselor uses a variety of techniques to suggest
appropriate solutions to the problem of counselee. In this approach the counselor
plays a leading role. He tries to direct the thinking of the counselee by informing,
explaining, interpreting and advising.
Starting the counseling session
Collect relevant data of problem
Analyse the problems
Synthesize the problem
Prescribe remedial measures
2. NON DIRECTIVE OR PERMISSIVE OR CLIENT CENTERED.
Counseling:- is a counselee centered approach in which he is guided to use his own
inner resources to solve the problems. In this approach, the counselee plays a
predominant role. Carl. R. Rogers is the exponent of the non directive technique of
Opening the session
Exploration of the problem
Exploration of the causes of problem
Discovering alternative solutions
Termination of sessions
3. ECLECTIC COUNSELING:- in eclectic counseling the strategy arises out of the
appropriate knowledge of student behaviour and a combination of directive, non
directive and other approaches. Irrespective of the differences, all approaches should
have developmental, preventive and remedial values.
4. GROUPING COUNSELING:- group counseling is a technique where a group of persons is
counseled by applying group interaction method for the purpose of arriving at a
solution to the problem of the group.
Group counseling process:-
Selection of participants
Orientation for discussion
TECHNIQUES FOR COUNSELING
A number of techniques can be used in counseling:-
1) Problem solving technique:- It is a creative process by which individuals evaluate
changes in them and their environment, make new choices or adjustments in
harmonious manner. It involves following steps:-
Gathering of data
Hypothesizing the courses
2) Discussion technique:- in a discussion class the group focus on the common problem,
helps them extend and deepen the problem, “brings whatever resources he may have
to attack and finally helps the group recognize when the problem has been solved as
well as the further implication of the solution.” Discussion needs competence among
members of communication skills.
3) Role playing technique:- it is a technique used in counseling for developing skills and
insight in an individual by acting out situations which are parallel to real life problems. It
takes the form of psychodrama or sociodrama.
4) Lecturers:- lectures delivered by experts can impart counseling in an effective way.
5) Case conferences:- in this techniques, problems faced by majority are discussed as a
case. It gives experience in social thinking and has positive and unique values in the
6) Operant conditioning:- it is a technique of conditioning the behavior of a person. It is
believed that if new behavior is rewarded then old behavior itself gets ignored.
7) Aversive conditioning:- this technique is used to change some specific behavior eg.
Alcoholism, homosexuality. In this some pain or discomfort is associated with the
particular behavior that is needed to be changed.
8) Reciprocal inhibition:- by this technique persons having anxiety, fear etc. are helped. In
these technique persons is asked to shift his imagination from the fearful condition to a
less threatening scene. After a gap of time he is again asked to recall the scene. This
process is repeated until he feels completely relaxed.
Basic counseling techniques are:-
Make the setting comfortable, quiet and privacy are essential.
Be primarily a listener. Give definite indications when you understand what is being
said, or ask for clarification where needed.
Avoid judgmental reactions such as surprise, shock or amusement unless you are
genuinely sharing the students feelings of deep concern or appropriate humor. Ie,
you must show appropriate responses to show empathy.
Help the student focus on real problems, one at a time. Try to solve smaller
problems and then focus on the larger issue.
Do not take notes unless it is to assure the students that you intend to follow up on
a specific request.
Offer to see the student again; setting a more or less definite time, if possible.
Remember that the key to the entire relationship is your ability to demonstrate
warmth, concern and understanding.
Always try to be aware of the feeling behind what the student is saying.
Provide many opportunities for positive recognition, rather than just recognizing the
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
1. Guidance is preventive, whereas counseling is curative or therapeutic psychotherapy.
2. Guidance includes information giving to the individuals in their all round development
whereas counseling consists of information giving to solve individuals problems, but all
information given is not counseling.
3. Guidance may be given in any normal set up whereas counseling requires a special set
up a room to conduct interview.
4. Guidance is an integral part of education and assists it in fulfilling its aims, whereas
counseling is needed in all fields.
5. In guidance, decision making operates at intellectual levels, whereas counseling
operates at emotional level.
6. Guidance will be done by teachers, it is an important component in all education
7. Guidance may be done by any guidance worker; whereas counseling requires a high
llevel of skills as well as special professional training.
ORGANIZATION OF COUNSELING SERVICES
Organization means systematic planning, coordination and conduct of certain activities, within
the policy framework of the institution. Counseling services aims at developing pupils self
confidence. It is a process by which an individual learns to be independent, to make decisions,
to live with a problem situation and to face any crisis situation.
To help adolescents with normal developmental problems.
To help individuals through temporary crisis.
To refer cases needing specialist treatment.
TYPES OF COUNSELINNG SERVICES
1. ORIENTATION SERVICES:- it means to help the pupils to become fully aware of herself and
the new environment. After general orientation, sessions should be planned when
intensive guidance services are provided.
2. APPRAISAL SERVICES:- the purpose of this is to gather record, maintain and use adequate
information about each pupil to help in achieving her optimum potentials.
3. INFORMATION SERVICES:- this service assist to see and gives information about higher
training/courses available to them. Here occupational information is given to the
4. COUNSELING SERVICES:- it is a process by which an individual makes decisions, to live
without a problem situation and to face any crisis situation. There are four different type of
a) Developmental counseling:-
Helps individual to achieve personal growth by making them aware of
themselves and their environment.
To set clear goals for the future behavior.
Develop positive attitudes, values and morals.
b) Preventive counseling:-
Helps an individual to prepare for future specific concerns such as failures in
examinations, shock of not getting job etc. type of counseling is specially needed
for educating students on the abuse of drugs, suicide and truancy.
c) Facilitative counseling:- referred as remedial or adjustive counseling which means to
correct a fault or an undesirable behavior.
d) Crisis counseling:- helps an individual to overcome the effects of crisis situation such as
loss of a family members, family conflict etc, these situations may affect the normal
behavior of an individual and she/ he may develop a feeling of anxiety, and develop
new patterns of behavior.
INGREDIENTS OF COUNSELING SERVICES
1. Planning services:- is meant to help pupils overcome their problems of hostel, mess and
2. Placement service:- it refers to assistance offered to an individual in taking the next
step, towards training or job.
3. Follow up services:- it involves keeping in touch with students who have qualified from
the school as well as the dropouts for some years after they leave the school.
4. Research and evaluation:- is a service meant to evaluate the school counseling
programme. A counselor acts as a researcher and conducts survey.
TOOLS FOR COUNSELLING INFORMATION
Tools are mean to achieve our goals and not an end in themselves.
The tools are:
Non testing tools.
1) NON TESTING TOOLS:- they provide a set of tools for individuals assessment without the
use of psychological tests.
a) Interview:- through interview information can be collected from the counselee
herself or from her family members, friends or teachers.
b) Observation:- counselor makes observation ie, as a member of the group of
counselee participative or as a outsider non participative observations.
c) Anecdotal records:- consists recording important incidents. It is a verbal snapshot of
d) Cumulative record card:- is a method of recording and providing meaningful,
significant and comprehensive information about the individual over the years.
e) Problem/ interest checklist:- is given to pupils to identify their expressed problems
f) Rating scales:- are used to get the assessment of pupils characteristics such as
initiative, responsibility, truthfulness, attitudes, honesty.
g) Sociometry:- is used to measure sociability of social distance among the members of
2) PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST:- Psychological tests provides information about an individual’s
psychological characteristics such as intelligence, aptitudes, interest, abilities and
To identify bright and poor students.
To identify the areas of weakness.
To serve as the basis of vocational guidance.
To serve as the basis of conference with the parents and teachers.
To select the individuals from a group of applicants.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A COUNSELOR
1) INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP:-
Gets along with others.
Sensitivity to the attitudes of people.
Ability to maintain confidentiality.
Respects clients abilities ad needs.
Speaks in clients language.
Tolerance power, openness, empathy are ingredients of successful counseling.
Caring and meeting the needs of the individual based on humanistic philosophy.
2) PERSONAL ADJUSTMENT
Shows matured behavior, integrated personality.
Maintains emotional stability
Flexibility and adaptability.
Aware about one’s limitations.
Posses a sense of worth and sense of humor
Freedom from withdrawing tendency
Able to accept criticism
Shows self respect, self reliance, and self confidence.
3) SCOLASTIC POTENTIALITIES AND EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
Should posses relevant as well as broad knowledge and efficient skills.
Should be motivated and committed.
Intelligent to tackle the situations effectively.
Highly cultured social interests.
Positive interest, scholastic aptitude.
He will have master degree in the essential area of guidance programme.
Experience in teaching and follow up services.
4) HEALTH AND PERSONAL APPEARANCE
Pleasing voice and appearance.
Freedom from annoying mannerisms.
Vitality and endurance
Ability to stimulate and lead others.
Reinforce important information.
Directs the counselee, the ways to solve problems.
6) PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE
Positive philosophy of life
Faith in human values and human nature.
7) PROFESSIONAL DEDICATION
Possesses vocational interest and interest in guidance work.
Shows loyalty, enthusiasm to provide services for the student
Had strong sense of professional ethics and professional growth.
Maintains helping relationship.
Faith in the spiritual quality of the world respects in universal principles of
Show interest in research activities.
Uses psychotherapy in solving clients problems.
DUTIES OF A COUNSELOR
Provides free educational and vocational counseling for applicants at a social center or
community supported agency.
Selects and administers appropriate tests to applicants, score them, attends case
conference with other counselors.
Places applications desiring jobs within limits of agency or advice clients of other
agencies for placement.
Conducts group guidance for young people regarding problems of vocational
Organizes programmes with fellow workers.
PROLEMS IN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
Each individual case is different by virtue of the problems and the experiences on
individual brings to the counselor and thus providing the counselor with a variety of experience.
1. Resistance to counseling:- is faced from two angles. Firstly, the individuals facing a
problem feels that I do not need any counseling of special help and secondly, the
resistance come from the faculty itself ie, when the other tutors or the administration
do not see the worth of counseling process.
2. Counseling individual of different cultures:- there are some students that comes from
different cultural background. These students have different sets of values and
expectations. If we do not have full understanding of these values we may interpret
3. Counseling individuals with strong emotions:- in case of strong emotions we should first
acknowledge their feelings and remain calm.
4. Counselor burn out:- as beginner counselor may work excitedly but as member of
individual seeking counseling in a day becomes large, excitement may change to
discouragement and leads to feelings of burn out. This problem can be managed by
changing your work environment, changing your approach, taking care of yourself,
accepting other’s view on the counseling given to them by you.
a) Education: - master’s degree or bachelor’s degree in teaching and education.
b) Experience:- 2 years in teaching or counseling experience.
1year of cumulative work experience
3.5months of supervised experience in social activities to reveal interest in working with
others and to indicate leadership ability.
c) Personal fitness:- scholastic- aptitude- interest- activities- personality factors. He should
show positive interest and ability to work with people.
TRAINING FOR COUNSELING
To accomplish the phases of counseling effectively, the counselor needs to demonstrate certain
attitudes, skills and knowledge
Pre- training Inter- training
a) Self awareness and understanding:- a person who has awareness of her needs,
motivation for helping, feelings, personal strength and weakness acts as a good
b) Good physiological health:- a person with less problems or good psychological
health can be trained to be good counselor.
c) Sensitivity:- a person who is aware of resources, limitations and vulnerability of
other persons as well as is keenly perceptive to other’s feelings and needs are
considered to have sensitivity.
d) Open-mindedness:- a person who is free from fixed or pre occupied ideas it does not
mean that they have no person values or beliefs, but they are aware of their own
values and beliefs.
e) Objectivity:- all persons with the ability of not getting involved with the other person
and at the same time stand back and see accurately what is happening.
f) Trustworthiness:- a person who is reliable, honest and does not hurt other persons.
g) Approachability:- a person who has some resembles with other known pleasant and
friendly persons, who is friendly, has positive attitudes about others and can be
approached without a feeling of apprehension.
2) INTER-TRAINING ATTRIBUTES
a) Interview setting and getting started:-
Physical arrangement: a skillful counselor can work in any setting but she
needs atleast two comfortable chairs and a table.
Greetings: A warm and friendly greeting facilitates the helping process.
Inviting the individual to participation: the counselor should start the
interview by asking the individuals why they have come for counseling.
Maintaining eye contact: making helps in building personal relationship.
Demonstrating proper body postures: a mobile posture allows in freedom to
movement and ability to use the body to assist in communication.
b) Problem focus:-
It is important that the counselor should assist the individuals to focus on important
topics of concern only and not to allow the individual to ramble.
c) Identifying an important theme:- counselor should try to identify the important
theme by observing the individual’s preoccupations and the emotional significance
attached to the topics.
d) Focusing on a theme:- the counselor hold direct the verbalizations of the individual
once the theme has been identified there focusing can be done by such statements
as you were telling me that your classmates do not understand you.
e) Directing the theme towards a goal:- once the theme has been identified and
exposed in sufficient depth to have an understanding of the individual’s self
perception and her environment, it is time for discussing counseling goals.
f) Managing interaction with the individuals:- to facilitate the discussion more skills are
needed. The following techniques are used to continue the interaction.
Restatement:- it involves putting the individuals statement into different
words to draw the attention to point out to the individual what she is finding
difficult to verbalize.
Maintaining tension to the interview:- the individual must be motivated to
work actively towards the achievement of the counseling goal.
Interpretation:- is used by the counselor while presenting tentative solutions
to the individual for mutual consideration.
Managing pauses and silence:- it is an important technique in counseling but
too long pauses and silence may give a feeling of avoidance or
embarrassment to the individual.
COUNSELING PROGRAMMES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
The counselors who work at the elementary, middle, secondary and post secondary
school levels provide support to the child’s development at school. They act as a catalyst to
help provide a conductive environment for growth and development. School counselors help
students understand and deal with their social, behavioral and personal problems. They help
students understand and develop the life skills needed to deal with problems before they
occur, and so enhance personal, social and academic growth. They also try to identify cases
involving abuse and other family problems that can affect a student’s development. Counselors
work with students individually, in small groups or with entire classes. They consult and work
with parents, teachers, school administrators, school psychologists, doctors and social workers.
Today it is mandatory for schools to have a counselor.
Guidance and counseling will assist nurses in developing proper attitude, commitment, in
dedication, and other qualities required for a successful nursing practice. Moreover emerging
and re-emerging diseases, technological advancement in patient care evolving a new specialties
especially in the clinical areas, changing role of nurses in healthcare sector impact of consumer
protection Act etc underlines the need of a viable guidance and counseling services in all
Guidance and counseling received much attention in the field of education. It has been
generally agreed by all that guidance and counseling must become an integral component of
educational process and the responsibility for implementing the rests, to a large extent or
teachers and educational institutions. Nursing teachers have the responsibility of training their
students to become efficient nurses by enabling them to acquire the necessary knowledge,
attitude and skills besides assisting them in their personality development.
1) Basavanthappa BT. Nursing Education. 1st ed. Newdelhi: jaypee brothes medical
publishers; 2004. P 593-627.
2) Neeraja KP, Textbook of Nursing Education.1st ed. Haryana: jaypee Brothers Medical
Publishers; 2003. P 447-93.
3) Kanakalakshmi S. Communication and Educational Technology. 1st ed. Hydrerabad:
Florence publishers; 2008. P 43-60.
4) Sankaranarayanan B. Sindhu B. Learning and Teaching Nursing. Kanakanady; Brainfill
publishers; 2003. P 242-71.
5) Kaur Amanpreet. A textbook of Psychology. 1st ed. Jalandhar: S.Vikas and co publishers:
2010. P 276-83.
6) I Clement. Psychosocial foundations of Nursing. 1st ed. Haryana: Jaypee Brothers
Medical publishers; 2010. P 174.