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EMBS 2010 Susana Baston

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EMBS 2010 Susana Baston

  1. 1. Towards understanding the Environmental Consequences of Marine Renewable Energy Confrontation vs Mitigation EMBS – Edinburgh, 25 th August 2010 EMBS – Edinburgh, 25 th August 2010 Dr. Susana Bastón Meira Research associate in the ICIT- International Centre for Island Technology
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Confrontation vs Mitigation </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Capabilities of numerical models </li></ul><ul><li>SUNTANS model </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>EMBS – Edinburgh, 25 th August 2010
  3. 3. Motivation EMBS – Edinburgh, 25 th August 2010 <ul><li>The first Marine Energy Converters (MECs) have been tested at EMEC’s site (European Marine Energy Centre) </li></ul><ul><li>Several developers are located in Orkney </li></ul><ul><li>The Pentland Firth and Orkney waters have been recently provided licences by Crown Estate for ‘Round 1’ development sites. </li></ul><ul><li>The ICIT, part of Heriot-Watt University, is involved in a MRE research programme </li></ul>
  4. 4. Motivation EMBS – Edinburgh, 25 th August 2010 <ul><li>Coastal physical processes </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrodynamics and water column processes </li></ul><ul><li>Pelagic and benthic dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem considerations and consequences </li></ul>SRDG (Strategic Research Development Grant) funded by the Scottish Funding Council WP 5: ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS www.mreds.co.uk M arine R enewable E nergy D evelopment in S cotland (MREDS)
  5. 5. Confrontation vs Mitigation EMBS – Edinburgh, 25 th August 2010 <ul><li>MRE has the potential to cause conflict among interested parties: </li></ul><ul><li>Developers and energy companies </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing sector and </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental groups </li></ul><ul><li>Key points </li></ul><ul><li>Baseline before development takes place. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to model cumulative impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and predicting environmental effects </li></ul><ul><li>Common standards </li></ul><ul><li>Time pressure </li></ul>
  6. 6. Confrontation vs Mitigation EMBS – Edinburgh, 25 th August 2010 Potential negative impacts Species displacement Environmental conditions Colision risks Noise
  7. 7. Confrontation vs Mitigation EMBS – Edinburgh, 25 th August 2010 How good is the energy resource? How the energy is dissipated? Long term and far-field effects Scale up to arrays
  8. 8. Monitoring techniques EMBS – Edinburgh, 25 th August 2010 c) Acoustic Backscatter Systems (ABS): Suspended sediment profiles close to the sea bed Moorings and Buoys <ul><li>Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) </li></ul><ul><li>Current profiles and sediment flux </li></ul>b) Wave buoys: 2D wave spectra at a point
  9. 9. Monitoring techniques EMBS – Edinburgh, 25 th August 2010 a) Satellite observations Optical wavelengths: suspended sediment concentrations Dopplerised SAR imagery: currents b) High Frequency (HF) Radar: surface currents and wave spectra Remote sensing a) ROV (Remote Observation Vehicles) b) Gliders ROVs and Floats
  10. 10. Capabilities of numerical models EMBS – Edinburgh, 25 th August 2010 <ul><li>Initial site selection, mitigate impact, maximise efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Predict effects of installation of MECs and extraction of energy from a flow field </li></ul><ul><li>Near and far field spatial information </li></ul><ul><li>Long term temporal modelling </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate predictions of nutrients and sediment transport in coastal waters </li></ul>MRE development Environmental impacts Availability Prediction tool Efficiency Ecological models
  11. 11. SUNTANS model EMBS – Edinburgh, 25 th August 2010 u, v, w are Cartesian components of velocity u is the vector form of velocity q the non-hydrostatic component of pressure η is the free surface elevation f and b are the Coriolis terms υ H and υ V are the horizontal and vertical turbulent eddy viscosities ∇ H the horizontal gradient operator: SUNTANS is a numerical model designed for the simulation of complex, non-hydrostatic coastal, river and estuarine flows with high resolution on unstructured grids using parallel computers.
  12. 12. SUNTANS model EMBS – Edinburgh, 25 th August 2010 Resource: Dr Rob Harris 1 , Dr Karl Stephen 2 , Prof Margot Gerritsen 3 1.- ICIT/HWU, 2.- IPE/HWU, 3.- Stanford University
  13. 13. SUNTANS model EMBS – Edinburgh, 25 th August 2010 <ul><li>Bottom density currents at high latitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Super critical flows related to topography in fjords and inlets </li></ul>Hydrostatic approximation: Equilibrium between pressure gradient and gravitational force SUNTANS is Non-hydrostatic: When a fluid is in motion, the vertical pressure gradient is also influenced by the vertical acceleration and friction  non-hydrostatic pressure effects P = p + q Static pressure + Dynamic pressure
  14. 14. SUNTANS model EMBS – Edinburgh, 25 th August 2010
  15. 15. <ul><li>The developer and the environmentalist/ecologist must avoid Confrontation and achieve Mitigation for successful growth of the marine renewable industry </li></ul><ul><li>There is a common demand from all stakeholders: the definition of a standard monitoring protocol and a clearer understanding of physical conditions and environmental effects </li></ul><ul><li>There is a requirement for cost effective accurate long term spatial modelling of the environment </li></ul><ul><li>The SUNTANS model is a valuable tool, capable of providing information leading to a better understanding of the resource and intervention effects at MEC sites. Reducing confrontation and facilitating mitigation through improved understanding. </li></ul>Conclusions EMBS – Edinburgh, 25 th August 2010
  16. 16. Towards understanding the Environmental Consequences of Marine Renewable Energy Confrontation vs Mitigation EMBS – Edinburgh, 25 th August 2010 Thanks for your attention! Email: S.Baston@hw.ac.uk http://www.icit.org.uk/

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