Management – Kotter, 1990 aim is to produce predictability and order, planning, organisation and staffing, controlling and problem solving (this links with evidence based medicine and healthcare systems). Many examples of processes, procedures, protocols, ways of working given by nurses and doctors. The role of processes and procedures is important for nurses in displaying leadership. Their presence allows the nurse to be the ‘little leader’ whereas a lot of the rest of the time nursing could be seen as is more active followership. Procedures tell nurses what they are responsible for and within that leadership is possible.
Salt conference 2012 embedding leadership jm
Teaching and assessingleadership and management: Embedding learning in the curriculum Professor Judy McKimm SALT conference 2 July 2012
Management, leadership and followership• Management/transactional leadership – activity that provides predictability and order (Kotter, 1990).• Leadership – activity that produces change and movement, aligning people, motivating and inspiring (Northouse, 2004)• Followership interacts with leadership and provides an analytical tool that assists in the explanation of teamwork. Leaders need followers. “Leadership is a relationship between those who aspire to lead and those who choose to follow” (Kouzes and Posner, 2002)
Teaching and assessing leadership and management• What knowledge, skills, behaviours do learners need to acquire?• Workplace learning and assessment important• Leadership and management are different• Personal development, insight and qualities• Needs a theoretical base
Leadership in context• Leadership can’t be divorced from its context• Learning about the context in which leadership happens is important• Consideration of systems, organisations, professions, cultures ….• Power, control and authority• Leadership is different from management
Workplace learning and assessment• Theory needs to be applied to workplace contexts• Situated learning (through and in the workplace) is vital• Assessment needs to be directly tied into workplace based leadership – use existing tools where appropriate• Communities of practice (e.g leadership fellows) important
Personal development• Self-insight vital• Personal qualities• Working with others• Positional power may be low, need to use other forms of power and influence• Mentoring, supervision, support important• Leadership development links closely to development of professionalism
Leadership and followershipNo-one leads all the timeFollowers are very rarely passive, especially professionals.Kelley (1992) suggests four roles:• Passive followership• Active followership• ‘Little l’ leadership (small ways, at all levels)• ‘Big L’ leadership
The trouble with competencies …• Reductionist, ‘tick box approach’• Assumes people, behaviours and situations are the same• Looks at current or past performance not future needs or potential• Focuses on a measurable set of traits, abilities and behaviours that make up a ‘great leader’When actually leadership is about engagement, relationships, process, power, understanding rules and negotiation within complex systems (Bolden and Gosling, 2006; Hollenbeck et al, 2006; Alimo- Metcalfe, 2007)
Developing understandings of junior doctors as leaders• Research study aligned with the academic programme• Involves students as co-researchers• Exploring lived experience of developing leadership role, knowledge, skills and behaviours• Methods include: survey (based on MLCF); interviews; focus groups; reflective narratives
Written assignments linked to workplace/service• Essay on contemporary issues for healthcare leaders• Management report on individual projects – Change management in clinical service• Portfolio assessment – Reflective commentary, significant event analyses, critical literature reviews, PDP, self analysis
Role and authority“we are little ‘l’ leaders, sometimes active followers, understanding that helps us to work out where we can be effective as junior doctor leaders” (AR, C1)“knowing about how to negotiate and influence is better that thinking we can change everything, in our position we are near the bottom of the food chain, so we have to use other means than formal authority to effect change and make a difference” (JG, C2)
Personal and professional development“I have learned so much about ‘me’, and developed much more self insight (I hope!). Using tools like emotional intelligence and the TA drivers, made me realise that so much of what I do is deep-seated, it was a bit scary, but I am so glad we did all that, it has already made me a better leader and a better doctor, and I will take this with me in all parts of my life” (PT,C3)
Teams and teamworking“I appreciate the nurses and other HPs much more than I did when I was a student, I had never really thought about all the different teams and sub teams, but that we all worked as one ... How naive was that? It made me vow that I would always pay attention to how all the various teams interact, where my place is in all these teams and that different teams have different rules, members and goals – this is a big challenge for leaders” (SH, C1)
Management and leadership“I always thought managers were on the ‘dark side’, but through a combination of reflection, experience and observation, I now realise we’re all on the same side – that of the patient. But lots of stereotypes still remain and this is a big task – to break down these barriers” (RK, C3)
SummaryPersonal qualities: self and peer assessments,multisource feedback, reflections, portfolios,feedback on performance – provideopportunities and tools for developing selfinsight and creativityWorking with others: as above + clinicalassessments, team working tasks,interprofessional working, 6 thinking hats
SummaryManaging and improving systems, organisations,services - written assignments, management tasks,project champions, portfolio work – opportunitiesfor engagement with formal managementprocesses, systems and organisational theory andframeworksVision and strategy – as above, plus strategicmanagement theory, vision, creative thinking,metaphor work, policy awareness, critical thinking
Contact detailsJudy McKimmDean and Professor in Medical Education,College of Medicine, Swansea University, UKj.firstname.lastname@example.org
What are you doing now?What teaching and learning methods doyou use to develop leadership andmanagement?What assessments do you use?
Challenges and issues What are some of the keychallenges and issues in teaching and assessing leadership and management?